Recycling from Waste in Fashion and Textiles: A Sustainable and Circular Economic Approach PDF by Pintu Pandit, Shakeel Ahmed, Kunal Singha and Sanjay Shrivastava

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Recycling from Waste in Fashion and Textiles: A Sustainable and Circular Economic Approach
Edited by Pintu Pandit, Shakeel Ahmed, Kunal Singha and Sanjay Shrivastava
Recycling from Waste in Fashion and Textiles: A Sustainable and Circular Economic Approach

 

Contents

Preface xxi
1 Overview on Recycling from Waste in Fashion and Textiles:
A Sustainable and Circular Economic Approach 1
Pintu Pandit, Kunal Singha, Sanjay Shrivastava
and Shakeel Ahmed
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Importance of Recycling 3
1.3 Challenges in Designing With Post-Consumer Clothing and Benefits of Recycling 4
1.4 The Market for Upcycled Fashion Garments 6
1.5 Recycling Fashion Manufacturers 6
1.6 Sustainable Fibers and Technologies in Textiles and Fashions 7
1.7 The Circular Economy 9
1.8 The Main Characteristic of the Economy 9
1.8.1 Natural Fibers 10
1.8.1.1 Cotton 10
1.8.1.2 Bast Fibers: Flax, Linen, Jute, and Hemp 10
1.8.1.3 Wool 11
1.8.1.4 Silk 11
1.9 Eco-Labels Concerning Bringing Sustainability 12
1.10 Technological and Sustainable Measures Under Fashion Industry 13
1.11 Consumer Consciousness Along With Corporate Social Obligation 13
1.12 Sharing Economy and Collaborative Consumption 14
1.13 Technological Amendments in Textiles Making It More
User Friendly and Environment Friendly 15
1.14 Conclusions 16
References 17

 
2 Challenges for Waste in Fashion and Textile Industry 19
Jayant Kumar, Kunal Singha, Pintu Pandit, Subhankar Maity
and Amal Ray
2.1 Introduction 20
2.1.1 Annual Global Fiber Consumption (2000–2012) 21
2.2 Major Challenges in Managing Textile and Fashion Wastages 24
2.3 Usage of Renewable Resources to the Maximum 29
2.4 Increase the Life of the Product 29
2.4.1 Machinery/Equipment Related 29
2.4.2 Process Related 30
2.4.3 Chemicals and Dyes 30
2.4.4 Wastewater Treatment 30
2.5 Conclusions 31
References 31

 
3 Solutions for Sustainable Fashion and Textile Industry 33
Ritu Pandey, Pintu Pandit, Suruchi Pandey and Sarika Mishra
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Sustainable Fashion Industry and Green Solutions 35
3.2.1 Sustainable Textile Fibers 36
3.2.2 Reuse 36
3.2.3 Restyling 39
3.2.4 Used and Upcycled Garment Circulation Businesses 41
3.2.5 Clothing Rental 41
3.3 Recyclable Used Clothing 44
3.3.1 Fabric Reconstruction 44
3.3.2 Household Rags 45
3.3.3 Fabric Reprocessing 45
3.4 Obstacles of Fashion Reuse Businesses 46
3.4.1 Quality Parameters 46
3.4.2 Government Regulations 47
3.5 Solutions for Sustainable Textile Industry 47
3.5.1 Environmental Problems Relating to Production
and Processing of Textile Fibers 48
3.6 Key Points of Counter Measures for Sustainability
in Textile Industry 49
3.6.1 Eco-Innovations in Textiles 53
3.6.2 Eco-Selection, Production, Logistics, Care,
and Recycling 53
3.6.3 Textile Waste Utilization and Existing
Recycling Practices 56
3.7 Textile Waste 57
3.8 Use of Textile Production House By-Products, Chemicals,
and Water 58
3.8.1 Agrotextiles 58
3.8.2 Geotextiles 58
3.8.3 Water and Chemical Recovery and Reuse
in a Textile Industry 58
3.9 Textile Industry Effluent and Sludge Treatment Processes 60
3.10 Recent Trends in Wastewater Treatment 62
3.10.1 Reverse Osmosis 62
3.10.2 Electrocoagulation 62
3.10.3 Activated Carbon 62
3.10.4 Chemical Precipitation 62
3.10.5 Nanofiltration 63
3.10.6 Bio-Filtration 63
3.10.7 Sludge Treatment Processing 63
3.11 International Framework of Environmental Standards,
Regulations, and Labels for Sustainability 64
3.11.1 Global Organic Textile Standards (GOTS) 64
3.11.2 Registration, Evaluation, Authorization,
and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) 64
3.11.3 Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) 64
3.11.4 Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2050 65
3.11.5 Indian Standard for Organic Textiles (ISOT) 66
3.11.6 Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA) 66
3.11.7 Government Green Procurement (GGP) in Taiwan 66
3.11.8 Sustainable Resolution (Su.Re) in India 66
3.11.9 Eco-Labels for Sustainable Textiles 69
3.12 Conclusion 69
References 70

