Handbook of Textile Effluent Remediation PDF by Mohd Yusuf

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Handbook of Textile Effluent Remediation
By Mohd Yusuf
Handbook of Textile Effluent Remediation

Contents
Preface xix
1. Textile Effluents: Types and Prominent Hazards 1
Asim Kumar Roy Choudhury
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Impurities and Their Effects 4
1.2.1 Suspended Solids 5
1.2.2 Dissolved Mineral Salts 5
1.2.2.1 Total solids 6
1.2.2.2 Total dissolved solids 6
1.2.2.3 Suspended solids 6
1.2.3 Dissolved Gases 6
1.2.4 Alkalinity 7
1.2.5 Metals 8
1.2.6 Hardness 8
1.2.6.1 Expression of hardness 9
1.2.6.2 Estimation of hardness 9
1.2.7 Total Chlorides 11
1.2.8 Total Sulfates 11
1.2.9 Nutrients 12
1.3 Water Consumption 12
1.4 Effects of Effluent Characteristics 14
1.4.1 Adsorbable Organic Halogens 15
1.5 Degradability of Wastes 19
1.5.1 Biological Oxygen Demand 20
1.5.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand 20
1.5.3 Total Organic Carbon 22
1.6 Industrial Discharge 22
1.7 Pollution by the Textile Industry 22
1.7.1 Usage of Chemicals 23
1.7.2 Colorants 24
1.7.3 Water Usage 26
1.7.4 Pollution by Heavy Metals 26
1.8 Quality of Textile Effluents 29
Classification of Textile Wastes 32
1.9.1 Hard-to-Treat Wastes 33
1.9.2 Hazardous or Toxic Wastes 33
1.9.3 Dispersible Wastes 33
1.9.4 High-Volume Wastes 33
Control of Effluent Quality 34
1.10.1 Equalization 34
1.10.2 Recovery of By-products 34
1.10.3 Ecofriendly Reactions 34
1.10.3.1 Waste minimization 35
1.10.3.2 Product substitution 35
1.10.3.3 Greener solvents 36
1.10.3.4 Harmless chemicals 36
1.10.4 Loss of Chemicals 36
1.10.5 Segregation 36
Pollution Control Strategies 37
1.11.1 Cleaner Production Techniques 37
1.11.2 End-of-Pipe Treatment 37
1.11.3 Sludge Treatment and Disposal 38
Future Trends 39

2. Textile Industry and Effluents: Present Scenario,
Governing Laws, and Initiatives toward the Road Ahead 43
Ruma Chakrabarti
Introduction 44
Terms and Definitions 46
2.2.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand 46
2.2.2 Chemical Oxygen Demand 47
2.2.3 Theoretical Oxygen Demand 47
Textile Effluent Treatments 48
2.3.1 Adsorption 48
2.3.1.1 Activated charcoal 48
2.3.1.2 Natural adsorbents 50
2.3.1.3 Silica gel adsorbent 50
2.3.2 Ion Exchange Methods 50
2.3.3 Membrane Technology 51
2.3.4 Advanced Oxidation Processes 51
2.3.4.1 Treatment of textile
effluents by ozonation 51
2.3.4.2 Gamma ray irradiation 54
2.3.4.3 Decolorization of dyes using
UV/H2O2 photochemical
oxidation 54
2.3.4.4 Effluent treatment by a UV/
ultrasonic/peroxide system 55
2.3.4.5 Oxidative degradation of
dyes and surfactant in the
Fenton and photo-Fenton
treatment of dye-house
effluents 56
2.3.4.6 TiO2-mediated catalytic
oxidation 59
2.4 Chemical and Biological Treatments for
Textile Effluents 60
2.4.1 Treatment of Textile Effluents Using
Sodium Alginate as the Flocculant 60
2.4.2 Decolorization of Dye Wastewater by
Selective Fungi (Enzymes) 61
2.4.2.1 Advantages 62
2.4.2.2 Disadvantages 63
2.4.3 Sludge Color Removal of Textile
