Textiles, 12th Edition PDF by Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti

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Textiles, Twelfth Edition
By Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti
Textiles, 12th Edition By Sara J. Kadolph and Sara B. Marcketti


Brief contents

Section I: Introduction to Textiles
1 Introduction | 5
2 Product Development from a Textile Perspective | 17
Section II: Fibers
3 Textile Fibers and Their Properties | 33
4 Natural Cellulosic Fibers | 61
5 Natural Protein Fibers | 89
6 The Fiber-Manufacturing Process | 121
7 Manufactured Regenerated Fibers | 141
8 Synthetic Fibers | 161
9 Special-Use Fibers | 201
Section III: Yarns
10 Yarn Processing | 227
11 Yarn Classification | 249
Section IV: Fabrication
12 Weaving, Basic Weaves, and Fabrics | 269
13 Fancy Weaves and Fabrics | 309
14 Knitting and Knit Fabrics | 329
15 Other Fabrication Methods | 363
Section V: Finishing
16 Finishing: An Overview | 403
17 Aesthetic Finishes | 423
18 Special-Purpose Finishes | 445
19 Dyeing and Printing | 473
Section VI: Other Issues Related to Textiles
20 Care of Textile Products | 513
21 Legal and Sustainability Issues Related to Textiles | 543
22 Career Exploration | 573
Appendices
A Fiber Names in Other Languages | 590
B Fibers Not Produced in the United States | 591
C Selected Trade Names | 592
D A Map of the World | 597
E Standard Care Terminology | 598
F A Guide to Stain Removal | 600
Glossary | 603
Index | 619

Contents

Section I: Introduction to Textiles 1
Introduction | 5
Chapter Objectives 5
Professional Importance of Learning Textile Science 6
Textiles and Textile Products 7
Textiles and Quality of Life 8
The Global Textile Complex 10
key terms 13
review questions 13
Case Study: Wearable Technology 14
suggested Readings 14
2 Product Development from
a Textile Perspective | 17
Chapter Objectives 17
The Role of Textiles in Product Development 18
Serviceability and the Consumer 21
Performance 23
Information Sources 26
key terms 26
review questions 26
section review questions 27
Case Study: Product Development 27
suggested readings 28
 
