Textile Handbook PDF by The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association

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Textile Handbook
By The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association
Textile Handbook

Brief Content:
Chapter 1 Textile Fibres
Chapter 2 Spinning Processes and Types of Yarn
Charter 3 Weaving and Woven Fabrics
Chapter 4 Knitting and Knitted Fabrics
Chapter 5 Textile Coloration and Finishing Treatments
Chapter 6 Textiles Testing and Quality Control
Appendix 1 Business Strategies for the Textile and Apparel
Appendix 2 Web Sites Related To Textiles
Appendix 3 The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association 2000/2001
Member List
Appendix 4 The Hong Kong Cotton Spinners Association
Committee Members of 2000/2001
Appendix 5 Chairman and Vice Chairman List of the Hong Kong
Cotton Spinners Association

Details Contents:
Chapter 1
Textile Fibres ......................................... 1-2
Section 1 Fibres Commonly Used for Texilies and Clothing 1-2
1.1 Classification of Textile Fibres ........................................... 1-2
1.2 Natural Fibres ..................................................................... 1-2
1.2.1 Cotton ............................................................................. 1-2
1.2.2 Flax (Linen) .................................................................... 1-4
1.2.3 Jute ................................................................................. 1-5
1.2.4 Ramie ............................................................................. 1-5
1.2.5 Silk ................................................................................. 1-5
1.2.6 Wool ............................................................................... 1-6
1.2.7 Hair ................................................................................. 1-7
1.2.8 Asbestos ......................................................................... 1-8
1.3 Man-made Fibres ................................................................ 1-9
1.3.1 Acetate ............................................................................ 1-9
1.3.2 Acrylic ............................................................................ 1-9
1.3.3 Nylon .............................................................................. 1-10
1.3.4 Polyester ......................................................................... 1-10
1.3.5 Rayon (Viscose Rayon) .................................................. 1-11
1.3.6 Spandex .......................................................................... 1-12
1.3.7 Olefin .............................................................................. 1-13
1.4 Microscopic Appearance of Common Textile Fibres ....... 1-14
Section 2 Fibre Properties ......................................................... 1-18
2.1 Desirable Fibre Properties ................................................. 1-18
2.1.1 Fibre length .................................................................... 1-18
2.1.2 Cross-sectional shape and surface .................................. 1-18
2.1.3 Straightness .................................................................... 1-18
2.1.4 Strength .......................................................................... 1-18
2.1.5 Extensibility and elasticity ............................................. 1-18
2.1.6 Hand feel ........................................................................ 1-19
2.1.7 Plasticity ......................................................................... 1-19
2.1.8 Absorbency .................................................................... 1-19
2.1.9 Abrasion resistance ........................................................ 1-19
2.1.10 Resiliency ....................................................................... 1-19
2.1.11 Lustre .............................................................................. 1-19
2.1.12 Density ........................................................................... 1-19
2.1.13 Wicking .......................................................................... 1-20
2.2 Important Characteristics and Major End-use of Textile
Fibres .................................................................................... 1-21
2.3 Examples of Commercial Names and Manufacturers of
Man-Made Fibres ............................................................... 1-25
2.4 Properties of Major Textile Fibres .................................... 1-30
2.5 Chemical Resistance of Fibres ........................................... 1-31
Section 3 Types of Cotton .......................................................... 1-32
