Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering PDF by Thanasis Triantafillou

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Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering
Edited by Thanasis Triantafillou
Textile Fibre Composites in Civil Engineering

Contents
List of contributors xi
Preface xiii
Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering xv

Part One Materials, Production Technologies and
Manufacturing of Textile Fibre Composites for Structural and Civil Engineering 1
1 Manufacturing of textiles for civil engineering applications 3
T. Gries, M. Raina, T. Quadflieg and O. Stolyarov
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Yarn structures 4
1.3 Planar textile structures 9
1.4 Three-dimensional textile structures 16
1.5 Coating of textiles 19
1.6 Conclusions and future trends 21
References 22

2 Mineral-based matrices for textile-reinforced concrete 25
V. Mechtcherine, K. Schneider and W. Brameshuber
2.1 Introduction 25
2.2 Overview of matrix compositions for TRC 27
2.3 Testing properties of fresh TRC matrices 29
2.4 Basic properties of hardened TRC matrices 31
2.5 Alternative binder systems for TRC 33
2.6 Modification of TRC matrices by short fiber 38
2.7 Summary 40
Acknowledgments 41
References 41

3 Manufacturing methods for textile-reinforced concrete 45
W. Brameshuber
3.1 Introduction 45
3.2 Casting 45
3.3 Laminating 48
3.4 Spraying/shotcreting 50
3.5 Spinning 53
3.6 Extruding 55
3.7 Summary 57
References 59

Part Two Testing, Mechanical Behaviour and Durability
Aspects of Textile Fibre Composites Used in Structural
and Civil Engineering 61
4 Bonds in textile-reinforced concrete composites 63
A. Peled
4.1 Introduction 63
4.2 Characterization and modelling of bonding 66
4.3 Multifilament yarns 75
4.4 Bonding in a fabric 91
4.5 Summary 95
References 95
5 Textile fiber composites: Testing and mechanical behavior 101
B. Mobasher
5.1 Introduction 101
5.2 Tension tests 102
5.3 Role of microstructure 105
5.4 Interface characterization 109
5.5 Correlation of tensile and flexural properties 122
5.6 High-speed tensile tests 130
5.7 Flexural impact 138
References 147
6 Durability of structures made of or strengthened using
textile-reinforced concrete 151
V. Mechtcherine
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Characteristic loads and exposures 153
6.3 Basics of durability estimation and design 153
6.4 Characteristic material properties to predict long-term durability
and service life 159
6.5 Summary 165
Acknowledgments 166
References 166
7 Fire resistance of textile fiber composites used in civil engineering 169
L. Bisby
7.1 Introduction 169
7.2 Fire resistance 170
7.3 Fiber response to elevated temperatures 173
7.4 Matrix response to elevated temperatures 174
7.5 Textile-fiber composite response to elevated temperatures 175
7.6 Fire resistance of TRC structures 177
7.7 Fire resistance of textile-reinforced strengthening systems for
concrete and masonry 178
7.8 Summary, knowledge gaps and research recommendations 182
References 183
Part Three Textile Reinforced Concrete: Structural
Behaviour, Design and Case Studies 187
8 Textile-reinforced concrete: Design models 189
J. Hegger and N. Will
8.1 Introduction 189
8.2 Factors to consider in the dimensioning methods 189
8.3 Dimensioning approach considering normal force and bending 195
8.4 Summary 206
References 206
9 Textile-reinforced concrete: Structural behavior 209
R. Chudoba and A. Scholzen
9.1 Introduction 209
9.2 Effect of strain-hardening behavior on structural response 210
9.3 Case study: Hypar-shell 213
9.4 Case study: Barrel-vault shell 218
9.5 Further aspects of structural behavior 223
9.6 Conclusions 224
References 225
10 Applications of textile-reinforced concrete in the precast industry 227
C.G. Papanicolaou
10.1 Introduction 227
10.2 Exterior cladding systems and fac¸ades 227
10.3 Sandwich elements 231
10.4 Other applications 237
10.5 Summary and future trends 238
References 241
11 Optimum design of textile-reinforced concrete as integrated
formwork in slabs 245
C.G. Papanicolaou and I.C. Papantoniou
11.1 Introduction 245
11.2 Conceptual design 246
11.3 Design considerations and assumptions 247
11.4 Design equations 249
11.5 Formulation of optimum (minimum cost) design 261
11.6 Summary and future trends 273
References 273
12 Textile-reinforced concrete: Selected case studies 275
M. Raupach and C. Morales Cruz
12.1 Loadbearing and self-supporting new building structures
with prefabricated textile-reinforced concrete 275
12.2 Strengthening of steel-reinforced concrete structures 282
12.3 Repair and restoration with TRC 286
12.4 Future applications of TRC 293
12.5 Conclusion 298
References 298
Part Four Strengthening and Seismic Retrofitting of Existing
Structures: Structural Behaviour, Design and Case Studies 301
13 Strengthening of existing concrete structures: Concepts and
structural behavior 303
T. Triantafillou
13.1 Introduction 303
13.2 Flexural strengthening 305
13.3 Shear strengthening 309
13.4 Confinement of axially loaded concrete 313
13.5 Seismic retrofitting by improving plastic hinge behavior 315
13.6 Seismic retrofitting of infilled reinforced concrete frames 318
13.7 Summary 320
References 321
14 Strengthening of existing concrete structures: Design models 323
E. Mu¨ller, S. Scheerer and M. Curbach
14.1 Preliminary note 323
14.2 Bending strengthening 324
14.3 Shear strengthening 333
14.4 Torsional strengthening 341
14.5 Column strengthening 353
14.6 Conclusion 357
Acknowledgments 357
References 357
15 Strengthening of existing masonry structures: Concepts and
structural behavior 361
T. Triantafillou
15.1 Introduction 361
15.2 Textile-reinforced mortar system 362
15.3 Mechanical properties 363
15.4 Intervention requirements and strengthening
rationale 364
15.5 Structural modeling 365
15.6 Design of retrofitting for seismic applications 366
15.7 Strengthening of masonry walls for out-of-plane loads 366
15.8 Strengthening of masonry walls for in-plane loads 368
15.9 Strengthening of curved masonry elements 371
15.10 Confinement of masonry columns 372
15.11 Summary 373
References 374
16 Strengthening of existing masonry structures: Design models 375
T. Triantafillou
16.1 Introduction 375
16.2 General safety principles 375
16.3 Safety verifications 376
16.4 Strengthening of masonry walls for out-of-plane loads 378
16.5 Strengthening of masonry walls for in-plane loads 382
16.6 Strengthening of curved masonry elements: Arches, barrel
vaults, domes 385
16.7 Confinement of masonry columns 386
16.8 Summary 388
References 388

17 Strengthening of existing structures: Selected case studies 389
D. Bournas
17.1 Introduction 389
17.2 Concrete strengthening case studies 389
17.3 Masonry strengthening case studies 402
17.4 Future trends 409
17.5 Source of further information and advice: Design codes 409
Acknowledgments 410
References 410

18 Thin TRC products: Status, outlook, and future directions 413
A.E. Naaman
18.1 Introduction: Summary 413
18.2 Status report 413
18.3 Matrix and reinforcement: Compatibility for a successful composite 419
18.4 Cost considerations: Fiber volume fraction versus weight fraction 422
18.5 The case for 3D textiles 426
18.6 Ultra-high performance cement matrices in thin cement composites 430
18.7 Summing up: Mechanical performance 431
18.8 Summing up: Functions and applications 432
18.9 Suggested research needs and directions for successful thin
TRC products 433
Acknowledgments 435
References 435
Index 441

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