 
4 Opportunities of Agro and Biowaste in Fashion Industry 73
Seiko Jose, Lata Samant, Archana Bahuguna and Pintu Pandit
4.1 Introduction 74
4.2 Agro/Biowaste for Textiles 75
4.2.1 Classification of Agro Residue 75
4.2.2 Type of Value-Added Products Manufactured 76
4.2.3 Agricultural Waste Management Approaches 78
4.2.4 Challenges and Issues Associated With Agro-Waste 78
4.3 Agro/Biowastes for Textile Manufacturing 79
4.3.1 Agro-Waste for Textile Application 79
4.3.2 Industrial Interventions 80
4.3.3 Few Case Studies 81
4.3.3.1 GCA 2018 Winner: Made Bio-Textiles
From Crop Waste 81
4.3.4 Designers Initiatives 82
4.3.5 Circular System (Waste to Usable Material) 82
4.3.5.1 Closed-Loop Recycling 83
4.3.6 Sustainable Future 83
4.4 Agro/Biowastes for Textile Wet Processing 84
4.4.1 Importance of Agro/Biowaste to Generate Eco-
Friendly Natural Dyes: Its Environmental Concerns 84
4.4.2 Role of the Fashion Industry in the Current Scenario
and Its Relation to Natural Dyes 85
4.4.3 Sources of Natural Dyes From Various Agro/
Biowastes 86
4.4.4 Application of Natural Dyes in Fashion Industry 87
4.4.4.1 Few Case Studies 88
4.4.5 Agro-Wastes for Color Removal 89
4.4.5.1 Removal of Dyes by Low-Cost Sorbents:
Few Case Studies 90
4.4.6 Consumer Approach Towards Naturally Dyed
Fashion Garments 93
4.4.7 Fashion Brands Approach to Promote Natural
Dyed Apparels 94
4.5 Conclusion 94
References 95

 
5 Innovating Opportunities for Fashion Brands by Using Textile
Waste for Better Fashion 101
Vandana Gupta, Madhvi Arora and Jasmine Minhas
5.1 Introduction 102
5.2 Textile and Apparel Industry 103
5.3 Carbon Foot Prints and Waste Generation From Textile
and Apparel Industries 105
5.3.1 Carbon Foot Prints 105
5.3.2 Fashion and Waste Facts 107
5.4 Fashion Brands Working Towards Sustainability Using
Textile Waste 109
5.4.1 Anokhi 110
5.4.2 Wills Vegan 110
5.4.3 Everlane 112
5.4.4 Doodlage 112
5.4.5 Abraham and Thakore 113
5.4.6 Osklen 114
5.4.7 Raeburn 115
5.4.8 Stella McCartney 115
5.4.9 Bottletop 115
5.4.10 Rustic Hue 116
5.4.11 Zero Waste Daniel 116
5.4.12 Raw Mango 116
5.4.13 Patagonia 116
5.4.14 Ka-Sha 117
5.5 Conclusion 117
References 118 