3.1 Kinds and Types of Cotton ................................................. 1-32
3.1.1 The Features and Characteristics of the Three
Principal Cotton Fibre Groups ....................................... 1-33
3.1.2 Structure and Properties of Cotton Fibre ....................... 1-34
3.1.3 Composition of Cotton Fibre .......................................... 1-35
3.1.4 Chemical Composition of Cotton Fibre .......................... 1-35
3.1.5 Physical Properties of Cotton Fibre (Upland Cotton) .... 1-36
3.1.6 Chemical Properties of Cotton Fibre .............................. 1-37
3.2 Classification of Cotton ...................................................... 1-38
3.2.1 Classification of Upland Cotton ..................................... 1-38
3.3 Cotton Species ..................................................................... 1-44
3.3.1 Upland Cotton ................................................................ 1-45
3.3.2 Sea-island Cotton ........................................................... 1-45
3.3.3 Peruvian Cotton .............................................................. 1-45
3.3.4 Asiatic Rough Cotton ..................................................... 1-45
3.3.5 Tree Cotton ..................................................................... 1-45
3.4 World Cotton Classification and Standard ...................... 1-46
3.5 Chinese Cotton Specification ............................................. 1-47
3.5.1 Chinese Cotton Grading ................................................. 1-47 .
3.5.2 Length ............................................................................ 1-48
3.6 Indian Cotton Grading ....................................................... 1-50
3.7 Pakistan Cotton Grading ................................................... 1-51
3.8 Influence of the Fibre Characteristics of the Yarn .......... 1-51
3.9 Other Disturbing Factors in the Yarn Manufacturing
Process .................................................................................. 1-53
3.9.1 Stickiness ........................................................................ 1-53
3.9.2 Cotton Contamination .................................................... 1-55
3.10 Relationship between Fibre Length, Fineness and Yarn
Count to be Spun ................................................................ 1-64
Section 4 World Cotton Production ......................................... 1-65
4.1 World Cotton Production and Related Statistics ............. 1-65
4.2 The World’s Major Cotton Growing Areas ...................... 1-73
4.2.1 China .............................................................................. 1-74
4.2.2 United States .................................................................. 1-75
4.2.3 India ................................................................................ 1-76
4.2.4 Pakistan .......................................................................... 1-77
4.2.5 Australia ......................................................................... 1-78
4.2.6 Republic of Uzbekistan .................................................. 1-79
Section 5 Man-Made Fibre Production ................................... 1-80
5.1 Methods of Man-Made Fibre Spinning ............................ 1-80
5.1.1 Wet Spinning .................................................................. 1-80
5.1.2 Dry Spinning .................................................................. 1-81
5.1.3 Melt Spinning ................................................................. 1-81
5.1.4 Gel Spinning ................................................................... 1-83
5.2 The Processing of Tow ........................................................ 1-84
Section 6 New Developement of Textile Fibres ....................... 1-85
6.1 Microfibres .......................................................................... 1-85
6.1.1 Direct Spinning .............................................................. 1-85
6.1.2 Splittable Fibres ............................................................. 1-85
6.1.3 Mechanically Splittable Bicomponents .......................... 1-86
6.1.4 Solvent Splittable Bicomponents ................................... 1-86
6.1.5 Uses for Microfibres ...................................................... 1-86
6.1.6 Shin-Gosen ..................................................................... 1-88
6.2 Lyocell .................................................................................. 1-89
6.2.1 TENCEL® ................................. 1-89
6.2.2 TENCEL® A100 ............................................................. 1-92
6.3 High Performance Fibres ................................................... 1-93
6.3.1 Aramids, Meta-aramid ................................................... 1-93
6.3.2 Para-aramid .................................................................... 1-94
6.3.3 Carbon Fibres — PAN and Pitch Based ......................... 1-94
6.3.4 Fluorocarbon Fibres (PTFE) .......................................... 1-94
6.3.5 Glass Fibre ..................................................................... 1-95
6.3.6 Melamine ........................................................................ 1-95
6.3.7 Polybenzimidazole — PBI ............................................. 1-95
6.3.8 Polyphenylenebenzobisoxazole — PBO1 ...................... 1-96
6.3.9 Cellulose acetate - MicroSafe ........................................ 1-96
6.3.10 Optical Fibres ................................................................. 1-96
6.3.11 Chitin, Chitosan (shells of crustacean) ........................... 1-97
6.4 Smart Technology for Textiles and Clothing .................... 1-97
6.4.1 Phase-Transition Materials and Polymer Crystals ......... 1-98
6.4.2 Smart Microcapsules/Microspheres ............................... 1-98
6.4.3 Smart Fibres for Measurement of Temperature,
Moisture and Strain ........................................................ 1-99
6.4.4 Shape Memory Polymers ............................................... 1-99
6.4.5 Smart Gels and Gel Fibres ............................................. 1-100

Chapter 2
Spinning Processes and Types of Yarn 2-2
Section 1 Blowing Room Process .............................................. 2-2
1.1 Purpose of Blowing Room Process .................................... 2-2
1.2 Bale Opening ....................................................................... 2-2
1.2.1 Features of some Automatic Bale Openers .................... 2-3
1.3 Cleaning ............................................................................... 2-5
1.3.1 Purpose of Cleaning ....................................................... 2-5
1.3.2 Feeding System .............................................................. 2-5
1.3.3 Features of Some Cleaning Machines ............................ 2-6
1.4 Blending ............................................................................... 2-9
1.4.1 Features of Mixer and Blender ....................................... 2-9
1.5 Machine Arrangements ...................................................... 2-11
1.5.1 Examples of Machines Layout of Blowing Room ......... 2-11
1.6 Foreign Substance Detector ............................................... 2-13
1.6.1 The Vision Shield (Jossi) ................................................ 2-14
1.6.2 Securomat (Truetzschler) ................................................ 2-15
1.6.3 Cotton Sorter RX-CS (Barco) ........................................ 2-15
1.6.4 Optiscan (Uster) ............................................................. 2-16
1.7 Maintenance Recommendations for Opening and
Cleaning Machines .............................................................. 2-17
1.7.1 Maintenance of Opening Room/Opening Hoppers ........ 2-17
1.7.2 Maintenance of Cleaners ................................................ 2-19
1.8 Trouble Shooting for Opening and Cleaning Machines .. 2-20
Section 2 Carding Process ......................................................... 2-25
2.1 Purpose of Carding ............................................................. 2-25
2.2 Carding Actions .................................................................. 2-26
2.3 Card Feeding System .......................................................... 2-27
2.3.1 Rieter Aerofeed U .......................................................... 2-27
2.3.2 Rieter UNIstore A 77 ...................................................... 2-28
2.3.3 Truetzschler Tuft Feeder Directfeed DFK...................... 2-29
2.3.4 Truetzschler Sensofeed ................................................... 2-30
2.3.5 Truetzschler Webfeed ..................................................... 2-30
2.4 Card Clothing ...................................................................... 2-31
2.5 Card Clothing Specifications ............................................. 2-33
2.5.1 ECC Card Clothing ........................................................ 2-33
2.5.2 Graf Card Clothing ......................................................... 2-36
