Process Engineering and Industrial Management PDF by Jean-Pierre Dal Pont

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Process Engineering and Industrial Management
Edited by Jean-Pierre Dal Pont
Process Engineering and Industrial Management

Table of Contents
Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Richard DARTON
Foreword. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Jean PELIN
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv

PART 1: THE COMPANY AS OF TODAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Chapter 1. The Industrial Company: its Purpose, History,
Context, and its Tomorrow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
1.1. Purpose, structure, typology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.1.1. The four pillars of the company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.2. Typology of enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2. A centennial history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.1. The Europeanization of the planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.2.2. Evolution of the company over time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.3. The Industrial Revolution in England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.4. Taylorism, Fordism, Fayolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.5. The advent of research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.2.6. The individual in the company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.3. New challenges imposed by globalization
and sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.1. Globalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.3.2. Sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.4. Our planet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.4.1. Balances and biogeochemical cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.4.2. Global warming – greenhouse effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.4.3. Ecology and ecosystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.4.4. Oceans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.4.5. Demography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.4.6. Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.4.7. Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.4.8. What will be the future for French agriculture? . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.5. The company of tomorrow. Some thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
1.5.1. Emerging countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1.5.2. What are the values for tomorrow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
1.5.3. A new company for a new society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
1.6. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Chapter 2. The Two Modes of Operation of the Company –
Operational and Entrepreneurial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
2.1. Operational mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.1.1. Management − company structure
organization − organization chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.1.2. Corporate governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.2. Entrepreneurial mode, project management –
the operational/entrepreneurial conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.3. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Chapter 3. The Strategic Management of the Company:
Industrial Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
3.1. Systemic view of the industrial company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.2. Strategy and strategic analysis of the company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.2.1. Strategic analysis tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.3. Development of the strategic plan: its deliverables . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.4. Technological choices and vocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.5. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
PART 2: PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRIALIZATION . . . . . . . . . 113
Chapter 4. Chemical Engineering and Process Engineering . . . . . . . . . 115
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
4.1. History of chemical engineering and process engineering . . . . . . . 115
4.1.1. Chemical engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.2. Process engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2.1. Objectives of process engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2.2. The scientific bases and basic
tools of process engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.3. The chemical reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.3.1. Classification of reactors based
on the method of feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.3.2. Classification according to the phases present . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.4. Bioreactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.4.1. The enzymatic bioreactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.4.2. Bioreactions using microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.5. Transportation and transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.5.1. Transportation and handling of fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.5.2. Heat transfer; power, cooling, and heat generation . . . . . . . . . 129
4.5.3. Transfer between two immiscible liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.6. Unit operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.6.1. Crystallization in solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.6.2. Drying and gas/solid contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.6.3. Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.6.4. Other operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.6.5. An example of development: membrane technologies . . . . . . . 136
4.7. Separation processes: process engineering and the
new challenges for life sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.8. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.9. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Chapter 5. Foundations of Process Industrialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Jean-François JOLY
5.1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
5.2. The various stages of process development:
from research to the foundations of industrialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
5.3. The pre-study (or pre-development process) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
5.3.1. Experimental tools for acquiring kinetic data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
5.4. Development stage of the process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.4.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
5.4.2. Data acquisition process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.4.3. Process schemes, simulation, and optimization
of the process as a whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.4.4. End of the development process, the
foundations of industrialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.5. General conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.6. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.7. List of acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Chapter 6. The Industrialization Process: Preliminary Projects . . . . . . 189
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT and Michel ROYER
6.1. Steps of industrialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2. Bases of industrialization or process development . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.3. Feasibility study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.3.1. Design of the industrial process − preliminary
engineering − preliminary projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.4. Cost and typical duration of industrialization studies . . . . . . . . . . 198
6.5. Content of an industrialization project – conceptual engineering . . . 199
6.6. Typical organization of an industrialization project . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.7. Business/industrial interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.7.1. The questions posed by the business
to the industrial function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.7.2. The questions posed by the industrial
function to the business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.8. Typology of industrialization projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.8.1. Parallel projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.8.2. Small scale projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.9. The industrial preliminary projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.9.1. Origin of industrial preliminary projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.9.2. Perception of a preliminary project by the various
players in the company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.10. Selection of production sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
6.11. The consideration of sustainability in the preliminary projects . . . . 210
6.11.1. HHS indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
6.11.2. MIPS indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
6.11.3. SEP indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
6.11.4. SPI indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
6.11.5. SETAC indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
6.11.6. EPS indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
6.12. Tips for conducting preliminary projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.12.1. Capacities of the installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
6.12.2. Description of the process and essential characteristics. . . . . . . 217
6.12.3. Risk analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