Effluents Using the Upflow Anaerobic
Reactor 63
2.4.4 COD, Color, and Sludge Reduction
Using the Immobilized Microbe
Bioreactor 63
2.5 Some Alternate Treatment Methods 64
2.5.1 Use of Apple Pomace and Wheat
Straw 64
2.5.2 Use of Chitin as an Adsorbent for
Color Removal 64
2.5.3 Chemically Modified Cellulose and
Lignocellulose for Color Removal 66
2.5.4 Textile Effluent Treatment with a
Root Zone System 66
2.5.5 Adsorption/Bio-oxidation Process
for the Treatment of Textile Dyeing
Wastewater 67
2.6 Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater
Treatment 68
2.6.1 Applications of EC 71
2.6.1.1 Groundwater cleanup 71
2.6.1.2 Surface water cleanup 71
2.6.1.3 Process rinse water and
wash water 72
2.6.1.4 Sewage treatment 72
2.6.1.5 Cooling towers 72
2.6.1.6 Water pretreatment 72
Regulations in India and Voluntary Initiatives
from Brands 73
2.7.1 Zero Liquid Discharge 73
2.7.1.1 The global goal of zero 74
2.7.1.2 Cost is high but not as
significant as compliance 75
2.7.2 Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals 76
2.7.2.1 Guiding principles of ZDHC 77
2.7.2.2 Focus areas of the updated
joint roadmap 77
Conclusion 79

3. Ecological Impacts of Azo Dyes and Environmental
Considerations 83
Mohd Yusuf
3.1 Azo Dyes: An Overview 84
3.2 Types of Azo Dyes 85
3.3 Toxicological and Carcinogenicity Aspects 86
3.4 Ecological Legislations 91
3.5 Conclusion and Future Considerations 91

Textile Effluent Treatment Using Adsorbents 95
S. Tharakeswari, K. Shabaridharan, and D. Saravanan
4.1 Introduction 96
4.2 Characteristics of Textile Effluents 98
4.2.1 TS, TDS, and TSS 99
4.2.2 Oxygen Demand 100
4.2.3 Color 102
4.3 Effluent Treatment Methods: An Overview 104
4.3.1 Physical Methods 106
4.3.1.1 Adsorption 106
4.3.1.2 Irradiation 106
4.3.1.3 Membrane process
4.3.2 Chemical Treatment: Oxidative
Treatment
4.3.2.1 Ozonation process
4.3.2.2 Oxidation with sodium
hypochlorite
4.3.2.3 Photochemical oxidation
4.3.2.4 Electrochemical oxidation
4.3.3 Coagulation: Flocculation and
Precipitation
4.3.4 Ion Exchange
4.4 Types of Adsorbents
4.5 Mechanism of Adsorbents
4.6 Advantages and Limitations of Adsorbents
4.6.1 Advantages
4.6.2 Limitations of Adsorbents
4.7 Studies Conducted on the Treatment of
Effluents Using Adsorbents
4.7.1 Activated Carbon
4.7.2 Clay Minerals
4.7.3 Silica Gel
4.7.4 Agricultural Waste
4.7.5 Industrial Waste
4.8 Conclusion 

5. Ligninolytic Enzyme Production by Microbes and
Their Role in Textile Dye Decolorization
Rajender Singh, O. P. Ahlawat, and Anita Rajor
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Alternative Technologies for Dye
Decolorization
5.2.1 Physical Methods
5.2.2 Chemical and Electrochemical
Methods
5.2.3 Biological Methods
5.2.3.1 White rot fungi and role of
their ligninolytic enzymes
in dye decolorization
5.2.3.2 Role of bacteria in dye
decolorization
5.2.3.3 Immobilization of fungi 136
5.2.4 Mechanism of Fungal Dye
Degradation and Decolorization 136
Factors Affecting Decolorization and
Degradation of Dyes 137
5.3.1 Media Composition 137
5.3.2 Effect of Carbon Sources on Dye