2.5.3 Hollingsworth Card Clothing ......................................... 2-44
2.5.4 Kanai Card Clothing ...................................................... 2-48
2.7 Card Setting Recommendations ........................................ 2-58
2.7.1 Conventional Revolving Flat Card ................................. 2-58
2.7.2 Rieter C51 Card .............................................................. 2-59
2.7.3 Truetzschler DK-803 Card ............................................. 2-60
2.8 Grinding ............................................................................... 2-61
2.8.1 Grinding Intervals .......................................................... 2-61
2.8.2 Rieter Integrated Grinding System (IGS) ...................... 2-61
2.9 New Features on Carding Machine ................................... 2-66
2.9.1 Precision Flat Setting System (Truetzschler) ................. 2-66
2.9.2 Flat Distance Measuring System .................................... 2-67
2.9.3 Webclean System (Truetzschler) .................................... 2-68
2.9.4 On-line Nep Counting (Truetzschler) ............................. 2-69
2.9.5 TREXplus (Rieter) ......................................................... 2-70
2.10 Tandem Card....................................................................... 2-71
2.10.1 The New Twin Cylinder Card-Crosrol CST .................. 2-71
2.10.2 Technical Specification .................................................. 2-72
2.11 Production Calculations ..................................................... 2-73
2.12 Conversion of Grain Weight and Sliver Count ................ 2-74
2.13 Nep Counting ...................................................................... 2-74
2.13.1 Three Different Ways of Nep Counting ......................... 2-74
2.13.2 Nep Content of Card Web .............................................. 2-75
2.14 Uster AFIS N Application for Cotton Card
Maintenance ........................................................................ 2-76
2.15 Maintenance Recommendations ........................................ 2-77
2.15.1 Lubrication Schedule ..................................................... 2-77
2.15.2 Cleaning Procedures For High Production Carding
Equipment ...................................................................... 2-77
2.16 Troubleshooting................................................................... 2-80
Section 3 Drawing Process ........................................................ 2-85
3.1 Purpose of Drawing ............................................................ 2-85
3.2 Definition of Draft ............................................................... 2-85
3.3 Drafting Zone Setting ......................................................... 2-87
3.3.1 Technological Main Draft Roll Settings ......................... 2-87
3.3.2 Technological Break Draft Roll Setting ......................... 2-88
3.3.3 Draft Rolls Setting .......................................................... 2-89
3.3.4 Examples for Drafting System Setting of Rieters
Draw Frame .................................................................... 2-91
3.4 Trumpet ............................................................................... 2-92
3.5 Sliver Can ............................................................................ 2-93
3.5.1 Order Specifications for Cans ........................................ 2-93
3.5.2 Specifications for Can’s Bottom With Casters ............... 2-94
3.5.3 Sliver Can Information ................................................... 2-94
3.6 Auto Levelling System ........................................................ 2-99
3.6.1 Examples of some Auto Levelling Systems ................... 2-100
3.7 Recent Developments in Draw Frames ............................. 2-101
3.7.1 Integrated Draw Frame IDF ........................................... 2-101
3.7.2 CUBIcan Sliver Deposit System .................................... 2-103
3.7.3 Sliver Watch (Foreign Matter Detector) ......................... 2-103
3.8 Relationship between Sliver Weight and other
Parameters ........................................................................... 2-105
3.9 Production Rate per Delivery Head of Draw Frame ....... 2-106
3.10 Front Roller Surface Speed in Relation to Production
Rate ...................................................................................... 2-108
3.11 Relationship Between Sliver Weight and Production in
Hanks and Pounds .............................................................. 2-109
3.12 Conversion of Sliver Weight to Sliver Count ................... 2-110
3.13 Maintenance of Draw Frame ............................................. 2-111
3.14 Possible Causes of Drawn Sliver Defects .......................... 2-113
Section 4 Combing Process ....................................................... 2-115
4.1 Purpose of Combing ........................................................... 2-115
4.2 Combing Preparation ......................................................... 2-115
4.3 Combing Mechanism .......................................................... 2-119
4.3.1 Introduction .................................................................... 2-119
4.3.2 Operations ...................................................................... 2-119
4.4 Combing Components Specification ................................. 2-125
4.4.1 Combing Cylinder .......................................................... 2-125
4.4.2 Top Comb ....................................................................... 2-127
4.5 Examples of Input and Output of Combing Process ....... 2-128
4.6 Advanced Development and Automation in Combing .... 2-129
4.6.1 Computer Aided Process Development ......................... 2-129
4.6.2 SERVOlap E 6/4 - L ....................................................... 2-130
4.7 Possible Faults in Combing ................................................ 2-131
Section 5 Roving Process ........................................................... 2-133
5.1 Function of Roving Process ................................................ 2-133
5.2 Drafting System .................................................................. 2-133
5.2.1 In -feed Material ............................................................. 2-133
5.2.2 Total Draft ...................................................................... 2-133
5.2.3 Rear Draft ....................................................................... 2-134
5.2.4 Roller Loading ............................................................... 2-134
5.2.5 Top Roller Cots Grinding ............................................... 2-134
5.2.6 Roving Guide and Condensers ....................................... 2-134
5.3 Example of Drafting System on Speed Frame ................. 2-135
5.3.1 Zone Settings And Maximum Fibre Length ................... 2-136
5.3.2 Roller Loading ............................................................... 2-137
5.3.3 Top Apron Cradle System .............................................. 2-138
5.3.4 Opening at Apron Release Point .................................... 2-139
5.3.5 Top Aprons ..................................................................... 2-140
5.3.6 Top Roller Cots .............................................................. 2-141
5.3.7 Bottom Apron Nose Bar ................................................. 2-141
5.3.8 Rear Roving Guide ......................................................... 2-141
5.3.9 Rear Zone Condenser ..................................................... 2-142
5.3.10 Front Zone Condenser .................................................... 2-143
5.4 Roving Twist ........................................................................ 2-143
5.4.1 Relationship Between Fibre Fineness (Based On 1 Inch
Fibre Length) and Twist Factor of Roving ..................... 2-144
5.4.2 Factors Affecting Twist Factor of Roving ...................... 2-145
5.4.3 Relationship Between Fibre Length and Twist Factor
of Roving ........................................................................ 2-146
5.5 Flyer Speed and Roving Conditions .................................. 2-147
5.5.1 Flyer Speed ..................................................................... 2-147
5.5.2 Roving Weight ................................................................ 2-148
5.6 Bobbin Building .................................................................. 2-149
5.6.1 Bobbin Building Mechanism of Toyota Roving
Frame .............................................................................. 2-149
5.7 Roving Tension Adjustment ............................................... 2-152
5.8 Horizontal Coil Density of Roving .................................... 2-153
5.8.1 Horizontal Coiling Density and Roving Count .............. 2-153
5.9 Number of Coils of Roving ................................................. 2-154
5.10 Number of Coils Per Inch of Roving ................................. 2-155
5.11 Common Defects in Roving ................................................ 2-156
5.12 Factors Affecting Roving Elongation and Remedies ....... 2-158