 
6 Challenges and Opportunities of Waste in Handloom Textiles 123
Pintu Pandit, Sanjay Shrivastava, Sankar Roy Maulik,
Kunal Singha and Lokesh Kumar
6.1 Introduction 124
6.2 History of Handloom Textile Industry 126
6.2.1 Independent Power Loom or Decentralized
Textile Sectors 127
6.3 Types of Weaving Traditions 127
6.4 Approaches to Rejuvenate the Handloom Weavers 129
6.5 The Performance-Based Factors for Handloom Sector 129
6.6 Challenges for Handloom Textile Waste 131
6.7 Opportunities Towards Handloom Textile Sector 131
6.8 Unraveling the Weaver’s Scenarios: A Case Study
on Bhagaiya, Jharkhand 132
6.8.1 Preparation of Ghicha Silk Yarns 133
6.8.2 Bobbin, Pirn Winding, and Weaving 133
6.8.3 Design Innovations and Market Analysis 136
6.8.4 SWOT Analysis of Bhagaiya Weaver’s, Jharkhand in India 138
6.9 Opportunities for Handloom Weavers Using
Natural Resources 139
6.9.1 Opportunities for Dyeing of Handloom Textile
Using Natural Waste Plant Resources 139
6.9.2 Opportunities for Value Added Handloom Fabric
Using Natural Resources 144
6.10 Conclusions 147
Acknowledgments 147
References 147

 
7 Business Paradigm Shifting: Opportunities in the 21st Century
on Fashion From Recycling and Upcycling 151
Pintu Pandit, Kunal Singha, Lokesh Kumar,
Sanjay Shrivastava and Vinayak Yashraj
7.1 Introduction 152
7.2 Importance of Recycling 152
7.2.1 Benefits of Recycling and Upcycling 153
7.2.2 The Creators of the Recycling and Upcycling World 154
7.3 Fast Fashion and Slow Fashion Consumers 154
7.4 Impact of Fast Fashion in the Development of Sustainable
Materials 155
7.5 Sustainable Fabrics 156
7.6 Challenges in Designing With Post-Consumer Clothes 158
7.7 Market for Recycled Fashion Garments 159
7.8 Indian Upcycling/Recycling Brands: Case Study 160
7.9 International Upcycling/Recycling Brands: Case Study 161
7.10 Fashion Designers: Keeping Textiles and Fashion Alive 164
7.11 Future Prospective for the Fashion Illustration 166
7.11.1 Concept 1. Installation: Rekha (The Lines) 166
7.11.2 Concept 2. Installation: The Voice of First Rainfall 167
7.11.3 Concept 3. Installation: Terraforming 167
7.11.4 Concept 4. Installation: Psychedelic 169
7.12 Current and Future Scope of Industry 170
7.13 Conclusions 174
Acknowledgments 174
References 175

 
8 Sustainability in Fashion and Textile 177
Pintu Pandit, Bhagyashri N. Annaldewar, Akanksha Nautiyal,
Saptarshi Maiti and Kunal Singha
8.1 Introduction 177
8.2 Sustainability 178
8.2.1 People: The Social Pillar of Sustainability 179
8.2.2 Planet: The Environmental Pillar
of Sustainability 179
8.2.3 Profit: The Economic Pillar of Sustainability 179
8.3 Environmental and Social Impacts of Textile and Fashion
Industry 180
8.4 Sustainability in Fashion and Textiles 182
8.5 Sustainable Solutions in Textile and Fashion 182
8.5.1 Going Organic Way 182
8.5.2 Textile Waste: Recycle, Reduce, and Reuse 182
8.5.2.1 Recycle 183
8.5.2.2 Reuse 184
8.5.2.3 Reduce 184
8.5.3 Upcycling 185
8.5.4 Slow Fashion Versus Fast Fashion 185
8.5.5 Sustainable Wet Processing of Fabrics 186
8.5.6 Eco-Finishing and Bio-Processing of Textiles 187
8.6 Advance Technologies 188
8.6.1 Foam Technology 188
8.6.2 Supercritical Dyeing of Textiles 188
8.6.3 Plasma Technology 189
8.6.4 Microwave Energy in Textile Wet Processing 189
8.7 Eco-Labeling 189
8.8 Barriers in Sustainable Fashion and Textiles 190
8.9 Economic Issues and Product Design 190
8.10 Sustainable Fashion Fibers 190
8.10.1 Cartina 191
8.10.2 Coffee Ground Fibers 191
8.10.3 Orange Fiber 191
8.10.4 Piñatex 192
8.10.5 Polylana 192
8.10.6 Seacell 193
8.10.7 QMilk Fibers 193
8.11 Technological and Sustainable Measures Under
the Fashion Industry 193
8.12 Conclusions 194
References 195

