Hybrid Fiber Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, Process Engineering PDF by Anish Khan, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Mohammad Jawaid, Suchart Siengchin and Abdullah M. Asiri

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Hybrid Fiber Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, Process Engineering
By Anish Khan, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Mohammad Jawaid, Suchart Siengchin and Abdullah M. Asiri
Hybrid Fiber Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, Process Engineering

Contents
About the Editors xix
1 Natural and Synthetic Fibers for Hybrid Composites 1
Brijesh Gangil, Lalit Ranakoti, Shashikant Verma, Tej Singh, and
Sandeep Kumar
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Natural Fibers 2
1.3 Microstructure of Natural Fibers 3
1.4 Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 3
1.4.1 Synthetic Fibers 7
1.4.2 Glass Fibers 8
1.4.3 Carbon Fibers 8
1.4.4 Kevlar or Aramid Fibers 9
1.4.5 Comparison Between Natural and Synthetic Fibers 9
1.5 Hybrid Fiber-Based Polymer Composites 10
1.5.1 Applications 11
1.6 Conclusion 12
References 13

2 Effect of Process Engineering on the Performance of Hybrid
Fiber Composites 17
Madhu Puttegowda, Yashas Gowda Thyavihalli Girijappa, SanjayMavinkere
Rangappa, Jyotishkumar Parameswaranpillai, and Suchart Siengchin
2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Fibers 18
2.3 Polymers 20
2.4 Hybrid Polymer Composites 21
2.5 Fiber Extraction Methods 22
2.6 Fiber Treatments 22
2.7 Processing Methods of Hybrid Composites 24
2.7.1 Pultrusion 24
2.7.2 Hand Lay-up/Wet Lay-up 25
2.7.3 Vacuum Bagging 25
2.7.4 FilamentWinding 26
2.7.5 Resin Transfer Molding 27
2.7.6 Compression Molding 27
2.7.7 Injection Molding 28
2.8 Application of Each Hybrid Polymer Composite Processing
Methods 29
2.8.1 Pultrusion 29
2.8.2 Hand Lay-up 29
2.8.3 Vacuum Bagging 31
2.8.4 FilamentWinding 31
2.8.5 Resin Transfer Molding 31
2.8.6 Compression Molding 31
2.8.7 Injection Molding 32
2.9 Conclusion 32
References 32

3 Mechanical and Physical Test of Hybrid Fiber
Composites 41
Mohit Hemath, Arul Mozhi Selvan Varadhappan, Hemath Kumar
Govindarajulu, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, Suchart Siengchin, and
Harinandan Kumar
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Materials and Methods 44
3.2.1 Materials 44
3.2.2 Extraction of Sugarcane Nanocellulose Fiber (SNCF) 44
3.2.3 Synthesis of Al–SiC Nanoparticles 44
3.2.4 Fabrication of SNCF/Al–SiC Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites 44
3.2.5 Design of Experiments (DOE) 45
3.2.6 Development of ExperimentalModels and Optimization 45
3.2.7 Characterization on SNCF/Al–SiC Vinyl Ester Hybrid
Nanocomposites 46
3.2.7.1 FTIR Spectra and XRD Curves 46
3.2.7.2 Physical Properties 47
3.2.7.3 Mechanical Properties 47
3.2.7.4 Viscoelastic Properties 48
3.2.7.5 Morphological Properties 48
3.3 Results and Discussion 48
3.3.1 Optimization 48
3.3.2 Maximization 52
3.3.3 FTIR and XRD Curves 54
3.3.4 Mechanical Properties 55
3.3.4.1 Flexural Properties 55
3.3.4.2 Morphological Properties 57
3.3.4.3 Compression Properties 58
3.3.4.4 Tensile Properties 58
3.3.5 Viscoelastic Properties 58
3.3.5.1 Storage Modulus 58
3.3.5.2 Loss Modulus 60
3.3.5.3 Damping Factor 60
3.3.5.4 Glass Transition Temperature 60
3.3.6 Impact Strength 61
3.3.7 Vickers Hardness 62
3.3.8 Physical Properties 62
3.4 Conclusion 63
References 63