5.13 Machine Automation .......................................................... 2-159
5.13.1 Automatic Doffing and Bobbin Transfer System
(RO-WE-MAT 670 Roving Frame, Zinser) ................... 2-159
5.13.2 Automatic Transfer System (Toyota) ............................. 2-160
Section 6 Spinning Process........................................................ 2-162
6.1 Purpose of Spinning ............................................................ 2-162
6.2 Process Flow Chart for Various Common Spinning
Systems ................................................................................. 2-162
6.3 Ring Spinning ...................................................................... 2-162
6.3.1 Drafting System ............................................................. 2-163
6.3.2 Draft zones ..................................................................... 2-164
6.3.3 Examples of Drafting System for Cotton Ring Frame ... 2-164
6.3.4 Top Roller Cots .............................................................. 2-172
6.3.5 Twisting .......................................................................... 2-179
6.3.6 Ring ................................................................................ 2-179
6.3.7 Traveller ......................................................................... 2-186
6.3.8 Wear and Life of the Traveller and Ring ........................ 2-191
6.3.9 Setting of Traveller Cleaner ........................................... 2-194
6.3.10 Traveller Speed in m/s .................................................... 2-197
6.3.11 Relationship between Inside Diameter of Ring, Spindle
Revolution and Traveller Circumferential Speed .......... 2-198
6.3.12 Relationship between Bobbin Diameter, Twist Number,
Spindle Revolution, and Traveller Revolution ............... 2-199
6.3.13 Relationship between Inside Diameter of Ring, Bobbin
Diameter and Winding Angle ......................................... 2-200
6.3.14 Ratio Values of Ring Diameter, Bobbin Diameter, Bobbin
Length And Spindle Gauge ............................................ 2-201
6.3.15 High Performance Ring and Traveller ........................... 2-203
6.3.16 Suessen Novibra Spindle HP-S 68 and Spindle
Bearing ........................................................................... 2-208
6.3.17 Bobbin Building ............................................................. 2-213
6.4 Open-End Spinning ............................................................ 2-218
6.4.1 Principle of Open-end Spinning ..................................... 2-218
6.4.2 Relationship between Rotor Speed, Rotor Type and Yarn
Count .............................................................................. 2-224
6.4.3 Layout of Spinning Components ................................... 2-225
6.4.4 Example of Recent Development in OE Spinning ......... 2-228
6.5 AIR-JET SPINNING .......................................................... 2-230
6.5.1 Processing Parameters and Fibre Characteristics for
Spinning 100% Cotton Yarn ........................................... 2-231
6.5.2 Muratec 851 MVS Air-jet Spinning Machine ................ 2-236
6.5.3 Muratec 804 RJS - Roller Jet Spinning .......................... 2-236
6.6 Various Developments in Spinning ................................... 2-237
6.6.1 Suessen Ring-Can Spinning System .............................. 2-237
6.6.2 Rieter ComforSpin ......................................................... 2-238
6.6.3 Suessen EliTe Yarn ......................................................... 2-239
6.6.4 Zinser Compact Yarn ...................................................... 2-241
Section 7 Winding Process ........................................................ 2-243
7.1 Purpose of Winding ............................................................ 2-243
7.2 Knotting Mechanism .......................................................... 2-243
7.3 Air Splicing Mechanism ..................................................... 2-246
7.4 Correct Build of Ring Cops ................................................ 2-247
7.4.1 Causes of Sloughing ....................................................... 2-247
7.4.2 Optimum Shaping of Spinning Bobbin .......................... 2-248
7.4.3 Balloon Breaker ............................................................. 2-250
7.5 Measures to Prevent Ribbon Winding .............................. 2-251
7.5.1 Ribbon Winding ............................................................. 2-251
7.5.2 Measures to Prevent Ribbon Winding ............................ 2-252
7.5.3 Contact Pressure ............................................................. 2-252
7.5.4 Ribbon Breaker Interval ................................................. 2-253
7.5.5 Tension ........................................................................... 2-256
7.5.6 Increase (dish) ................................................................ 2-256
7.5.7 Drum .............................................................................. 2-257
7.6 Balloon Control and Tensioning Device ............................ 2-258
7.6.1 Tension Manager and Bal-Con (Muratec) ...................... 2-258
7.6.2 Autotense Yarn Tension Control (Autoconer338) .......... 2-259
7.7 Calculation of Package Density ......................................... 2-261
7.8 Measures Against Excessive Yarn Breakage .................... 2-263
7.9 Causes and Corrective Actions for Poor Winding ........... 2-264
7.10 Electronic Yarn Clearer ...................................................... 2-267
7.11 Conversion Graph of Peyer and UAM ............................. 2-269
7.12 Correlation Between Material and Type of Yarn by the
Static Electricity Amount ................................................... 2-270
7.13 Material Setting of Uster UAM Yarn Clearer .................. 2-271
7.14 Types of Yarn Faults ........................................................... 2-271
Section 8 Twisting Process ........................................................ 2-273
8.1 Up Twister ........................................................................... 2-273
8.2 Ring Twister ........................................................................ 2-273
8.3 Two-for-One Twisting ......................................................... 2-274
8.3.1 Two-for-One Principle ................................................... 2-274
8.3.2 Characteristics of Two-for-One Twisting ....................... 2-275
8.3.3 Tritec Twister .................................................................. 2-275
8.4 Twisting Parameter ............................................................. 2-277
Section 9 Application of Information Technology in
Spinning ....................................................................... 2-283
9.1 ABC-Control for Blow Room and Carding ...................... 2-283
9.2 Spiderweb : The Mill Data and Information System ...... 2-284
9.3 Barco Sycotex System ......................................................... 2-286
9.4 Uster Labdata ...................................................................... 2-286
Section 10 Special Types of Yarns ............................................ 2-287
10.1 Production of Rough-Spun (Slub and Neps) Yarn on
Conventional Equipment ................................................... 2-287
10.1.1 Introduction .................................................................... 2-287
10.1.2 Machinery Settings ......................................................... 2-287
10.1.3 Maintenance ................................................................... 2-288
10.1.4 Other Considerations ...................................................... 2-288
10.2 Recommendation for Producing Linen-Look Yarn on
Conventional Equipment ................................................... 2-290
10.2.1 Operating Procedures ....................................................... 2-290
10.2.2 Experiment Details ......................................................... 2-291
10.3 Slub Effect Yarn with Amsler GOE Device on OE Spinning
Machine ............................................................................... 2-293
10.3.1 Function .......................................................................... 2-293
10.4 Amsler Cortex System ........................................................ 2-295
10.4.1 Features .......................................................................... 2-295
10.5 Core Spun Yarn by Plyfil Spinning System ...................... 2-297
10.5.1 Equipment for Hard Core Yarns ..................................... 2-297
10.5.2 Equipment for Soft Core Yarns ...................................... 2-298
10.5.3 The advantages of PLYfiL ............................................. 2-300
10.6 Parallel Yarn by Parafil Spinning System ........................ 2-301
10.6.1 Structure of Parallel Yarn ............................................... 2-301
10.6.2 Properties of Parallel Yarn .............................................. 2-302
Section 11 Wool Spinning Process ............................................ 2-304
