Artificial Intelligence for Fashion: How AI is Revolutionizing the Fashion Industry PDF by Leanne Luce

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Artificial Intelligence for Fashion: How AI is Revolutionizing the Fashion Industry
by Leanne Luce 
Artificial Intelligence for Fashion: How AI is Revolutionizing the Fashion Industry

 Table of Contents
About the Author ................................................................................xv
Acknowledgments ............................................................................xvii
Preface ..............................................................................................xix
Introduction ......................................................................................xxv
Part I: Introduction ......................................................................1
Chapter 1: Basics of Artificial Intelligence ...........................................3
Why Does AI Matter? .............................................................................................4
What Is AI? ............................................................................................................4
Machine Learning ............................................................................................5
What Is Intelligence? .............................................................................................6
The Turing Test ................................................................................................6
How Machines Learn ............................................................................................7
What Is Learning? ............................................................................................7
Machine Perception .........................................................................................8
Language .........................................................................................................9
Topics in Artificial Intelligence ..............................................................................9
Application Areas ...........................................................................................10
Tools and Techniques ....................................................................................13
Summary ............................................................................................................15
Terminology from This Chapter ...........................................................................16
Part II: Shopping and Product Discovery ...................................19
 
Chapter 2: Natural Language Processing and Conversational
Shopping .............................................................................................21
Natural Language Processing .............................................................................22
ELIZA ..............................................................................................................22
Chatbots ........................................................................................................23
Specialized Chatbots .....................................................................................23
Conversational Commerce ..................................................................................24
Natural Language Queries .............................................................................24
Shopping and Messaging ..............................................................................25
Personalized Shopping Experiences .............................................................26
Bot-to-Bot Interaction ....................................................................................27
Context-Based Decision Making ....................................................................27
Live Chat ........................................................................................................28
How Machines Read ...........................................................................................29
Tokenization ..................................................................................................30
Word Embeddings .........................................................................................31
Part-of-Speech Tagging .................................................................................32
Named Entity Recognition .............................................................................32
Natural Language Understanding .......................................................................33
Sentiment Analysis ........................................................................................33
Relation Extraction ........................................................................................34
Summary ............................................................................................................35
Terminology from This Chapter ...........................................................................36
Chapter 3: Computer Vision and Smart Mirrors .................................39
Retail Meltdown ..................................................................................................40
Smart Mirrors ......................................................................................................40
Data Collection ..............................................................................................42
Social Sharing and Checkout ........................................................................42
Implementation .............................................................................................44
Computer Vision ..................................................................................................44
Transformation ..............................................................................................45
Filtering .........................................................................................................46
Feature Extraction .........................................................................................47
Image Classification ......................................................................................50
Beyond Static and 2D Images .............................................................................50
Summary ............................................................................................................50
Terminology from This Chapter ...........................................................................51
Chapter 4: Neural Networks and Image Search .................................53
Fashion Industry Images .....................................................................................54
Image Search ......................................................................................................54
Image Tagging ...............................................................................................56
Reverse Image Search ...................................................................................56
Visual Search .................................................................................................58
Neural Networks .................................................................................................59
Types of Neural Networks ...................................................................................60
Feed-Forward Neural Networks ....................................................................60
Recurrent Neural Networks ...........................................................................62
Convolutional Neural Networks .....................................................................63
Training Neural Networks ..............................................................................64
Training Data .................................................................................................65
Standardized Datasets ..................................................................................65
Adversarial Examples .........................................................................................67
Adversarial Image Overlays ...........................................................................68
Adversarial Additions .....................................................................................69
Adversarial Objects .......................................................................................70
Possible Implications .....................................................................................70
Summary ............................................................................................................71
Terminology from This Chapter ...........................................................................71
Chapter 5: Virtual Style Assistants .....................................................75
Virtual Style Assistants .......................................................................................76
Personal Stylists ............................................................................................76
Virtual Assistants ...........................................................................................77
Voice Interfaces .............................................................................................77
Features of the Virtual Style Assistant ...........................................................78
Existing Examples ...............................................................................................78
Amazon’s Echo Look ......................................................................................79
The Hardware ................................................................................................80
Image-Based Reviews ........................................................................................82
The Future of Image-Based Reviews .............................................................82
Artificial General Intelligence ..............................................................................83
Hybrid Intelligence .........................................................................................84
Pitfalls of Artificial General Intelligence .........................................................84
Dangers of AI .................................................................................................84
Summary ............................................................................................................85
Terminology from This Chapter ...........................................................................86
 