4 Experimental Investigations in the Drilling of Hybrid Fiber
Composites 69
Sathish Kumar Palaniappan, Samir Kumar Pal, Rajasekar Rathanasamy,
Gobinath Velu Kaliyannan, andMoganapriya Chinnasamy
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 Characteristics of Drilling 70
4.3 Hybrid Fiber Composites 70
4.4 Machining Limitation on Hybrid Fiber Composite Drilling 71
4.5 Investigation of Hybrid Fiber Composites Drilling 71
4.5.1 Condition for Hybrid Composites Drill 72
4.5.2 Factors Affecting Drilling 72
4.5.3 Drilling of GF-Reinforced Hybrid Composites 73
4.5.4 Survey on NF-Reinforced Hybrid Composites Drilling 75
4.5.5 Drilling of CF Reinforced Hybrid Composites 77
4.6 Conclusion 79
References 79
5 Fracture Analysis on Silk and Glass Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid
Composites 87
Gangaplara Basavarajappa Manjunatha and Kurki Nagaraja Bharath
5.1 Introduction 87
5.2 Materials and Methods 88
5.2.1 Materials and Specimen Preparation 88
5.2.2 Compact Tension Shear (CTS) Test 90
5.2.3 Single-Edge Notched Bend (SENB) 90
5.3 Results and Discussion 92
5.3.1 Compact Tension Shear (CTS) Test 92
5.3.2 Mode I, Mode II, and Mixed Mode Fracture Toughness for Different
Loading Angle 93
5.3.3 Single-Edge Notched Bend (SENB) 93
5.3.4 Fracture Toughness of SENB Test 95
5.4 Conclusion 96
References 96
6 Failure Mechanisms of Fiber Composites 99
C˘at˘alin Iulian Pruncu and Maria-Luminita Scutaru
6.1 Introduction 99
6.2 Industrial Benefits and Applications 100
6.3 Materials for Reinforcing 104
6.3.1 Composites Reinforced with Continuous Fibers 104
6.3.2 Composites Reinforced with Discontinuous Fibers 105
6.3.3 Composites Reinforced with Fillers 106
6.4 Resin Type 106
6.4.1 Epoxy Resins 106
6.4.2 Formaldehyde Resins 107
6.4.3 Polyurethane Resins 107
6.4.4 Polyester Resins 108
6.4.5 Silicone Resins 108
6.5 Interfacial of Composite Structure 109
6.6 Micromechanics 110
6.6.1 Mechanical Properties 110
6.6.1.1 Coefficients ofThermal Expansion and Heat Transfer
Properties 111
6.7 Short Overview of Specific Failure Modes 112
6.8 Future Perspective 113
6.9 Conclusions 114
References 114
7 Ballistic Behavior of Fiber Composites 117
Ignacio Rubio, Josue Aranda Ruiz, Marcos RodriguezMillan,
Jose Antonio Loya, andMarta MariaMoure
7.1 Introduction 117
7.2 High-Velocity Impact Test 119
7.2.1 Material 119
7.2.2 Experimental Setup 119
7.2.3 Analysis and Results 121
7.2.3.1 Ballistic Curves 121
7.2.3.2 Failure Modes 123
7.2.3.3 Back-Face Displacement 123
7.3 ComputationalMethods 124
7.4 Conclusions 126
References 127
8 Mechanical Behavior of Synthetic/Natural Fibers in Hybrid
Composites 129
Navasingh Rajesh Jesudoss Hynes, Ramakrishnan Sankaranarayanan,
Jegadeesaperumal Senthil Kumar, SanjayMavinkere Rangappa, and
Suchart Siengchin
8.1 Introduction 129
8.2 Impact Strength of Natural Fiber (Flax), Synthetic Fiber (Carbon),
and Hybrid (Carbon/Flax) Composites 130
8.3 Kenaf/Aramid (Epoxy) Hybrid Composites with Different Fiber
Orientation 132
8.4 Impact Strength of Carbon/Flax (Epoxy) Hybrid Composites with
Different Fiber Orientation 134
8.5 Comparison of Absorbed Impact Energy of Different Hybrid
Composites 135
8.6 Comparison of Strength of Natural Fiber (Ramie), Synthetic Fiber
(Glass), and Hybrid (Ramie/Glass) Composites 137
8.6.1 Tensile Strength of Natural Fiber (Ramie), Synthetic Fiber (Glass),
and Hybrid (Ramie/Glass) Composites 138
8.6.2 Flexural Strength of Natural Fiber (Ramie), Synthetic Fiber (Glass),
and Hybrid (Ramie/Glass) Composites 139
8.6.3 Impact Strength of Natural Fiber (Ramie), Synthetic Fiber (Glass),
and Hybrid (Ramie/Glass) Composites 140
8.7 Summary and Outlook 141
References 143
9 Bast Fiber-Based Polymer Composites 147
Sandeep Kumar, Brijesh Gangil, Krishan Kant SinghMer,Manoj Kumar
Gupta, and Vinay Kumar Patel
9.1 Introduction 147
9.1.1 Bast Fiber as Reinforcing Material 149
9.2 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Bast Fibers 149
9.2.1 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Flax Fibers 150
9.2.2 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Grewia Optiva Fiber 152
9.2.3 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Hemp Fiber 155
9.2.4 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Nettle Fiber 156
9.2.5 Polymer Composites Reinforced with Jute Fiber 158
9.3 Applications of Polymer Composites Reinforced with Bast
Fibers 160
9.4 Conclusion 161
References 161
10 Flame-Retardant BalsaWood/GFRP Sandwich Composites,
Mechanical Evaluation, and Comparisons with Other
Sandwich Composites 169
Subin Shaji George, Vivek Arjuna, Venkata Prudhvi Pallapolu, and
Padmanabhan Krishnan
10.1 Introduction 169
10.2 Literature Survey 171
10.2.1 Sandwich Composite Structure and Properties 171
10.2.2 Knowledge Gained from the Literature Review 172
10.2.3 Gaps Identified from Literature Survey 172
10.2.4 Objective of the Project 173
10.2.5 Motivation 173
10.3 Methodology and ExperimentalWork 173
10.3.1 Hand Lay-up Procedure 173
10.3.2 Vacuum Bagging 174
10.3.3 Testing and Evaluations 175
10.3.4 Technical Specification 177
10.3.5 Design Approach Details 177
10.3.6 Codes and Standards 178
10.3.7 Fabrication Methodology 178
10.4 Results and Discussion 179
10.4.1 Compression Testing 179
10.4.1.1 Flatwise Transverse Grain Test 179
10.4.1.2 Edgewise Transverse Grain Compression 180