11.1 Worsted System ................................................................... 2-304
11.1.1 The Worsted Spinning Process Flow .............................. 2-304
11.1.2 Scouring ......................................................................... 2-304
11.1.3 Drying ............................................................................ 2-304
11.1.4 Oiling .............................................................................. 2-305
11.1.5 Carding ........................................................................... 2-305
11.1.6 Backwashing .................................................................. 2-305
11.1.7 Combing ......................................................................... 2-305
11.1.8 Gilling ............................................................................ 2-306
11.1.9 Drawing .......................................................................... 2-306
11.1.10 Spinning ......................................................................... 2-306
11.2 Woollen System ................................................................... 2-306
11.2.1 Woollen Spinning Process Flow .................................... 2-306
11.2.2 Scouring and drying ....................................................... 2-307
11.2.3 Carbonizing .................................................................... 2-307
11.2.4 Dyeing ............................................................................ 2-307
11.2.5 Blending ......................................................................... 2-307
11.2.6 Oiling .............................................................................. 2-307
11.2.7 Carding ........................................................................... 2-307
11.2.8 Spinning ......................................................................... 2-307
Section 12 Texturing .................................................................. 2-308
12.1 Purpose of Texturing .......................................................... 2-308
12.2 False Twist Method ............................................................. 2-308
12.3 Edge-Crimped Yarns .......................................................... 2-310
12.4 Stuffer-Box Crimping ......................................................... 2-311
12.5 Air-Textured Yarns ............................................................. 2-312
12.6 Knit-De-Knit Method ......................................................... 2-313
12.7 Gear Crimping .................................................................... 2-313
12.8 Twist-Textured Yarns .......................................................... 2-313

Chapter 3
Weaving and Woven Fabrics... ............ 3-2
Section 1 Warp Preparation Process........................................ 3-2
1.1 Warping Process ................................................................. 3-2
1.1.1 Direct Beaming .............................................................. 3-2
1.1.2 Section Warping ............................................................. 3-2
1.1.3 Ball Warping ................................................................... 3-3
1.2 Warping Data ...................................................................... 3-3
1.3 Examples of Machine Settings for Warping ..................... 3-5
1.4 Recent Development in Sectional Warping Machine ...... 3-5
1.5 Defects and Possible Causes in Direct Beaming ............... 3-6
1.6 Warp Preparation for Rope Dyeing .................................. 3-9
1.6.1 Ball Warper Specification ............................................. 3-9
1.6.2 Ball Warping Process Parameters ................................... 3-9
1.6.3 Rope Dyeing ................................................................... 3-10
1.6.4 Typical Recipe of Master Solution for Rope Dyeing ..... 3-11
1.6.5 Technical Features of Rope Dyeing Range .................... 3-12
1.6.6 Processing Parameters for Re-Beaming Of Rope
Dyeing ............................................................................ 3-13
1.7 Slasher Dyeing ..................................................................... 3-13
1.7.1 Warping Requirements ................................................... 3-14
1.7.2 Typical Recipes of Master Solution for Slasher Dyeing 3-15
1.7.3 Slasher Dyeing Processing Parameters .......................... 3-16
1.8 Rope Dyeing Versus Slasher Dyeing.................................. 3-16
1.8.1 Characteristics of Rope Dyeing ..................................... 3-16
1.8.2 Disadvantages of Rope Dyeing ...................................... 3-17
Section 2 Warp Sizing ............................................................... 3-19
2.1 Purpose of Warp Sizing ...................................................... 3-19
2.2 Warp Size Types and Properties ........................................ 3-19
2.2.1 Warp Size Types And Properties .................................... 3-19
2.2.2 Size Auxiliary Chemicals ............................................... 3-23
2.3 Sizing Agents and Applications .......................................... 3-25
2.4 Examples of Recipes of Sizing Solution ............................ 3-25
2.4.1 Protein Sizes ................................................................... 3-25
2.4.2 Starch Sizes .................................................................... 3-25
2.4.3 Cellulose Ether Sizes ...................................................... 3-26
2.4.4 Polyvinyl Alcohol Sizes ................................................. 3-26
2.4.5 Acrylate Copolymer Sizes .............................................. 3-27
2.5 Comparison of the Properties of Four Types of Sizing
Agent .................................................................................... 3-27
2.6 Emulsified Oil, Liquid Wax and Solid Wax ..................... 3-28
2.7 Manufacturers and Brand of Commonly Used Liquid
Wax....................................................................................... 3-28
2.8 Size Defects and Possible Causes ....................................... 3-29
2.9 Sizing Process Defects and Possible Causes ..................... 3-30
2.10 Example of Warp Tension for Cotton Yarn during
Sizing .................................................................................... 3-34
2.11 Guidelines for the Sizing of Denim .................................... 3-35
2.11.1 Size Requirements .......................................................... 3-35
2.11.2 Causes of Faults in Sizing and its Solutions .................. 3-35
2.12 Recent Development in Sizing ........................................... 3-37
2.12.1 Wetsize Box SC (Sucker-Mueller-Hacoba) .................... 3-37
2.12.2 Ben-ecosize (Benninger) ................................................ 3-37
Section 3 Weaving Preparation ................................................ 3-38
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 3-38
3.1.1 Leasing ........................................................................... 3-38
3.1.2 Drawing-in ..................................................................... 3-38
3.2 Specifications of Heald Wires ............................................ 3-38
3.3 Specifications of Drop Wire ............................................... 3-40
3.4 Reed ...................................................................................... 3-43
3.5 Tying-in ................................................................................ 3-44
3.6 Recent Development in Weaving Preparation ................. 3-44
3.6.1 Quick Style Change in Weaving .................................... 3-44
3.6.2 The Process Flow of a QSC System .............................. 3-44
Section 4 Weaving ...................................................................... 3-47
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 3-47
4.2 Basic Motions of A Weaving Machine ............................... 3-47
4.2.1 Shuttle Loom .................................................................. 3-47
4.2.2 Shuttleless Looms .......................................................... 3-48
4.2.3 Useful Calculation Formulae for Weaving ..................... 3-54
Section 5 Woven Fabric Features ............................................. 3-56
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 3-56
5.2 Warp and Weft Yarns ......................................................... 3-56
5.3 Selvedges .............................................................................. 3-57
5.3.1 Selvedge Structure for Conventional Loom ...................... 3-58
5.3.2 Selvedge Problem .............................................................. 3-62
5.4 Yarns Per Unit Length ........................................................ 3-62
5.5 Face and Back ..................................................................... 3-63
5.6 Top and Bottom ................................................................... 3-63
Section 6 Woven Structure ........................................................ 3-64
6.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 3-64