Decolorization 138
5.3.3 Other Media Components 139
5.3.4 Effect of pH on Dye Decolorization 139
5.3.5 Effect of Temperature on Dye
Decolorization 140
5.3.6 Effect of Agitated and Stationary
Conditions on Dye Decolorization 141
5.3.7 Effect of Initial Dye Concentration
on Dye Decolorization 142
5.3.8 Effect of Cofactors 142
Kinetics of Dye Decolorization 143
Extracellular Ligninolytic Enzymes 144
Anaerobic and Aerobic Degradation of Dyes 144
5.6.1 Anaerobic Degradation of Azo Dyes 144
5.6.2 Aerobic Oxidation of Dyes 146
5.6.3 Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic
Degradation of Azo Dyes 146
Conclusion 149
6. Catalytic Ozonation Facilitated by Carbon Aerogel
Materials for Textile Dyeing Wastewater Treatment
and Reuse 157
Songmin Shang, En lin g Hu, Xiaoming Tao,
Shouxiang Jiang, and Lu Gan
Introduction 158
6.1.1 Wastewater in the Textile Industry 158
6.1.2 Conventional Wastewater Treatment 159
6.1.3 Ozonation Technology 160
6.1.3.1 Overview of ozone 160
6.1.3.2 Fundamental chemistry of
ozonation 161
6.1.3.3 Catalytic ozonation 161
6.1.4 Carbon Aerogel 163
6.1.4.1 Overview 163
6.1.4.2 Process control in
preparation of CA 164
6.1.4.3 Structure 166
6.1.4.4 Applications 168
Degradation of Anthraquinone Dye 169
6.2.1 Performance of Catalysts 169
6.2.2 Effect of Treatment Parameter on
Color and COD Removal 171
6.2.2.1 Catalyst amount 171
6.2.2.2 Effect of ozone
concentration 172
6.2.2.3 Effect of temperature 172
6.2.2.4 Effect of pH 172
6.2.3 Reusability 173
Reuse of Spent Textile Dyeing Effluent 174
6.3.1 Catalytic Ozonation of Dyeing
Effluents 174
6.3.1.1 Decolorization of dyeing
effluents 174
6.3.1.2 COD removal in catalytic
ozonation 176
6.3.2 Color Reproducibility 177
Conclusion 179
7. Emerging Technologies for Source Reduction and
End-of-Pipe Treatments of the Cotton-Based Textile
Industry 185
Nabil A. Ibrahim and Basma M. Eid
7.1 Introduction 186
7.2 Textile Fibers 187
7.2.1 Textile Chain 187
7.2.2 Conventional Wet Processing and
Water Concerns 188
7.2.3 Pretreatment of Cotton-Based Textiles 189
7.2.4 Coloration of Cotton-Based Textiles 190
7.2.5 Finishing of Cotton-Based Textiles 193
7.3 Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control 195
7.3.1 Cleaner Production 196
7.3.2 Current End-of-Pipe Management
Practices in the Textile Sector 203
7.3.2.1 Physicochemical methods 204
7.3.2.2 Biological treatment
methods 204
7.3.2.3 Common oxidation methods 209
7.4 Emerging Techniques for End-of-Pipe
Treatments 210
7.4.1 Advanced Oxidation Processes 210
7.4.2 Combined Techniques for Textile
Wastewater Treatments 211
7.4.3 Phytoremediation of Textile Dyes and
Effluents 212
7.4.4 Nanomaterials for Dye Removal from
Aqueous Media 213
7.4.5 Gamma Radiation for Textile
Wastewater Treatment 214
7.5 Future Prospects 214
8. Recent Trends and Future Prospects in Bioremediation
of Synthetic Dyes: A Review 227
Shumaila Kiran, Shahid Adeel, Shagufta Kamal,
Muhammad Saeed, Fazal-ur-Rehman, and
Tahsin Gulzar
8.1 Introduction 228
8.2 Acclimation 229
8.3 Growth-Linked Biodegradation 231
8.4 Assimilation 232
