Plant Biotechnology PDF by Ms Hiru Ranabhatt and Ms Renu Kapor

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Plant Biotechnology
By Ms Hiru Ranabhatt and Ms Renu Kapor
Plant Biotechnology

Contents
Preface xiii
1. Plant biotechnology: A review 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Applications of biotechnology in agriculture 2
1.3 Biotechnology in agriculture – benefits and risks 3
1.4 Safety and regulations 4
1.5 Plant biotechnology 5
1.6 Plant biotechnology helps quest for sustainability 7
1.7 Role of plant biotechnology in agriculture 8
1.8 Role of plant biotechnology in horticulture 9
1.9 Role of plant biotechnology in medicines 9
1.10 Impact of plant biotechnology in crop improvement 10
1.11 Impact of plant biotechnology on forestry 10 

2. Plant cell culture and development 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Concept of totipotency 11
2.3 Cell-cell interactions 15
2.4 Cytodifferentiation 17
2.5 Plant morphogenesis 20
2.6 Plant growth hormones 23
2.7 Hardening of acclimatisation 36

3. Plant tissue culture 39
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Basics of plant cell and tissue culture 40
3.3 Tissue culture in agriculture 41
3.4 Germplasm conservation 41
3.5 Embryo culture 42
3.6 Genetic transformation 43
3.7 Protoplast fusion 43
3.8 Haploid production 44
3.9 Current and future status of plant tissue culture 45
3.10 Techniques of plant tissue culture 45
3.11 Tissue culture in pharmaceuticals 47
3.12 Hairy root cultures 49
3.13 Aseptic technique 52