6.2 Plain Weave ......................................................................... 3-64
6.2.1 Characteristics ................................................................ 3-64
6.2.2 Ribbed Plain Fabrics ...................................................... 3-65
6.2.3 Plain Weave Derivative .................................................. 3-66
6.3 Twill Weave ......................................................................... 3-67
6.3.1 Characteristics ................................................................ 3-69
6.3.2 Broken Twill Weave ....................................................... 3-70
6.4 Satin Weave ......................................................................... 3-70
6.4.1 Satin-Weave Fabric ........................................................ 3-71
6.4.2 Sateen Fabric .................................................................. 3-71
6.4.3 Characteristics ................................................................ 3-72
6.5 Comparison of Basic Weave Properties ............................ 3-72
6.6 Special Weave Sturctures ................................................... 3-72
6.6.1 Pile Weaves .................................................................... 3-72
6.6.2 Double-cloth Weave ....................................................... 3-75
6.6.3 Crepe Weave ................................................................... 3-75
6.6.4 Leno Weave .................................................................... 3-76
6.6.5 Swivel Weave ................................................................. 3-76
6.7 Woven Pattern Design ........................................................ 3-77
6.7.1 Introduction .................................................................... 3-77
6.7.2 Dobby Pattern ................................................................. 3-77
6.7.3 Jacquard Pattern ............................................................. 3-78
6.8 A Summary of Special Weaves and their Characteristics 3-79
Section 7 Woven Fabric Analysis ............................................. 3-81
7.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 3-81
7.2 Identification of the Construction of a Fabric ................. 3-81
7.3 Determining Yarn Counts of a Fabric ............................... 3-82
7.4 Fabric Weight ...................................................................... 3-82
7.4.1 Expression of Fabric Weight .......................................... 3-82
7.4.2 Fabric Weight Calculation .............................................. 3-82
7.5 Converting Fabric Weight from one System to Another . 3-83
7.6 Weight of Silk Fabric .......................................................... 3-84
7.7 Woven Fabric Design .......................................................... 3-84
7.7.1 Cloth Setting Theories .................................................... 3-84
7.7.2 Similarly Built Cloths .................................................... 3-89
7.7.3 Other Expression of Setting ........................................... 3-91
7.8 Fabric Cover ........................................................................ 3-92
7.8.1 Cover and Cover Factor (F.T. Peirce) ............................ 3-92
7.8.2 Cloth Cover Factor ......................................................... 3-94

Chapter 4
Knitting and Knitted Fabrics .............. 4-2
Section 1 Knitting ..................................................................... 4-2
1.1 Knitting Process .................................................................. 4-2
1.2 Weft-Knitting ...................................................................... 4-2
1.3 Weft Knitting Machines ..................................................... 4-3
1.3.1 Two Types of Knitting Machines Using Beard Needles 4-3
1.3.2 Two Types of Knitting Machines Using Latch Needles 4-4
1.4 Key Components for Weft Knitted Fabric Formation .... 4-5
1.4.1 Knitting Needles ............................................................. 4-5
1.4.2 Needle Bed ..................................................................... 4-6
1.4.4 Yarn Feeding .................................................................. 4-7
1.4.3 Cam Box......................................................................... 4-7
1.4.5 Sinker ............................................................................. 4-8
1.4.6 Key Terms of Knitted Fabric .......................................... 4-9
1.5 Stitch (loop) Formation Sequence on a Latch Needle ..... 4-10
1.6 Types of Knitting Stitches .................................................. 4-11
1.6.1 Plain Stitch ..................................................................... 4-11
1.6.2 Miss Stitch (Welt or float) .............................................. 4-11
1.6.3 Tuck Stitch ..................................................................... 4-11
1.7 Recent Developments in Weft Knitting ............................. 4-12
1.7.1 Examples of Recent Developments in Flat Knitting
Machines ........................................................................ 4-13
1.7.2 Examples of Recent Developments in Circular Knitting
machines ......................................................................... 4-14
Section 2 Typical Weft-Knit Structure..................................... 4-17
2.1 Methods Used to Represent Weft-Knitted Structures ..... 4-17
2.1.1 Three Kinds of Methods used to Represent Weft
Knitted Structure ............................................................ 4-17
2.2 Single Knit Structures ........................................................ 4-18
2.2.1 Plain Knit. ...................................................................... 4-18
2.2.2 Lacoste ........................................................................... 4-19
2.3 Double Knit Structures ...................................................... 4-20
2.3.1 Rib .................................................................................. 4-20
2.3.2 Half Milano .................................................................... 4-20
2.3.3 Full Milano ..................................................................... 4-21
2.3.4 Full Cardigan .................................................................. 4-21
2.3.5 Half Cardigan ................................................................. 4-22
2.3.6 Purl Structure ................................................................. 4-22
2.3.7 Interlock Fabrics ............................................................. 4-24
2.4 Structures and Techniques Commonly Applied to
Sweaters ............................................................................... 4-24
2.4.1 Intarsia ............................................................................ 4-24
2.4.2 Designs Through Loop Transfer .................................... 4-25
2.5 Special Knit Fabrics Produced by Circular Knitting ..... 4-26
2.5.1 High-Pile Knits ............................................................... 4-26
2.5.2 Knitted Terry .................................................................. 4-27
2.5.3 Knitted Velour ................................................................ 4-28
2.5.4 Fleecy Fabric .................................................................. 4-28
2.5.5 Coloured Stripe Fabrics .................................................. 4-29
2.5.6 Jacquard Fabric .............................................................. 4-30
2.5.7 Polar Fleece .................................................................... 4-31
Section 3 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge ............................. 4-32
3.1 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge for Circular Knit ........ 4-32
3.2 Yarn Count and Machine Gauge for Wool Knitwear ...... 4-34
Section 4 Quality and Production of Circular Kniting .......... 4-36
4.1 Pre-requisites of a Circular Knitting Machine ................. 4-36
4.2 Production Conditions for Knitting .................................. 4-37
4.2.1 Selection of Proper Yarn Count ...................................... 4-37
4.2.2 Setting of the Knitting Machine. .................................... 4-37
4.2.3 Yarn Storage ................................................................... 4-38
4.2.4 Air Conditioning of the Knitting Plant ........................... 4-38
4.2.5 Cleaning of Knitting Machines ...................................... 4-38
4.3 Production Calculations ..................................................... 4-38
4.3.1 Introduction .................................................................... 4-38
4.4 Quality Characteristics of Ring-spun 100% Combed
Cotton Yarn for Circular Weft Knitting ........................... 4-40
Section 5 Fabric Analysis ......................................................... 4-45
5.1 The Geometry of Plain Weft-knitted Fabric .................... 4-45
5.2 Stitch Density (Fabric Count) ............................................ 4-46
5.3 Cover Factor ........................................................................ 4-46
5.4 Prediction of Knitted Performance by Mathematical
