The Toyota Way Fieldbook: A Practical Guide for Implementing Toyota’s 4Ps PDF by Jeffrey K. Liker and David Meier

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The Toyota Way Fieldbook: A Practical Guide for Implementing Toyota’s 4Ps
By Jeffrey K. Liker and David Meier

Acknowledgments xi
Foreword xv
Preface xix
Part I. Learning from Toyota 1
1. Background to the Fieldbook 3
Why The Toyota Way Fieldbook? 3
How the Book Is Organized 6
Overview of the Toyota Way Principles 8
How to Use This Book 14
Part II. Why Does Your Company Exist? 15
2. Define Your Corporate Philosophy and Begin to Live It 17
What Is Your Company’s Philosophy? 17
A Sense of Purpose Inside and Out 18
Creating Your Philosophy 23
Living Your Philosophy 24

Making a Social Pact with Employees and Partners 25
Maintaining Continuity of Purpose 27
Part III. Creating Lean Processes Throughout Your Enterprise 31
3. Starting the Journey of Waste Reduction 33
Lean Means Eliminating Waste 33
Developing a Long-Term Philosophy of Waste Reduction 37
Value Stream Mapping Approach 37
Benefits of the Value Stream Mapping Approach 41
Developing a Current State Map 42
Understand Your Objectives When Mapping the Current State 43
Limitations of the Value Stream Mapping Approach 47
Creating Flow Step by Step 49
Sequential and Concurrent Continuous Improvement 52
4. Create Initial Process Stability 56
First Get to Basic Stability 56
Indicators of Instability 57
Clearing the Clouds 58

Objectives of Stability 58
Strategies to Create Stability 59
Identify and Eliminate Large Waste 60
Standing in the Circle Exercise 60
Standardized Work as a Tool to Identify and Eliminate Waste 61
5S and Workplace Organization 64
Consolidate Waste Activities to Capture Benefits 65
Improve Operational Availability 71
Reduce Variability by Isolating It 74
Level the Workload to Create a Foundation for
Flow and Standardization 77
5. Create Connected Process Flow 80
One-Piece Flow Is the Ideal 80
Why Flow? 81
Less Is More: Reduce Waste by Controlling Overproduction 83
Strategies to Create Connected Process Flow 89
Single-Piece Flow 89
Key Criteria for Achieving Flow 91
Pull 94

Complex Flow Situations 98
Pull in a Custom Manufacturing Environment 100
Creating Pull Between Separate Operations 102
Flow, Pull, and Eliminate Waste 108
6. Establish Standardized Processes and Procedures 111
Is Standardization Coercive? 111
Standardized Work or Work Standards? 113
Objective of Standardization 114
Strategies to Establish Standardized Processes and Procedures 117
Types of Standardization 118
Quality, Safety, and Environmental Standards 119
Standard Specifications 120
Standard Procedures 121
Myths of Standardized Work 122
Standardized Work 124
Standardized Work Documents 126
Some Challenges of Developing Standardized Work 131
Auditing the Standardized Work 134
Standardized Work as a Baseline for Continuous Improvement 135
Takt Time as a Design Parameter 136
Importance of Visual Controls 139
Standardization Is a Waste Elimination Tool 141
7. Leveling: Be More Like the Tortoise Than the Hare 145
The Leveling Paradox 145
Heijunka Provides a Standardized Core for Resource Planning 146
Why Do This to Yourself? 147
Smoothing Demand for Upstream Processes 148
How to Establish a Basic Leveled Schedule 151
Incremental Leveling and Advanced Heijunka 157
Incremental Leveling 157
Points of Control 158
Point of Control for Managing Inventory 158
A Leveled Schedule Dictates Replenishment 159
Slice and Dice When Product Variety Is High 161
Leveling Is an Enterprisewide Process 166
8. Build a Culture That Stops to Fix Problems 171
Developing the Culture 172
The Role of Jidoka: Self-Monitoring Machines 177
The Problem-Resolution Cycle 178
Minimizing Line Stop Time 182
Build Quality Inspections into Every Job 184
Poka Yoke 186