4. Micropropagation 57
4.1 Introduction 57
4.2 Methods of micropropagation 57
4.3 Important aspects of commercial micropropagation 61
4.4 Micropropagation: The most commercially exploited
tool of plant biotechnology 63
4.5 Factors affecting micropropagation 66
4.6 Advantages of micropropagation 73
4.7 Cost-effectiveness in micropropagation 73
4.8 Physical states of the culture medium 74
4.9 Hyperhydricity or vitrification 75
4.10 Mass propagation of plants through bioreactors 76
4.11 Bioreactor: Basic configuration of culture vessel 78
4.12 Types of bioreactors used for micropropagation 79
4.13 Advantages and disadvantages of the use of
bioreactors for micropropagation 81
4.14 Automation in micropropagation 83
5. Germplasm storage 85
5.1 Introduction 85
5.2 Plant biotechnology and germplasm conservation 85
5.3 Applications of germplasm 94
5.4 Molecular conservation technologies 96
5.5 Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers 100
6. Haploid plants 103
6.1 Introduction 103
6.2 Androgenesis 104
6.3 Gynogenesis haploid 109
6.4 General gynogenesis procedures 111
6.5 Ovary and ovule culture 112
6.6 Doubled haploids 114
6.7 Applications of DHs plant breeding 115
6.8 Advantages and disadvantages of DHs 118
6.9 Androgenic haploids 118
7. Triploid plants 131
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Role of polyploidy in plant evolution 132
7.3 Formation of triploid plants 137
7.4 Characteristics and application of triploid plants 137
7.5 Ways to produce triploid plants 140
8. In vitro pollination and fertilisation 147
8.1 Introduction 147
8.2 Types of pollination 149
8.3 Plant fertilisation 154
8.4 Life cycle of plants 158
8.5 Collection of pollen, starch and phytoliths 160
9. Protoplast isolation and culture 163
9.1 Introduction 163
9.2 Isolation of protoplasts 164
9.3 Importance of protoplasts and their cultures 164
9.4 Methods of isolation of protoplasts 166
9.5 Applications of protoplast in plant tissue 173
10. Somatic cell hybridisation 177
10.1 Introduction 177
10.2 Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridisation 177
10.3 Aspects of somatic hybridisation 179
10.4 Applications of somatic hybridisation 182
10.5 Asymmetric somatic plant hybridisation 183
11. Synthetic seeds 191
11.1 Introduction 191
11.2 Seed technology 192
11.3 Limitations of synthetic seeds 198
11.4 Production and applications of artificial seeds 201
12. Plant bleeding 209
12.1 Introduction 209
12.2 Objectives or aims of plant breeding 211
12.3 Need of plant breeding 211
12.4 Achievements of modern plant breeders 215
12.5 Green revolution 216
12.6 Domestication 216
12.7 Plant breeding methods or techniques 220
12.8 Various steps required for developing new varieties 221
13 Plant derived vaccines 227
13.1 Introduction 227
13.2 Characteristics of plant derived vaccines 227
13.3 Challenges in developing PDV 234
13.4 Nonscientific challenges in developing PDV 237
13.5 Regulatory issues 237
14. Genetically modified foods 239
14.1 Introduction 239
14.2 Advantages of GM foods 239
14.3 Criticisms against GM foods 241
14.4 Regulation of GM foods and role of government 243
14.5 Labelling of GM foods 245
14.6 Most common genetically modified foods 247
14.7 Pros and Cons of genetically modified foods 249
15. Improving photosynthesis and crop yield 251
15.1 Introduction 251
15.2 Interception of solar radiation 253
15.3 Net photosynthesis in crop plants 255
16. Insect resistant plants 263
16.1 Introduction 263
16.2 Insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis 264
17. Fungus resistant plants 279
17.1 Introduction 279
17.2 Transgenics with antifungal molecules 281
17.3 Transgenics engineered for protein 290
18. Virus resistant plants 297
18.1 Introduction 297
18.2 Transgenics with pathogen-derived resistance 298
19. Plant biotechnology in ornamental plant 317
19.1 Introduction 317
19.2 Classification of ornamental plants 317
19.3 Uses of biotechnology in ornamental horticulture 320
19.4 Major genetically modified ornamental plants 322
20. Modification of flower colour using genetic engineering 327
20.1 Introduction 327
20.2 Transformation of ornamental species 328
20.3 Flavonoid pathway 330
20.4 Genetic modification of the pathway 332
21. Biotechnology in production of medicinal plants 347
21.1 Introduction 347
21.2 In vitro plant regeneration and micropropagation 348
21.3 In vitro regeneration 352
21.4 Genetic transformation 354
22. Recombinant DNA 357
22.1 Introduction 357
22.2 Creating recombinant DNA 359
22.3 Tools and techniques of recombinant DNA technology 362
22.4 Gene cloning 363
22.5 Cloning vectors 367
22.6 Vectors for plant regeneration 371
22.7 T-DNA border sequences 374
22.8 Agrobacterium as a vector system 374
22.9 Monitoring plant diversity through DNA 379
22.10 Types of biodiversity 380
22.11 Consequences of threatened ecosystem 384
22.12 Sustainable use of plant diversity 384
22.13 Monitoring DNA-diversity 385
22.14 DNA markers 385
23. Molecular markers in plant biotechnology 387
23.1 Introduction 387
23.2 Biochemical marker - allozymes (isozyme) 388
23.3 Molecular markers 389
23.4 Restriction fragment length polymorphism 391
23.5 Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 392
23.6 Amplified fragment length polymorphism 394
23.7 Minisatellites, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) 397
23.8 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing 398
23.9 Microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR) 400
23.10 Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) 402
23.11 Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) 403
23.12 Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) 404
23.13 Sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) 405
23.14 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 405
24. Plant biotechnology and climate change 413
24.1 Introduction 413
24.2 Plant biotechnology 413
24.3 Biotechnology for climate change mitigation 415
24.4 Biotechnology for crop adaptation 417
24.5 Impact of cotton production on climate change 422
24.6 Agriculture value chain as a source of greenhouse gas emissions 427
24.7 Mitigation of cotton value chain emissions 429
24.8 Market incentives to reduce cotton value chain emissions 430
24.9 Agronomy of cotton 432
24.10 Climate change and its impact on cotton yield by various countries 438
24.11 Options to adapt to climate change 451
24.12 Challenges and futures perspectives 452

25. Nanotechnology for micronutrients in soil-plant systems 455
25.1 Introduction 455
25.2 Importance of micronutrients in crops 456
25.3 Soil micronutrient deficiency 459
25.4 Dynamics of MNs in soil-plant systems 461
25.5 Novel technologies for fertiliser micronutrients 463
25.6 Nanoencapsulated micronutrients 464
26. Nanotechnology in plants 477
26.1 Introduction 477
26.2 Effects of nanoparticles on plant growth and development 478

27. Intellectual property rights 499
27.1 Introduction 499
27.2 Patents on biotechnological inventions 499
27.3 Forms of IPRs 500
27.4 Crop biosecurity 502
27.5 IPR and developing countries 504
27.6 Biopiracy: A threat to crop biosecurity 506
27.7 Threat of bioterrorism to agricultural crop biosecurity 509
27.8 Future of IPRs and biotechnology and crop biosecurity 511
27.9 Challenges of IPRs in crop biosecurity 512
References 515
Index 517

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