Model ................................................................................... 4-47
5.4.1 Engineering the Fabric ................................................... 4-47
5.4.2 Checking the Specification ............................................ 4-47
5.4.3 Calculations Based on K values ..................................... 4-48
5.4.4 Limitations of K values .................................................. 4-50
5.5 STARFISH - Engineered Knitted Program for Cotton
Circular Knits ..................................................................... 4-51
Section 6 Typical Fabric Imperfections on Circular Knitting4-53
6.1 Fabric Skew ......................................................................... 4-53
6.1.1 Definition ....................................................................... 4-53
6.1.2 Causes ............................................................................ 4-53
6.1.3 Evaluation of the Effect of Yarn, Knitting and Finishing
Parameters on Skew ....................................................... 4-54
6.1.4 Summary ........................................................................ 4-58
6.2 Barre .................................................................................... 4-58
6.2.1 Definition of Barre ......................................................... 4-58
6.2.2 Causes of Barre .............................................................. 4-58
7.2 Warp Knitting Machine Classification ............................. 4-61
Section 7Warp knitting and Warp Knitted Fabrics ..............4-61
7.1 Warp Knitting ..................................................................... 4-61
7.2.1 Tricot Machines .............................................................. 4-62
7.2.2 Raschel Machines ........................................................... 4-62
7.3 Knitting Elements of Warp Knitting Machine ................. 4-63
7.3.1 Needle ............................................................................ 4-63
7.3.2 The Sinker ...................................................................... 4-64
7.3.3 Guides and Guide Bars ................................................... 4-64
7.3.4 Driving Mechanisms of Knitting Elements .................... 4-65
7.4 Key Terms of Warp Knits .................................................. 4-66
7.4.1 Course and Wales ........................................................... 4-66
7.4.2 Stitch Density ................................................................. 4-66
7.4.3 Loop Parts ...................................................................... 4-66
7.4.4 Open and Closed Laps ................................................... 4-67
7.4.5 Technical Back ............................................................... 4-67
7.4.6 Technical Face ................................................................ 4-67
7.4.7 Run-in ............................................................................. 4-68
7.5 Common Warp Knit Fabric Structures and their
Characteristics .................................................................... 4-68
7.5.1 Tricot Fabrics ................................................................. 4-68
7.5.2 Raschel Fabrics .............................................................. 4-72

Chapter 5
Textile Coloration and Finishing
Treatments ............................................ 5-2
Section 1 Textile Coloration and Finishing ............................. 5-2
1.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 5-2
1.2 Preparation of Cotton Goods ............................................. 5-2
1.2.1 Grey Inspection ............................................................. 5-3
1.2.2 Singeing .......................................................................... 5-3
1.2.3 Desizing .......................................................................... 5-3
1.2.4 Scouring ......................................................................... 5-3
1.2.5 Bleaching ........................................................................ 5-4
1.2.6 Mercerization ................................................................. 5-5
1.2.7 Summary ........................................................................ 5-5
1.3 Fluorescent Brightening ..................................................... 5-5
1.4 Dyeing .................................................................................. 5-6
1.4.1 Terminology Relating to Dyeing .................................... 5-6
1.4.2 Factors that Affect Dyeing ............................................. 5-7
1.4.3 Classification of Dyes .................................................... 5-8
1.4.4 Colour Formulation ........................................................ 5-10
1.4.5 Colour Fastness .............................................................. 5-10
1.4.6 Application of Pigments ................................................. 5-12
1.4.7 Methods of Dyeing ......................................................... 5-12
1.4.8 Special Dyeing Effects ................................................... 5-20
1.4.9 Computer Colour Matching ........................................... 5-20
1.5 Printing ................................................................................ 5-22
1.5.1 General Printing Procedures .......................................... 5-23
1.5.2 Methods of Printing ........................................................ 5-25
1.5.3 Printing Effects ............................................................... 5-33
1.5.4 Types of Prints ................................................................ 5-33
1.5.5 CAD/CAM System for Textile Printing ......................... 5-35
1.6 Finishing .............................................................................. 5-36
1.6.1 Preparation ..................................................................... 5-36
1.6.2 Finishing ......................................................................... 5-37
1.6.3 Classification of Finishing ............................................. 5-37
Section 2 Common Finishing Treatments for Cotton Fabrics 5-44
2.1 Wrinkle-free Treatment of Cotton Fabrics and
Garments ............................................................................. 5-44
2.1.1 General Considerations for Wrinkle-free Treatment ...... 5-44
2.1.2 Treatment Processes ....................................................... 5-45
2.2 Flame Retardant Treatment on Cotton Fabric by
Precondensate/NH3 Process ............................................... 5-50
2.2.1 Fabric Preparation .......................................................... 5-50
2.2.2 Precondensate Formulation ............................................ 5-50
2.2.3 Application ..................................................................... 5-51
2.2.4 Ammoniation .................................................................. 5-51
2.2.5 Oxidation and Process Washing ..................................... 5-53
2.2.6 Fabric After-Treatments ................................................. 5-54
2.2.7 Treatment of Cotton Blended Fabrics ............................ 5-54
2.3 Hints for Wet Processing of Cotton/Spandex Fabric ....... 5-55
2.3.1 Spandex in Knitted Fabric .............................................. 5-55
2.3.2 Relaxation ...................................................................... 5-55
2.3.3 Heat-Setting .................................................................... 5-56
2.3.4 Dyeing ............................................................................ 5-57
2.3.5 Drying ............................................................................ 5-58
2.3.6 Cotton/Spandex Woven Fabric ....................................... 5-58
2.3.7 Relaxation ...................................................................... 5-58
2.3.8 Heat-Setting .................................................................... 5-58
2.3.9 Dyeing ............................................................................ 5-59
2.3.10 Finishing ......................................................................... 5-59

Chapter 6
Textiles Testing and Quality Control .. 6-2
Section 1 Cotton Fibre Testing ................................................. 6-2
1.1 Terms Relating to the Conditioning and Testing of
Textiles ................................................................................. 6-2
1.2 Recommendations for a Physical Testing Laboratory
for Fibre and Yarn .............................................................. 6-3
1.3 Fibre Testing Condition ...................................................... 6-4
1.3.1 Ambient Laboratory Conditions for Fibre Testing ......... 6-4
1.4 Fibre Moisture ..................................................................... 6-4
1.4.1 Measurement of Moisture Regain .................................. 6-4
1.4.2 Commercial Moisture Regain Values ............................. 6-5
1.4.3 Relationship of Temperature and Relative Humidity
on Moisture Regain of Cotton ........................................ 6-7
1.5 Fibre Length Testing Principle .......................................... 6-8