 
9 Sustainable Strategies From Waste for Fashion and Textile 199
Kunal Singha, Pintu Pandit, Subhankar Maity,
Rajni Srivasatava and Jayant Kumar
9.1 Introduction 199
9.1.1 The Problems With Unsustainable Fabrics 200
9.1.2 Factors Affecting Sustainable Fashion 200
9.1.3 Sustainable Development in Beauty Over the Years 202
9.2 Sustainable Fashion for Brands 203
9.2.1 Example of Sustainable Fashion Brands 203
9.3 Sustainability and Internal Organization-Marketing
Strategies 204
9.4 Conclusions 210
References 211
10 Utilization of Natural Waste for Textile Coloration—
Innovative Approach for Sustainability 215
Pradnya Prashant Ambre and Pintu Pandit
10.1 Introduction 216
10.2 Natural Dyes for Their Soothing Shades 218
10.2.1 Natural Dyes for Sustainability 218
10.2.2 Utilization of Natural Waste for Coloration 219
10.3 Research Studies for Potential Use of Natural Colorants 220
10.4 Functional Health Care Properties of Natural Dyes
and Natural Mordants 222
10.5 Innovative Approach Towards Utilization of Natural Waste 225
10.5.1 Indigo—Potential Natural Dye 226
10.6 Conclusion 230
References 231
11 Circular Economy in Fashion and Textile From Waste 235
Subhankar Maity, Kunal Singha, Pintu Pandit and Amal Ray
11.1 Introduction 236
11.2 Linear Economy 236
11.3 Shortcomings of Linear Economy 238
11.4 Circular Economy 238
11.5 Principles of Circular Economy 241
11.5.1 Need for Circular Economy in Textile
and Fashion Industry 242
11.5.2 Benefits of Circular Economy 244
11.5.3 Current Challenges for Circular Economy 245
11.5.4 Opportunities 247
11.6 Conclusion 248
References 249
12 Marketing Strategies for Upcycling and Recycling of Textile
and Fashion 253
Suruchi Pandey, Pintu Pandit, Ritu Pandey and Sanjay Pandey
12.1 Introduction 253
12.2 Marketing Mix 255
12.2.1 Product 256
12.2.2 Price 257
12.2.3 Place 258
12.2.4 Promotion 258
12.3 Market Analysis 259
12.3.1 Industry Overview 260
12.3.2 Target Market 260
12.3.3 Competition 261
12.3.4 Pricing and Forecast 261
12.4 Marketing Strategies for Upcycling and Recycling Textile
and Fashion 263
12.4.1 Position Defense Strategy 266
12.4.2 Flanker Strategy 266
12.4.3 Confrontation Strategy 266
12.4.4 Market Expansion Strategy 267
12.5 Innovative Ways to Market 268
12.6 Conclusions 273
References 274
13 Economical and Sustainable Price Sensitive Fashion
and Apparels Marketplace 277
M. D. Teli, Pintu Pandit and Kunal Singha
13.1 Introduction 278
13.2 Sustainable Business Strategies for Fashion Industry 278
13.3 Materials and Methods 280
13.3.1 Steps Involved in Upcycling of Garments 280
13.3.1.1 Collection of the Old Garments 280
13.3.1.2 Segregation of the Old Garments 280
13.3.1.3 Cleaning of Old Garments 280
13.3.1.4 Refurbishing of Old Garments 280
13.3.1.5 Visual Testing and Analysis of Garments 281
13.3.1.6 Cost Analysis 281
13.3.2 Results and Discussions 281
13.4 Low-Cost Sustainable Upcycling Based on Waste Natural
Resources 289
13.5 The Sustainable Fashion Communication Model 290
13.6 Marketing Landscape of Low Cost Fashion and Apparel
Consumable Products 291
13.7 Conclusions 295
References 296
14 Sustainability Innovations Coupled in Textile and Fashion 299
Vikas Kumar, Kunal Singha, Pintu Pandit,
Jayant Kumar and Subhankar Maity
14.1 Introduction 299
14.2 Life Cycle Perspective 300
14.2.1 Cotton 303
14.2.2 Synthetics (Non-Cellulosic) 303
14.2.3 New Fibers 304
14.3 Sustainability in Textile Industry 306
14.3.1 Technological Developments in Tagging 308
14.3.2 Technological Power to the People 308
14.3.3 Application of Textile Finishes 310
14.3.4 Thermal Regulation Finishes 310
14.3.5 Easy Care Finishes 310
14.3.6 Self-Cleaning Finishes 310
14.3.7 Super Absorbent Finishes 311
14.3.8 Medical, Cosmetic, and Odor-Resistant Finishes 311
14.3.9 Hydrophobic and Oleophobic Finishes 312
14.3.10 Ultraviolet Protection Finishes 312
14.3.11 Radiation Protection Finishes 313
14.3.12 Biological and Chemical Protection Finishes 313
14.3.13 Ballistic and Stab Protection Finishes 313
14.3.14 High Performance Apparel 314
14.4 Future Textiles for Space Age Materials 315
14.4.1 New Fibers and New Look 316
14.4.2 Space Suit 316
14.4.3 End of Life 316
14.5 Conclusions 317
References 318
15 Future Mobilizations and Paths of Waste—Towards
Best Solution 321
Subhankar Maity, Manoj Kumar Mondal, Pintu Pandit
and Kunal Singha
15.1 Introduction 322
15.2 Waste Management Hierarchy 323
15.2.1 Prevention 323
15.2.2 Minimization 324
15.2.3 Reuse 324
15.2.4 Recycling 324
15.2.5 Energy Recovery 324
15.2.6 Disposal 325
15.3 Textile Materials 325
15.3.1 Textile Solid Waste 326
15.3.2 Strategies of Textile Waste Management 326
15.4 Circular Economy/Zero Waste 327
15.4.1 Resell and Reuse of Textiles 328
15.4.2 Recycling of Textile Waste 329
15.4.2.1 Mechanical Process of Recycling
Textile Waste 330
15.4.2.2 Chemical Processes of Textile Recycling 330
15.4.3 Innovation in Textile Waste Management 331
15.4.4 Sustainability in Textiles 333
15.5 Energy from Waste Strategies 336
15.6 Challenges 337
15.7 Conclusions 337
References 338
16 Golden Fiber Jute: A Treasurable Sustainable Material 341
Amarish Dubey, Vinay Kumar Chauhan, Ritu Pandey,
Mayank Manjul Dubey and Sanjoy Debnath
16.1 Introduction 342
16.2 Jute Cultivation, Distribution, and Production 343
16.3 Indian Jute Industry: An Overview of Glitches
and Compensations 345
16.4 Environmental Aspects of Jute 346
16.5 Traditional Applications of Jute 347
16.6 Scientific Mechanical Applications of Jute 348
16.7 Electrical and Electrochemical Applications of Jute 349
16.8 Geotextile Application of Jute 350
16.9 Agro Textile Application of Jute 350
16.10 Medical Textiles Applications of Jute 351
16.11 Jute as a Replacement of Wood 352
16.12 Jute Paper Pulp 353
16.13 Bioenergy Application of Jute 353
16.14 Value Addition of Jute Fibers 355
16.14.1 Blending Process in Jute 355
16.14.2 Chemical Treatment Process in Jute 356
16.15 Conclusion 356
Acknowledgement 357
References 357 