6.12.4. Regulatory risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
6.13. Modification of the project scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
6.14. Host site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
6.14.1. Essential characteristics of an industrial site . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
6.14.2. Impact of a new process unit on an existing site . . . . . . . . . . 226
6.15. Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
6.15.1. Technical checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
6.15.2. Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
6.16. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Chapter 7. Lifecycle Analysis and Eco-Design:
Innovation Tools for Sustainable Industrial Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Sylvain CAILLOL
7.1. Contextual elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.1.1. The lessons of Easter Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.1.2. On the carrying capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
7.2. The chemical industry mobilized against upheavals . . . . . . . . . . . 237
7.2.1. Global turmoils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
7.2.2. New constraints of industrial chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.3. The lifecycle analysis, an eco-design
tool – definitions and concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
7.3.1. Eco-design: a few definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
7.3.2. The lifecycle assessment: history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
7.3.3. Lifecycle assessment: concept and definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
7.3.4. Defining the objectives and scope
of the lifecycle assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
7.3.5. Lifecycle inventory analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
7.3.6. Assessing the impact of the lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
7.3.7. Interpretation of the lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
7.3.8. LCA software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
7.4. Innovation through eco-design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.4.1. Example: LCA of supermarket shopping bags. . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
7.4.2. Example of eco-design from
a manufacturer of office furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
7.4.3. Example of eco-design from
a manufacturer of detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
7.4.4. The integration process of eco-design in the company . . . . . . . 265
7.5. Limits of the tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
7.5.1. On the importance of hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
7.5.2. On the relevance of inventory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
7.5.3. On the influence of allocation rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
7.5.4. On the choice of recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
7.6. Conclusion: the future of eco-design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
7.7. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
Chapter 8. Methods for Design and Evaluation of Sustainable
Processes and Industrial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
Catherine AZZARO-PANTEL
8.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
8.1.1. Concept of sustainable development in process engineering . . . . 275
8.1.2. Indicators, indices, and metrics of sustainable
development in process engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
8.2. AIChE and IChemE metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
8.2.1. AIChE metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
8.2.2. IChemE metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
8.2.3. Using sustainable development metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
8.3. Potential environmental impact index
(waste reduction algorithm). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
8.3.1. Theory of the potential environmental impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
8.3.2. Categories of environmental impacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
8.3.3. Application of the WAR algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
8.4. SPI (Sustainable Process Index) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
8.5. Exergy as a thermodynamic base for a sustainable
development metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
8.6. Indicators resulting from a lifecycle assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
8.6.1. Main methods of impact categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
8.6.2. Choice of the method of impact categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295
8.6.3. Toward a sustainable lifecycle assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
8.7. Process design methods and sustainable systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
8.8. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
8.9. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Chapter 9. Project Management Techniques: Engineering . . . . . . . . . . 307
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
9.1. Engineer and engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
9.1.1. The engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
9.1.2. Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
9.2. Project organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
9.2.1. Project concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
9.2.2. Organization of an engineering
project – client / project manager interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
9.3. Management tools for industrial projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
9.3.1. WBS (work breakdown structure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
9.3.2. Value analysis (VA) [AFN 97, DAL 03, LED 91] . . . . . . . . . 317
9.3.3. Functional analysis (FA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
9.3.4. The project scope (PS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
9.3.5. Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
9.4. The engineering project: from Process Engineering
to the start of the facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
9.4.1. Process Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
9.4.2. Construction management – monitoring the progress
of the project – cost and time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
9.4.3. Management of change orders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
9.5. The amount of investment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
9.6. Profitability on investment [DOR 81, MIK 10] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
9.6.1. Principle of calculation of cash flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
9.6.2. Depreciation and amortization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
9.6.3. Concept of discount [MAR 79] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
9.6.4. Concept of internal rate of return (IRR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
9.6.5. Rapid methods: the calculations of the grocer (examples) . . . . . 352
9.7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
9.8. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
PART 3: THE NECESSARY ADAPTATION
OF THE COMPANY FOR THE FUTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Chapter 10. Japanese Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
10.1. Japan from the Meiji era to now.
The origin of the Japanese miracle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
10.1.1. A bit of geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
10.1.2. A bit of history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
10.2. W.E. Deming and Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
10.2.1. A brief account of the Deming system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
10.2.2. The Japanese system from SQC to TQM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
10.3. The Toyoda family – Taiichi Ohno – The Toyota Empire . . . . . . . 362
10.3.1. Taiichi Ohno (1912–1990), the man
of JIT (just in time) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
10.4. Toyotism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
10.4.1. General philosophy – principles of management. . . . . . . . . . . 364
10.4.2. Problem solving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
10.4.3. The KJ method or affinity diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
10.4.4. Statistical process control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
10.4.5. Improvements at the workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
10.4.6. Human aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
10.5. The American response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
10.6. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Chapter 11. Innovation in Chemical Engineering Industries . . . . . . . . 371
Oliver POTIER and Mauricio CAMARGO
11.1. Definition of innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
11.2. Field of innovation in the chemical engineering industry . . . . . . . 376
11.3. The need for innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
11.4. Methods for innovation in chemical engineering industry . . . . . . . 380
11.4.1. Method of “Creativity Under Constraints” . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
11.4.2. Approach by the TRIZ method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
11.4.3. Management of the innovation process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
11.4.4. The company organized to innovate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391
11.4.5. Technical choices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
11.5. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
11.6. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