Creating a Support Structure 195
9. Make Technology Fit with People and Lean Processes 198
Back to the Abacus? 198
What Do You Believe About Technology, People, and Processes? 200
Tailor Technology to Fit Your People and Operating Philosophy 203
Contrasting Models of Technology Adoption 205
Keep Technology in Perspective 213
Part IV. Develop Exceptional People and Partners 217
10. Develop Leaders Who Live Your System and
Culture from Top to Bottom 219
Success Starts with Leadership 219
Importance of Leadership Within Toyota 220
Toyota Georgetown Production Leadership Structure 222
Toyota Georgetown Staff Leadership Structure 224
Requirements for Leaders 224
Group Leader Responsibilities on a Typical Workday 226
Creating a Production Leadership Structure 232
Selecting Leaders 234

Developing Leaders 237
Succession Plan for Leaders 239
11. Develop Exceptional Team Associates 242
“We Don’t Just Build Cars, We Build People” 242
Start by Selecting the Right People 243
Assimilating Team Associates into Your Culture 246
Job Instruction Training: The Key to Developing Exceptional Skill Levels 247
Making a Training Plan and Tracking Performance 255
Building Team Associates for the Long Term 258
Quality Circles 258
Toyota Suggestion Program 261
Developing Team Associates for Leadership Roles 263
Personal Touch Creates Stronger Bonds 265
Invest in Skill in All Areas of the Company 265
12. Develop Suppliers and Partners as Extensions
of the Enterprise 270
Supplier Partners in a Globally Competitive World 270
Short-Term Cost Savings vs. Long-Term Partnerships 271
Supplier Partnering the Toyota Way 273
Seven Characteristics of Supplier Partnering 275
Building a Lean Extended Enterprise 290
Traditional vs. Lean Models of Supplier Management 294
Part V. Root Cause Problem Solving for Continuous Learning 305
13. Problem Solving the Toyota Way 307
More Than Solving Problems 307
Every Problem Is an Improvement Opportunity 309
Telling the Problem-Solving Story 313
14. Develop a Thorough Understanding of the
Situation and Define the Problem 323
Carefully Aim Before Firing 323
Find the True Problem to Get the Most Significant Results 327
Examining a Problem in Reverse 333
Defining the Problem 334
Building a Strong Supporting Argument 337
15. Complete a Thorough Root Cause Analysis 341
Principles of Effective Analysis 341
Seeking Problem Causes That Are Solvable 346
Distill Root Cause Analysis to Simplest Terms 349
A Picture Is Worth a Thousand Words 349
Putting It All Together: The A3 One-Page Report 351
Dig Deeply into Possible Causes 352
16. Consider Alternative Solutions While Building Consensus 356
Broadly Consider All Possibilities 356
Simplicity, Cost, Area of Control, and the Ability to Implement Quickly 357
Develop Consensus 359

Test Ideas for Effectiveness 360
Select the Best Solution 362
Define the Right Problem and the Solution Will Follow 362
17. Plan-Do-Check-Act 364
Plan: Develop an Action Plan 364
Do: Implement Solutions 368
Check: Verify Results 368
Act: Make Necessary Adjustments to Solutions and to the Action Plans 371
Act: Identify Future Steps 371
Finally Some Action 372
18. Telling the Story Using an A3 Report 376
Less Can Be More in Report Writing 376
Determining How to Use an A3 377
The A3 Problem-Solving Report Process 379
Outline for an A3 381

Formatting Tips 382
Final A3 Version of Problem-Solving Story 383
Final Comments on A3s 387
Part VI. Managing the Change 391
19. Lean Implementation Strategies and Tactics 393
Where Should You Start? 393
Lean Implementation Levels, Strategies, and Tools 394
Having the Patience to Do It Right 417
20. Leading the Change 427
Can We Avoid Politics in Lean Transformation? 427
Leadership from the Top, Middle, and Bottom 430
Can You Metric Your Way to Lean? 449
Changing Behavior to Change Culture 452
Spreading Your Learning to Partners 458
Now Please Try . . . and Do Your Best 461
Index 467

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