 
17 Sustainable Isolation of Natural Dyes from Plant Wastes
for Textiles 363
Shahid Adeel, Nimra Amin, Fazal-ur-Rehman,
Tanvir Ahmad, Fatima Batool and Atya Hassan
17.1 Introduction 364
17.2 Classification of Natural Dyes 364
17.3 Medicinal Uses of Natural Colorants 364
17.3.1 Alizarin 364
17.3.2 Berberine 365
17.3.3 Bixin 366
17.3.4 Brazilein 368
17.3.5 Carotenoids 368
17.3.6 Carminic Acid 369
17.3.7 Carotene 370
17.3.8 Crocetin and Crocin 371
17.3.9 Curcumin 371
17.3.10 Ellagic Acid 372
17.3.11 Indigoids 373
17.3.12 Indigo 373
17.3.13 Juglone 374
17.3.14 Lawsone 374
17.3.15 Lycopene 375
17.3.16 Morin 375
17.3.17 Quercetin 376
17.4 Mordanting of Natural Dye 376
17.4.1 Pre-Mordanting 377
17.4.2 Meta-Mordanting 377
17.4.3 Post-Mordanting 377
17.5 Chemical Mordanting 377
17.6 Biomordanting 377
17.7 Recent Advances Used in Natural Dyes 378
17.7.1 Conventional Method 378
17.7.2 Modern Methods 379
17.7.3 Ultrasonic Radiation 379
17.7.4 Microwave Radiations 380
17.7.5 Gamma Radiation 381
17.7.6 Ultraviolet Radiation 381
17.8 Different Plant Source of Natural Dyes 381
17.8.1 Harmal Plant (Peganum harmala) 381
17.8.2 Arjun (Terminalia arjuna) 382
17.8.3 Neem 383
17.8.4 Coconut Coir (Cocos Nucifera) 384
17.8.5 Logwood (Haemtoxylum campechianum) 384
17.8.6 Process Optimization 385
17.9 Conclusion 385
References 385