Chapter 12. The Place of Intensified Processes
in the Plant of the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
Laurent FALK
12.1. Process intensification in the context
of sustainable development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
12.2. Main principles of intensification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
12.2.1. Mass, heat and mixing limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
12.2.2. Thermodynamic limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
12.2.3. Limitation by energy input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 407
12.2.4. Kinetic limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
12.3. Connection between intensification and miniaturization . . . . . . . . 408
12.4. Applications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
12.4.1. Intensification for safer processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
12.4.2. Intensified processes for energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
12.5. New economic models implied
by process intensification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
12.5.1. Assessment of operation cost reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
12.5.2. Assessment of investment costs
of intensified processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
12.5.3. Technico-economic advantages of the modular plant . . . . . . . 424
12.6. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
12.7. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

Chapter 13. Change Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
13.1. The company: adapt or die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
13.2. The company: processes and know-how . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
13.2.1. The company, a multitude of processes
(processes, methods, procedures) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 438
13.2.2. The expertise of the company – core competencies . . . . . . . . . 440
13.3. Human aspects of change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444
13.3.1. Creating a feeling of trust . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
13.3.2. Visual management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
13.3.3. Brainstorming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
13.4. Basic tools for change management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
13.4.1. Systems analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
13.4.2. Continuous improvement,
the PDCA, the Deming wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
13.4.3. Pareto analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
13.4.4. External audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
13.5. Changes and improvement of the industrial facility . . . . . . . . . . 454
13.5.1. Continuous improvement and process control . . . . . . . . . . . 454
13.5.2. Looking for a breakthrough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
13.5.3. Corporate risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
13.6. Re-engineering, the American way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461
13.7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
13.8. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463

Chapter 14. The Plant of the Future. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Jean-Pierre DAL PONT
14.1. Developed countries – companies – industrial firms . . . . . . . . . . 466
14.1.1. France – heat wave of 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
14.1.2. The ISO 26 000 standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
14.2. Typology of means of production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469
14.2.1. Industrial facilities reviewed in the light of the supply chain – flows  . . 471
14.3. Product and plant design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
14.3.1. Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
14.3.2. Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
14.3.3. The plant of the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
14.4. Management of production and operations (MPO) . . . . . . . . . . . 477
14.4.1. Essential tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
14.4.2. Tools of the MPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
14.5. The IT revolution – IT management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479
14.6. And the individual? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480
14.7. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481
14.8. Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
List of Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487

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