10.4.1.3 Edgewise Longitudinal Grain Compression 182
10.4.1.4 Discussion and Comment (Compression Test) 183
10.4.2 Three-Point Bending Test (Flexural Test) 183
10.4.2.1 Experimental Results forThree-Point Bending Test of Balsa
Wood 184
10.4.2.2 Experimental Results forThree-Point Bending Test of Composite of
Skin-to-Core Ratio 1 : 1 184
10.4.2.3 Experimental Results forThree-Point Bending Test of Composite of
Skin-to-Core Ratio 2 : 1 184
10.4.2.4 Experimental Result for Three-Point Bending Test of Composite of
Skin-to-Core Ratio 3 : 1 187
10.4.2.5 Experimental Results forThree-Point Bending Test of Composite of
Skin-to-Core Ratio 4 : 1 187
10.4.2.6 Experimental Results forThree-Point Bending Test of Composite of
Skin-to-Core Ratio 5 : 1 188
10.4.2.7 Mean, Minimum, and Maximum Mechanical Properties of Sandwich
Composites 188
10.4.2.8 Mechanical Properties of Sandwich Composite for Different Core
Materials 189
10.4.2.9 Discussion and Comments (Flexural Testing/Three-Point
Bending Test) 189
10.4.3 Types and Modes of Failure During the Test on Sandwich
Composites 190
10.5 Conclusions 192
10.6 Scope for FutureWork 193
Acknowledgment 193
List of Symbols and Abbreviations 193
References 193
11 Biocomposites Reinforced with Animal and Regenerated
Fibers 197
Manickam Ramesh, Chinnaiyan Deepa, Sanjay Mavinkere Rangappa, and
Suchart Siengchin
11.1 Introduction 197
11.2 Animal Fibers 198
11.2.1 Silk 199
11.2.2 Wool 200
11.2.3 Chicken Feather 201
11.3 Regenerated Fibers 202
11.3.1 Lyocell 205
11.3.2 Viscose 206
11.3.3 Regenerated Keratin Fibers 207
11.4 Industrial Applications 207
11.5 Summary and Discussion 207
11.6 Conclusions and Scope for Future Research 208
References 208
12 Effect of Glass and Banana Fiber Mat Orientation and
Number Layers on Mechanical Properties of Hybrid
Composites 217
T.P. Sathishkumar, S. Ramakrishnan, and P. Navaneethakrishnan
12.1 Introduction 217
12.2 Materials 220
12.3 Preparation of Composites 221
12.4 Characterization 222
12.5 Results and Discussion 224
12.5.1 Effect of Number and Orientation of Layers on Tensile
Properties 224
12.5.2 Effect of Number and Orientation of Layers on Flexural
Properties 225
12.5.3 Effect of Number and Orientation of Layers on Impact
Properties 228
12.6 Conclusion 229
References 230
13 Characterization of Mechanical and Tribological Properties
of Vinyl Ester-Based Hybrid Green Composites 233
B. Suresha, R. Hemanth, and P.A. Udaya Kumar
13.1 Introduction 233
13.2 Materials and Methods 237
13.2.1 Matrix 237
13.2.2 Reinforcements 238
13.2.2.1 Coir Fiber and Coconut Shell Powder 238
13.2.2.2 Aramid Fiber 239
13.2.3 Chemical Treatment 239
13.2.4 Fabrication of Vinyl Ester-Based Hybrid Composites 239
13.3 Characterization 240
13.3.1 Physicomechanical Characterizations 240
13.3.1.1 Hardness 240
13.3.1.2 Tensile Testing 241
13.3.1.3 Flexural Testing 241
13.3.1.4 Impact Testing 242
13.3.2 Wear Testing 242
13.3.3 Fractography Analysis Using Scanning Electron Microscope 243
13.4 Surface Treatment of Reinforcements 244
13.5 Results and Discussion 245
13.5.1 Hardness of Vinyl Ester and Their Hybrid Composites 245
13.5.2 Tensile Properties of Vinyl Ester and Their Hybrid Composites 246
13.5.2.1 Fractography Analysis 247
13.5.3 Flexural Properties of Vinyl Ester and Their Hybrid Composites 248
13.5.3.1 Fractography Analysis 248
13.5.4 Impact Strength of Vinyl Ester andTheir Hybrid Composites 249
13.5.4.1 Fractography Analysis 250
13.5.5 Tribology of Vinyl Ester Hybrid Composites 251
13.5.5.1 Effect of Fiber and Filler on Coefficient of Friction 252
13.5.5.2 Effects of Sliding Distance and Applied Load on SpecificWear
Rate 254
13.5.5.3 Worn Surface Morphology 256
13.6 Conclusions 260
References 260
14 Thermomechanical Characterization of Vacuum Resin
Infusion-Molded Ceramic Rock-Derived Natural
Wool-Reinforced Epoxy and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid-Based
Composites 265
Nikunj Viramgama, Anmol Garg, Kevin Thomas, and
Padmanabhan Krishnan
14.1 Introduction 265
14.1.1 Natural Fibers as a Substitute for Synthetic Fibers 265
14.1.2 Biocomposites 265
14.1.3 Rockwool Fibers 266
14.1.4 Composites with Rockwool Fiber as Reinforcement 266
14.1.5 Resin or Matrix Materials 267
14.1.6 Gaps in the Literature Review 267
14.2 Methodology and Approach 267
14.2.1 Fabrication and Experimentation 268
14.3 Results and Discussion 270
14.3.1 Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS of Rockwool) 270
14.3.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA of Rockwool) 272
14.3.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Rockwool 272
14.3.4 Volume Fraction of Fabricated Composite 273
14.3.4.1 Volume Fraction of Rockwool for Epoxy-Based Composite 273
14.3.4.2 Volume Fraction of Rockwool Fiber for CNSL Composite 274
14.3.5 Epoxy-Based Composite Tests and Analyses 274
14.3.5.1 Tensile Test 274
14.3.5.2 Compression Test 280
14.3.5.3 Flexure Test 284
14.3.6 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis of Epoxy-Based
Composites 289
14.3.7 Rockwool/CNSL Composite Test Results 294
14.3.7.1 Tensile Test Results 294
14.3.7.2 Compression Test Results 297
14.3.7.3 Flexure Test Results 299
14.3.8 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Analysis of the CNSL-Based
Composite 301
14.3.9 Further Scope of Research 304
Acknowledgments 305
References 305