8.4.1 Assimilation of Carbon 232
8.4.2 Assimilation of Other Elements 233
8.5 Bioremediation Techniques 234
8.5.1 In situ Bioremediation 234
8.5.1.1 Introduction 234
8.5.1.2 Factors affecting in situ
bioremediation 235
8.5.1.3 Advantages of in situ
bioremediation 236
8.5.1.4 Limitations of in situ
bioremediation 237
8.5.2 Ex situ Bioremediation 237
8.5.2.1 Introduction
8.5.2.2 Techniques used in ex situ
bioremediation
8.5.2.3 Advantages of ex situ
bioremediation
8.5.2.4 Disadvantage of ex situ
bioremediation
Anaerobic Biodegradation of Dyes
8.7 Aerobic Biodegradation of Dyes
8.8 Microbiological Decomposition of Synthetic
Dyes Using Mixed Cultures (Microorganism
Consortiums)
8.9 Role of White Rot Fungi and Their Enzymes in
Biodegradation of Dyes
8.10 Advantages of Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic
Treatment
8.11 Identification and Mechanisms of Dye
Degradation
8.12 Conclusion
9. Textile Effluent Remediation by Membrane-Based
Techniques
Shafat Ahmad Khan, Pooja Agarwal, and Lalit Prasad
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Different Processes Adopted for the
Treatment of Textile Effluents
9.2.1 Textile Industrial Wastewater
9.3 Membrane-Based Processes
9.3.1 Microfiltration Process
9.3.2 Ultrafiltration Process
9.3.3 Nanofiltration Process
9.3.4 Reverse Osmosis
9.4 Conclusion
10. Green Materials from Plant Sources for the
Remediation of Methylene Blue Dye: An Emerging
Wastewater Treatment Technology
Geetanjali Rathi, Sharf Ilahi Siddiqui, and
Saif Ali Chaudhry
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Colored Water Discharge 278
10.3 Effluents from the Textile Industry 282
10.4 Specific Dye: Methylene Blue 284
10.5 Dye Remediation 285
10.6 Adsorption for Dye Remediation 285
10.7 Bioadsorbents 287
10.8 Biosorption of Methylene Blue 289
10.9 Modified Bioadsorbents 291
10.10 Conclusion 294
10.11 Future Prospects 295
11. Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Azo Dye
Removal from Wastewater 303
Priya Banerjee, Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay, and
Papita Das
Introduction 304
Structural Models of GO 306
Synthesis and Functionalization of Graphene
Oxide Nanocomposites 308
11.3.1 Nanocomposite Fabrication Methods 309
11.3.2 GO-Metal Nanoparticle Composites
for Dye Removal 311
11.3.3 GO-Polymer Composites for Dye
Removal 312
11.3.4 GO Biocomposite for Dye Removal 315
Characterization of GO-Based Nanocomposites 319
11.4.1 Characterization of Physical
Parameters 320
11.4.1.1 Electron microscopy 320
11.4.1.2 Atomic force microscopy 321
11.4.1.3 X-ray diffraction analysis 321
11.4.1.4 Specific surface area, pore
size, and sample porosity 322
11.4.1.5 Particle size and surface
charge analysis 322
11.4.1.6 Raman spectroscopy 322
11.4.2 Characterization of Chemical Behavior 323
11.4.2.1 Fourier transform infrared
spectroscopy 323
11.4.2.2 X-ray photoelectron
spectroscopy 323
11.4.2.3 Solid-state nuclear
magnetic resonance
spectroscopy 323
11.5 Factors Affecting Dye Adsorption 324
11.5.1 Effect of Solution pH 324
11.5.2 Effect of Temperature 324