1.5.1 Staple Diagram Method - Shirley Comb Sorter ............. 6-9
1.5.2 Fibrograph ...................................................................... 6-11
1.5.3 Comparison and Evaluation of Staple Diagram and
Fibrogram ....................................................................... 6-13
1.5.4 Staple Length Conversion .............................................. 6-17
1.6 Fibre Fineness Testing ........................................................ 6-17
1.6.1 Micronaire Testing Procedure ........................................ 6-18
1.6.2 Calculation of Average Fibre Fineness ........................... 6-19
1.7 Fibre Maturity Testing ....................................................... 6-20
1.7.1 Microscopic Array Method ............................................ 6-20
1.7.2 Differential Dyeing ........................................................ 6-21
1.7.3 Caustic Method .............................................................. 6-21
1.8 Fibre Strength Testing ........................................................ 6-22
1.8.1 Pressley Fibre Strength Tester ........................................ 6-22
1.8.2 Stelometer ...................................................................... 6-24
1.8.3 Pressley Index and Fibre Strength (lb/in2) Conversion
Table ............................................................................... 6-25
1.9 Fibre Dust and Trash .......................................................... 6-26
1.9.1 Definition of Dust and Trash .......................................... 6-26
1.9.2 Trash And Dust Measurement By Using Shirley
Analyzer ......................................................................... 6-27
1.10 Fibre Identification ............................................................. 6-29
1.11 Typical Fibre Testing Equipment ...................................... 6-34
1.11.1 High Volume Instrument (HVI) ..................................... 6-34
1.11.2 Advanced Fibre Information System (Uster AFIS) ....... 6-38
1.11.3 MicroDust and Trash Analyser (Uster MDTA 3) ........... 6-40
1.11.4 Comparison Between Uster® MDTA 3 and
Uster®AFIS-T ................................................................. 6-41
1.11.5 Recommendations for Fields of Application .................. 6-43
1.11.6 Statistics on Raw Cotton Fibre Properties Determined
with Uster HVI ............................................................... 6-44
Section 2 Yarn Testing ............................................................... 6-49
2.1 Yarn Conditioning .............................................................. 6-49
2.1.1 Basis of Unscoured Yarn ................................................ 6-49
2.1.2 Basis of Scoured Yarn .................................................... 6-49
2.1.3 Preconditioning .............................................................. 6-49
2.1.4 Conditioning ................................................................... 6-50
2.1.5 Oven-Drying .................................................................. 6-50
2.2 Yarn Numbering Systems ................................................... 6-50
2.2.1 Direct and Indirect Systems ........................................... 6-50
2.2.2 Conversion Between Yarn Numbering Systems ............ 6-52
2.2.3 Yarn Diameter ................................................................ 6-52
2.3 Testing Plan ......................................................................... 6-52
2.4 Yarn Count Testing ............................................................. 6-61
2.4.1 Instruments ..................................................................... 6-61
2.4.2 Sampling ........................................................................ 6-61
2.4.3 Testing Procedure ........................................................... 6-61
2.5 Lea Yarn Strength ............................................................... 6-62
2.5.1 Lea Yarn Strength Testing .............................................. 6-62
2.5.2 Yarn Strength Conversion .............................................. 6-62
2.6 Yarn Twist Testing .............................................................. 6-65
2.7 Yarn Appearance Characteristics ..................................... 6-66
2.7.1 Count Variation .............................................................. 6-66
2.7.2 Mass Variation ................................................................ 6-66
2.7.3 Hairiness ......................................................................... 6-67
2.7.4 Imperfections .................................................................. 6-67
2.7.5 Testing of Yarn Appearance Characteristics (Uster® Yarn
Testing Series) ................................................................ 6-67
2.8 Tensile Properties ................................................................ 6-71
2.8.1 Uster Tensojet ................................................................. 6-72
2.9 Classimat Defects ................................................................ 6-73
2.10 Yarn Quality Statistics of 100% Cotton Carded Ring
Spun Yarns ........................................................................... 6-74
2.10.1 Yarn Quality ................................................................... 6-74
2.10.3 CLASSIMAT Defects .................................................... 6-77
2.10.2 Imperfections .................................................................. 6-77
2.10.4 Tensile Properties ........................................................... 6-78
2.10.5 HV Tensile Properties .................................................... 6-81
2.11 Standard Tolerances for Yarn Spun on the Cotton
System .................................................................................. 6-85
2.11.1 Strength .......................................................................... 6-85
2.11.2 Yarn Number .................................................................. 6-85
2.11.3 Twist ............................................................................... 6-85
2.11.4 Extractable Matter .......................................................... 6-85
2.11.5 Appearance ..................................................................... 6-85
2.11.6 Uniformity ...................................................................... 6-86
2.12 New Developments in Testing ............................................ 6-86
2.12.1 Uster® Qualiprofile ......................................................... 6-86
2.12.2 Uster® Lab Expert .......................................................... 6-87
Section 3 Woven Fabric Inspection and Testing .................... 6-88
3.1 Woven Fabric Testing ......................................................... 6-88
3.1.1 Fabric Construction ........................................................ 6-88
3.1.2 Durability, Aesthetics and Environmental Resistance ... 6-91
3.1.3 Fabric Strength ............................................................... 6-94
3.1.4 Relationship Between Strip Test & Grab Test ................ 6-95
3.2 Woven Fabric Inspection System ...................................... 6-95
3.2.1 4 Point System ................................................................ 6-95
3.2.2 10 Point System .............................................................. 6-98
3.2.3 Graniteville “78” System of Visual Quality Evaluation
for Woven and Knitted Fabrics ...................................... 6-99
Section 4 Knitted Fabric Inspection and Testing .................... 6-101
4.1 Knitted Fabric Testing ........................................................ 6-101
4.1.1 Fabric Construction ........................................................ 6-101
4.1.2 Durability, Aesthetics and Environmental Resistance ... 6-102
4.1.3 Fabric Strength Testing .................................................. 6-102
4.2 Knitted Fabric Inspection Systems ................................... 16-02
4.2.1 The KTA System for Circular Knitted Fabrics ............... 6-102
4.2.2 The KTA System for Raschel Knitted Fabrics ............... 6-104
4.2.3 The KTA System for Tricot Fabrics ............................... 6-107
Section 5 Fabric Quality and Performance ............................. 6-113
5.1 Quality Standard and Performance Tests for Apparel .... 6-113
5.1.2 Quality Guideline for Fabrics Containing Lycra®  6-116
5.2 US Standard for Flammability .......................................... 6-120
5.2.1 Flammable Fabrics Act Standards - USA ...................... 6-120
5.2.2 Federal Test Method Standard 191 - Textile Test
Methods .......................................................................... 6-122
5.2.3 Miscellaneous Tests ........................................................ 6-123
5.3 Woven Fabric Defect Description and Cause ................... 6-124
5.4 Illustrations of Woven Fabric Faults ................................ 6-129
5.5 Knitted Fabric Defect Description and Cause ................. 6-136
5.6 Illustrations of Knitted Fabric Faults ............................... 6-140

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