15 Hydrogel Scaffold-Based Fiber Composites for Engineering
Applications 307
IkramAhmad, Jose Heriberto Oliveira do Nascimento, Sobia Tabassum,
Amna Mumtaz, Sadia Khalid, and Awais Ahmad
15.1 Introduction 307
15.1.1 Hydrogels 307
15.1.2 Hydrogels as Compared to Gels 308
15.1.3 Classification of Hydrogels 308
15.1.3.1 Hydrogel Origin 308
15.1.3.2 Hydrogel Durability 308
15.1.3.3 Hydrogel Response to Environmental Stimuli 309
15.1.4 Methods of Preparation of Hydrogels 309
15.1.4.1 Free Radical Polymerization 309
15.1.4.2 Irradiation Cross-linking of Hydrogel Polymeric Precursors 310
15.1.4.3 Chemical Cross-linking of Hydrogel Polymeric Precursors 310
15.1.4.4 Physical Cross-linking of Hydrogel Polymeric Precursors 310
15.1.5 Scaffold 311
15.1.5.1 Biocompatibility 312
15.1.5.2 Biodegradability 312
15.1.5.3 Mechanical Properties 312
15.1.5.4 Structure 312
15.1.5.5 Nature 313
15.2 Potential Applications of Hydrogels as Scaffold in Biomedical
Application 313
15.2.1 Hydrogel and Tissue Engineering 314
15.2.2 Hydrogels as Carriers for Cell Transplantation 314
15.2.3 Hydrogels as a Barrier Against Rest Enosis 314
15.2.4 Hydrogels as Drug Depots 315
15.3 Design Criteria for Hydrogel Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering 315
15.3.1 Biodegradation 316
15.3.2 Biocompatibility 316
15.3.3 Pore Size and Porosity Extent 317
15.3.4 Mechanical Characteristics 317
15.3.5 Surface Characteristics 317
15.3.6 Vascularization 318
15.4 Hydrogel Scaffold: A Main Tool for Tissue Engineering 318
15.4.1 Fabrication of Hydrogel Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 318
15.4.1.1 Emulsification 318
15.4.2 Lyophilization 319
15.4.2.1 Emulsification Lyophilization 320
15.4.2.2 Solvent Casting Leaching 320
15.4.2.3 Gas Foaming Leaching 320
15.4.2.4 Photolithography 321
15.4.2.5 Electrospinning 321
15.4.2.6 Microfluidics 322
15.4.2.7 Micromolding 322
15.4.2.8 Three-Dimensional Organ/Tissue Printing 323
15.5 Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering 324
15.6 Hydrogel Scaffold Fabrication for Skin Regeneration 326
15.6.1 Molding Scaffolds 326
15.6.2 Nanofiber Fabrication Scaffolds 326
15.6.3 Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing 327
15.7 Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration 327
15.7.1 Single-Layer Gelatinous Scaffolds 327
15.7.2 Multilayer Gelatinous Scaffolds 328
15.7.3 Gel/Fiber Scaffolds 329
15.7.4 Fabrication of Gradient Hydrogels 330
15.7.5 Fabrication of Gradient Hydrogel/Fiber Composites 331
15.8 Biopolymer-Based Hydrogel Systems 332
15.8.1 Polysaccharide Hydrogels as Scaffolds 332
15.8.1.1 Chondroitin Sulfate 332
15.8.1.2 Hyaluronic Acid 333
15.8.1.3 Chitosan 334
15.8.1.4 Cellulose Derivatives 335
15.8.1.5 Alginate 336
15.8.1.6 Collagen 337
15.8.1.7 Gelatin 337
15.8.1.8 Elastin 339
15.8.1.9 Fibroin 339
15.9 Summary 340
References 340