11.5.3 Effect of Initial Dye Concentration 324
11.5.4 Effect of Adsorbent Dosage 325
11.6 Investigation of Process Mechanism 325
11.6.1 Process Isotherms 325
11.6.2 Process Kinetics 325
11.6.3 Process Thermodynamics 329
11.7 Process Optimization 329
11.7.1 Response Surface Methodology 330
11.7.2 Artificial Neural Networks 330
11.7.3 Comparing RSM and ANN for Better
Applicability 331
11.8 Conclusion 331
12. Insights into Dye Confiscation by Low-Cost
Adsorbents for Textile Effluent Remediation: A Review 343
Mohd Yusuf, Shahid Adeel, Shumaila Kiran,
Mariam Batool, and Majid Muneer
12.1 Adsorption 344
12.1.1 Physical Adsorption 344
12.1.2 Chemical Adsorption 344
12.2 Adsorbent Types 345
12.2.1 Activated Carbon 346
12.2.2 Silica Gel 346
12.2.3 Alumina 346
12.2.4 Zeolites 346
12.3 Applications of Adsorbents 347
12.4 Mineralized Materials 348
12.4.1 Clay 348
12.4.1.1 Kinds of clay materials 349
12.4.2 Zeolites 352
12.4.2.1 Adsorption phenomenon
in zeolites 352
12.4.2.2 Some natural zeolites 352
12.5 Application of Mineralized Materials for
Water Treatment 353
12.5.1 Applications of Clay Material in
Water Treatment 353
12.5.2 Applications of Natural Zeolites in
Wastewater Treatment 354
12.6 Biosorption 356
12.6.1 Biosorption Mechanism 356
12.6.2 Factors Influencing Biosorption 357
12.6.3 Functional Groups in Biomass
Related to Biosorption 357
12.6.4 Biosorbents Types 357
12.6.4.1 Bacterial biosorbents 358
12.6.4.2 Fungal biosorbents 359
12.6.4.3 Marine algae as biosorbents 360
12.6.4.4 Applications 360
12.7 Conclusion and Future Prospects 361
Microorganisms for Textile Effluent Remediation 375
S. Anuradha Jabasingh
13.1 Introduction to Textile Effluents 376
13.2 Potential Microorganisms and Consortium 377
13.3 Mechanism of Textile Dye Degradation 380
13.4 Parameter Optimization 382
13.5 Growth and Degradation Kinetics 386
13.6 Metabolite Identification 388
13.7 Conclusions 391
Carbon Aerogel Materials for Real Textile Dyeing
Wastewater Treatment via Catalytic Ozonation:
An Industrial Trial Report 395
Enling Hu, Songmin Shang, Xiaoming Tao,
Shouxiang Jiang, and Lu Gan
14.1 Introduction 396
14.2 Methodology 396
14.2.1 Sample Collection 396
14.2.2 Treatment System for Real Wastewater 397
14.2.3 Determination of Water Quality of
Real Effluents 398
14.2.3.1 Color (multiple dilution method) 398
14.2.3.2 COD 398
14.2.3.3 Ferric ion 398
14.2.3.4 Manganese ion 399
14.2.3.5 Suspended solids 399
14.2.3.6 Hardness (CaCO3) 400
14.3 Results and Discussion 400
14.3.1 Bench-Scale Investigation 400
14.3.1.1 Characterization of water samples 400
14.3.1.2 COD removal of a water sample from a textile dyeing plant 402
14.3.1.3 The effect of catalyst dosage on COD removal 403
14.3.1.4 Effect of temperature 404
14.3.1.5 Color removal 405
14.3.2 On-Site Industrial Trial 407
14.3.2.1 Catalytic ozonation of raw wastewater 407
14.3.2.2 3D electrolysis of raw wastewater 409
14.3.2.3 Aerobic digestion of raw wastewater 411
14.3.2.4 Integrated treatment system 413
14.4 Conclusion 416
Contents xvii
Index 419

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