Part III: Sales .............................................................................87
Chapter 6: Data Science and Subscription Services ..........................89
Subscription Models ...........................................................................................90
Brand Subscriptions ......................................................................................92
Targeted Subscriptions ..................................................................................92
User-Selected Subscriptions .........................................................................92
Consumables Subscriptions ..........................................................................93
Rental Subscriptions .....................................................................................93
Digital Personalization ........................................................................................94
Recommendation Engines .............................................................................95
Data Science .................................................................................................97
Summary ..........................................................................................................104
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................104
Chapter 7: Predictive Analytics and Size Recommendations ...........107
The Fit Problem .................................................................................................107
What Are Predictive Analytics? .........................................................................108
Learning Fit .......................................................................................................109
Other Applications for Predictive Analytics .......................................................111
Implementing Predictive Analytics Systems .....................................................111
Data Visualization ..............................................................................................115
Models .........................................................................................................116
Enterprise Tools ...........................................................................................116
Technology Blogs at Fashion Companies ..........................................................117
Data Responsibility ...........................................................................................118
General Data Protection Regulation .............................................................118
Data and Third-Party Vendors ......................................................................119
Legal ............................................................................................................119
Summary ..........................................................................................................120
Terminology in This Chapter ..............................................................................120
Part IV: Designing ....................................................................123
Chapter 8: Generative Models as Fashion Designers .......................125
AI Fashion Designer ..........................................................................................125
Artificial Creativity .......................................................................................126
Mapping Garments onto Images of People ..................................................127
Turning Sketches into Color Images ............................................................129
How Generative Models Work ...........................................................................129
Limitations ...................................................................................................131
Why GANs? ..................................................................................................131
Implementation Example: AI Fashion Blogger ...................................................132
How It Works ...............................................................................................133
Training GANs ..............................................................................................134
Improving Results ........................................................................................136
The Future of GANs ...........................................................................................137
Summary ..........................................................................................................137
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................138
 
Chapter 9: Data Mining and Trend Forecasting ................................141
Trend Forecasting .............................................................................................141
Social Media .....................................................................................................142
Social Media Mining ....................................................................................143
What Is Data Mining? ........................................................................................144
APIs ...................................................................................................................145
Web Scraping ..............................................................................................147
Web Crawlers ..............................................................................................148
Data Warehousing .............................................................................................149
Summary ..........................................................................................................150
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................151
Part V: Supply Chain ................................................................153
Chapter 10: Deep Learning and Demand Forecasting ......................155
What Is Demand Forecasting? ..........................................................................156
Forecasting Methods ........................................................................................156
Fashion’s Challenges in Forecasting .................................................................157
Overproduction ............................................................................................157
Fast and Short Seasons ...............................................................................157
Consumer Behavior .....................................................................................158
Nonforecasting Solutions ..................................................................................158
Price Prediction ...........................................................................................158
Deep Learning ...................................................................................................159
What Is Deep Learning? ..............................................................................160
Deep Learning for Demand Forecasting ......................................................161
Techniques for Smaller Datasets ......................................................................161
Transfer Learning ........................................................................................162
Other Forecasting Models ...........................................................................163
Summary ..........................................................................................................165
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................166
Chapter 11: Robotics and Manufacturing .........................................167
Robots in Popular Culture .................................................................................167
Robots and Women ......................................................................................168
What Is a Robot? ...............................................................................................170
Types of Robots .................................................................................................170
Industrial Robots .........................................................................................171
Articulated Robots .......................................................................................171
End Effectors ...............................................................................................172
Sewing Robots ..................................................................................................173
Advantages of Robotics in Sewing ..............................................................175
Designing for Robots ...................................................................................176
Automation and Robotics ..................................................................................176
Questions of Responsible Automation .........................................................177
Supply-Chain Robotics ......................................................................................177
Lights-Out Manufacturing ...........................................................................178
Summary ..........................................................................................................178
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................179
Part VI: Future ..........................................................................183
Chapter 12: Democratization and Impacts of AI ...............................185
Lowering the Barrier to Entry ............................................................................186
Simplified Interfaces .........................................................................................186
Developer Tools ...........................................................................................187
Access to Data ..................................................................................................187
Open Source .....................................................................................................188
Specialized Hardware .......................................................................................189
GPUs and TPUs ............................................................................................189
Cloud Services .............................................................................................190
Tutorials and Online Courses ............................................................................191
Impact on Jobs .................................................................................................191
Ethics and the Future ........................................................................................192
Race and Gender .........................................................................................193
The Partnership on AI ..................................................................................193
Summary ..........................................................................................................194
Terminology from This Chapter .........................................................................194
Bibliography .....................................................................................197
 
General References ...........................................................................................197
Adversarial Examples .......................................................................................199
Chatbots, Virtual Style Assistants ......................................................................199
Computer Vision, Visual Search .........................................................................201
Data, Data Mining ..............................................................................................202
Demand Forecasting .........................................................................................202
Ethics ................................................................................................................203
Generative Models ............................................................................................203
Natural Language Processing ...........................................................................206
Neural Networks ...............................................................................................207
Predictive Analytics, Recommendation Engines ...............................................208
Robotics, Impact ...............................................................................................210
Specialized Hardware .......................................................................................210
Projects, Companies .........................................................................................211
Index .................................................................................................213

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