 
18 Agro-Waste Applications for Bioremediation
of Textile Effluents 391
Shumaila Kiran, Tanvir Ahmad, Tahsin Gulzar, Asma Ashraf,
Syed Ali Raza Naqvi and Saba Naz
18.1 Introduction 392
18.2 Wastewater Treatment 392
18.2.1 Physical Methods 393
18.2.2 Chemical Methods 393
18.2.3 Biological Methods 393
18.3 Agro-Waste Materials 393
18.3.1 Composition of Agro-Waste Material 394
18.3.2 Sources of Agro-Waste Materials 394
18.4 Kinds of Agro-Waste Materials 395
18.4.1 Straws 396
18.4.1.1 Role of Different Types of Straw
in Wastewater Treatment 396
18.4.2 Leaves Powder 398
18.4.2.1 Role of Different Plant Leaves
in Treatment of Wastewater 398
18.4.3 Stems 401
18.4.3.1 Role of Stems in Textile Water
Remediation 401
18.4.4 Barks 403
18.4.4.1 Role of Different Barks in Treatment
Methods of Textile Wastewater 404
18.4.5 Nut Shells 404
18.4.5.1 Role of Nutshells in Wastewater
Remediation 407
18.4.6 Peels 407
18.4.6.1 Role of Peels in Textile Water Treatment 408
18.4.7 Bagasse 409
18.4.7.1 Role of Bagasse in Effluent Treatment
Methods 410
18.4.8 Husks 411
18.4.8.1 Role of Different Husks in Wastewater
Treatment 411
18.5 Conclusion 412
References 412

 
19 An Insight Into Herbal-Based Natural Dyes: Isolation
and Applications 423
Shahid Adeel, Mahwish Salman, Ameer Fawad Zahoor,
Muhammad Usama and Nimra Amin
19.1 Introduction 424
19.2 Classification of Natural Dye 424
19.2.1 Animal-Based Natural Dyes 424
19.2.2 Plant-Based Natural Dyes 424
19.2.3 Mineral-Based Natural Dyes 425
19.2.4 Microbial-Based and Fungal-Based Natural Dyes 425
19.3 Extraction of Natural Dye 426
19.3.1 Conventional Method 426
19.3.1.1 Aqueous Extraction 426
19.3.1.2 Acid and Alkaline Extraction 426
19.3.1.3 Solvent Extraction 426
19.3.2 Modern Method 427
19.3.2.1 Ultrasonic and Microwave Extraction 427
19.3.2.2 Enzymatic Extraction 427
19.3.2.3 Supercritical Fluid Extraction 427
19.4 Mordanting 427
19.4.1 Chemical Mordanting 428
19.4.2 Biomordanting 428
19.5 Herbal-Based Dye Yielding Plants 428
19.5.1 Marigold 429
19.5.2 Pomegranate 431
19.5.3 Safflower 432
19.5.4 Acacia 434
19.5.5 Neem 436
19.5.6 Arjun 438
19.5.7 Saffron 439
19.5.8 Hermal 441
19.5.9 Turmeric 442
19.5.10 Annatto 443
19.5.11 Madder 445
19.5.12 Ratanjot 446
19.6 Conclusion 448
References 448
Index 457

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