16 Experimental Analysis of Styrene, Particle Size, and Fiber
Content in the Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber Powder
Composites 351
KatiaMelo, Thiago Santos, Caroliny Santos, Rubens Fonseca, Nestor Dantas,
andMarcos Aquino
16.1 Introduction 351
16.2 Materials and Methods 352
16.3 Results and Discussion 353
16.4 Conclusions 364
Acknowledgments 364
References 365
17 Influence of Fiber Content in theWater Absorption and
Mechanical Properties of Sisal Fiber Powder
Composites 369
KatiaMelo, Thiago Santos, Caroliny Santos, Rubens Fonseca, Nestor Dantas,
andMarcos Aquino
17.1 Introduction 369
17.2 Materials and Methods 370
17.2.1 Mechanical Test 370
17.2.2 Water Absorption 370
17.3 Results and Discussion 371
17.4 Conclusions 376
Acknowledgments 377
References 377

18 Recent Advances of Hybrid Fiber Composites for Various
Applications 381
Praveen Kumar Alagesan
18.1 Introduction 381
18.2 What Is a Hybrid Composite? 384
18.3 Hybrid Biocomposites 386
18.4 Hybrid Nanobiocomposites 388
18.5 Potential Applications of Hybrid Composites in Various
Applications 389
18.5.1 Aerospace Applications 389
18.5.2 Automotive Applications 391
18.5.3 Ballistic Applications 394
18.5.4 Impact Loading Applications 395
18.6 Challenges, Prospects, and Future Trends 397
18.7 Conclusions 398
Acknowledgments 398
References 398
Index 405

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