Textbook of Renewable Energy PDF by S. C. Bhatia and R. K. Gupta

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Textbook of Renewable Energy
By S. C. Bhatia and R. K. Gupta
Textbook of Renewable Energy

Contents
Preface xi
1. Renewable Energy: An Overview 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Energy resources 2
1.3 Indirect participation in sustainable energy solutions 7
1.4 Barriers to the use of renewable energy technologies 7
1.5 Comparison of various energy sources 12

2. Solar Radiation and its Measurement 15
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Solar energy as a resource 16
2.3 Solar angles 18
2.4 Solar radiation 19
2.5 Terrestrial irradiation 21
2.6 Solar radiation measurement 21

3. Solar Thermal Energy Conversion System 25
3.1 Introduction 25
3.2 Solar water heating system 25
3.3 Solar distillation 28
3.4 Heating of swimming pool by solar energy 31
3.5 Solar thermal power plants 35
3.6 Solar ponds 38
3.7 Solar PV pumping systems 40
3.8 Solar crop drying 42
3.9 Solar cookers 42
3.10 Solar air conditioning and refrigeration 44
3.11 Solar greenhouses 46
3.12 Solar furnace and applications 51 

4. Solar Photovoltaic Systems 53
4.1 Introduction 53
4.2 Solar collectors 54
4.3 Photovoltaic systems 54
4.4 Photovoltaic effect 55
4.5 Photovoltaic Cells 56
4.6 Functions of the photovoltaic cells 56
4.7 Types of PV cell materials 59
4.8 PV modules and arrays 61
4.9 PV system components 62
4.10 Types of photovoltaic system 62
4.11 Scale of PV systems 66
4.12 Developing PV technologies 67
4.13 Benefits and limitations of photovoltaic systems 68
5. Biogas 71
5.1 Introduction 71
5.2 Resource availability of biogas 71
5.3 Types of biogas plants 72
5.4 Principles of biogas technology 73
5.5 Raw materials for biogas processes 75
5.6 Technological and operational solutions for biogas plants 75
5.7 Energy use of biogas 77
5.8 Integrated approach 78
5.9 Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality 78
5.10 Photosynthesis 79
5.11 Producer gas 82
6. Biomass 87
6.1 Introduction 87
6.2 Biomass conversion process 87
6.3 Biochemical processes 95
6.4 Biomass cogeneration 97
6.5 Classification of cogeneration systems 103
6.6 Applications of cogeneration 103
6.7 Advantages and disadvantages of various
cogeneration systems 104
6.8 Bio-based products as renewable energy sources 104
7. Biofuels 105
7.1 Introduction 105
7.2 Classification of biofuels 105
7.3 Perspectives on first and second generation biofuels 107
7.4 Biofuels threats for economy and environment 109
7.5 Biofuels can only contribute GHG savings 110
7.6 Bio-based products as renewable energy sources 110
8. Wind Energy 113
8.1 Introduction 113
8.2 Characteristics of wind energy 113
8.3 Technological aspects of wind energy 114
8.4 Components of wind turbines 114
8.5 Applications and efficiency of wind energy 115
8.6 Wind turbine technology 116
8.7 Offshore wind energy 119
8.8 Wind farm 122
8.9 Major failures in wind turbines 123
8.10 Wind energy powering agriculture 125
8.11 Carbon footprint of wind energy 131
8.12 Barriers to wind energy 133
9. Fuel Cells 137
9.1 Introduction 137
9.2 Principles of a fuel cells 138
9.3 Types of fuel cells 139
9.4 Biochemical fuel cells (BFC) 153
9.5 Classification of losses in an actual fuel cell 155
9.6 Energy storage of fuel cell 155
9.7 Electrical storage: Batteries and accumulators 155
9.8 Comparison of fuel cells with batteries and internal
combustion engines 157
9.9 Applications of fuel cells 158
9.10 Advantages and disadvantages of fuel cells 160
10. Tidal Energy 163
10.1 Introduction 163
10.2 Physical concepts of the tidal phenomena 164
10.3 Components of a tidal power system 168
10.4 Types of turbines 169
10.5 Reciprocating devices 171
10.6 Barriers and drivers in tidal energy 172
10.7 Technology barriers 172
10.8 Advantages and disadvantages of tidal energy 174
11. Hydrogen Energy 175
11.1 Introduction 175
11.2 Methods of production of hydrogen 176
11.3 Hydrogen production from biomass gasification 179
11.4 Hydrogen from partial oxidation of hydrocarbons 182
11.5 Hydrogen from electrolysis of water 182
11.6 Production of hydrogen from refinery off-gas stream 183
11.7 Production of hydrogen from steam methane reforming 186
11.8 Hydrogen from coal gasification 188
11.9 Hydrogen from thermochemical 189
11.10 Hydrogen from photosynthesis 189
12. Magneto Hydro Dynamic Power Generation 197
12.1 Introduction 197
12.2 Types of MHD Generators 198
12.3 Types of MHD Systems 201
12.4 Integration of MHD with conventional thermal systems 206
12.5 Selection of carrier gas and seed 207
12.6 Advantages and disadvantages of MHD power generator 212

13. Geothermal Energy 217
13.1 Introduction 217
13.2 Generating electricity from geothermal resources 218
13.3 Types of geothermal plants 219
13.4 Counter measures in operation of power plants 224
13.5 Power house equipment 225
13.6 Cooling tower system 229
13.7 Comparison of geothermal power plants with other plants 234
13.8 Market development 235
13.9 Advantages and disadvantages of geothermal power plant 236
13.10 Environmental issues 237
13.11 EIA of geothermal projects 238

14. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion 239
14.1 Introduction 239
14.2 Operating cycles 243
14.3 Description of cycles 243
14.4 Technology of various OTEC 247
14.5 Ocean energy devices 248
14.6 Multifunctionality of OTEC 249
14.7 Land, shelf and floating sites 251
14.8 Environmental considerations 253
14.9 Pros and cons of ocean energy 253

15. Renewable Energy Applications in Developing Smart Cities 255
15.1 Introduction 255
15.2 Solar smart cities 256
15.3 Details of smart cities 257
15.4 Solar cities programme 257
15.5 Statewise solar radiation in India 259
15.6 Financial support for designing smart cities 259
15.7 Applications of solar energy 260
15.8 Solar power plants 262
15.9 Benefits of solar energy over electricity 264
15.10 IITs Madras and Kanpur to coordinate smart city research 265
15.11 Summary of smart cities mission 266

16. Environmental Aspects of Electrical Energy Generation 269
16.1 Introduction 269
16.2 Environmental impacts of electricity generation and distribution 269
16.3 Global environmental awareness 270
16.4 Paris agreement 271
16.5 Difference between Paris agreement and Kyoto protocol 274
16.6 Climate change and impact on environment 275
16.7 Impact of renewable energy generation on environment 276
16.8 Environmental impacts of different technologies 277
16.9 Energy options for Indian economy 281
Glossary 283
References 311
Index 313

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