Section II: Fibers
3 Textile Fibers and Their Properties | 33
Chapter Objectives 33
Fiber Terminology and Properties 36
Fiber Structure 37
Physical Structure 37 • Chemical Composition and Molecular
Arrangement 40
Serviceability 42
Aesthetic Properties 45 • Durability Properties 46 • Comfort and
Safety Properties 48 • Appearance-Retention Properties 50 •
Resistance to Chemicals 51 • Resistance to Light 52 •
Sustainability 52 • Care Properties 53 • Cost 54 • Fiber Property
Charts 54
Fiber Identification 54
Visual Inspection 54 • Burn Test 55 • Microscopy 56 •
Solubility Tests 56
key terms 57
review questions 58
Case Study: Reading Care Labels 59
suggested readings 59
4 Natural Cellulosic Fibers | 61
Chapter Objectives 61
Cellulosic Fibers 63
Characteristics Common to All Cellulosic Fibers 64
Seed Fibers 64
Cotton 64 • Coir 74 • Kapok 75
Milkweed 75
Bast Fibers 75
Flax 76 • Ramie 78 • Hemp 80 • Jute 81 • Kenaf 82 •
Hibiscus 82 • Nettle 82 • Bamboo 82
Leaf Fibers 83
Piña 83 • Abaca 83 • Sisal and Henequen 83
Other Cellulosic Materials 84
key terms 85
review questions 86
Case Study: Cotton DNA 86
suggested readings 87
5 Natural Protein Fibers | 89
Chapter Objectives 89
Natural Protein Fibers 90
Characteristics Common to All Natural Protein Fibers 91
Wool 92
Production of Wool 92 • Types and Kinds of Wool 93 • Physical
Structure of Wool 94 • Chemical Composition and Molecular
Arrangement of Wool 96 • Properties of Wool 98 • Sustainability of
Wool 101 • Uses of Wool 102
Specialty Wools 103
Mohair 104 • Qiviut 105 • Angora 105 • Camel Hair 106 •
Cashmere 106 • Llama and Alpaca 107 • Vicuña and Guanaco 107 •
Yak 108
Other Animal Fibers 108
Silk 108
Production of Silk 109 • Physical Structure of Silk 110 • Chemical
Composition and Molecular Structure of Silk 111 • Properties of
Silk 111 • Sustainability of Silk 113 • Uses of Silk 114
Spider Silk 115
Identification of Natural Protein Fibers 115
key terms 117
review questions 117
Case Study: A Lao Silk Farm 118
suggested readings 118
6 The Fiber-Manufacturing Process | 121
Chapter Objectives 121
Manufacturing Fibers 122
Fiber Spinning 124
Spinning Methods 125
Fiber Modifications 125
Spinneret Modifications 126 • Molecular Structure and
Crystallinity Modifications 128 • Additives to the Polymer or
Spinning Solution 129 • Modifications in Fiber Spinning 131 •
Complex Modifications 132
Sustainability of Manufactured Fibers 135
Manufactured-Fiber Consumption 136
Manufactured Versus Natural Fibers 136
key terms 137
review questions 137
Case Study: Apparel Imports 138
suggested readings 139
7 Manufactured Regenerated Fibers | 141
Chapter Objectives 141
Manufactured Regenerated Fibers 142
Cellulosic Regenerated Fibers 142
Rayon 142 • Lyocell 148 • Acetate 151
Other Regenerated Fibers 156
Identification of Regenerated Fibers 157
key terms 158
review questions 158
Case Study: Soy Fiber 159
suggested readings 159
8 Synthetic Fibers | 161
Chapter Objectives 161
Synthetic Fibers: An Overview 162
Common Properties of Synthetic Fibers 163 • Common Manufacturing
Processes 164 • Common Fiber Modifications 166
Identification of Synthetic Fibers 168
Synthetic Fibers 168
Nylon 168 • Polyester 177 • Olefin 185 • Acrylic 191
key terms 197
review questions 197
Case Study: Green Chemistry 198
suggested readings 199
9 Special-Use Fibers | 201
Chapter Objectives 201
Elastomeric Fibers 202
Rubber 202 • Spandex 203 • Elastoester 206 • Elasterell-p 206 •
Lastol 206
High-Performance Fibers 207
Aramid 207 • Glass 208 • Metal and Metallic Fibers 210 • Modacrylic
Fibers 211 • Novoloid 213 • PBI 213 • Sulfar 213 • Saran 214 •
Vinyon 214 • Vinal 215 • Fluoropolymer 215 • Carbon 216 •
Melamine 217
Other High-Performance Fibers 217
key terms 220
review questions 220
section review questions 221
Case Study: Undergarments for Firefighters 222
suggested readings 222
 
Section III: Yarns
10 Yarn Processing | 227
Chapter Objectives 227
Filament Yarns 228
Smooth-Filament Yarn 229 • Monofilament Yarns 230 • Tape and
Network Yarns 230 • Bulk Yarns 230
Spun Yarns 232
Processing Staple Fibers 234 • Inserting Yarn Twist 237 • Alternate
Spun-Yarn Processes 239 • Spinning Filament Tow into Spun
Yarns 240 • High-Bulk Yarns 241
Fiber Blends 242
Blend Levels 243 • Blending Methods 244 • Blended-Filament
Yarns 244
Sustainability of Yarn Processing 244
key terms 246
review questions 246
Case Study: Yarn Energy Storage 247
suggested readings 247
11 Yarn Classification | 249
Chapter Objectives 249
Yarn Characteristics and Structure 250
Fiber Length 250 • Yarn Twist 251 • Yarn Size 253 • Yarn
Regularity 255
Yarn Types 255
Simple Yarns 255 • Sewing and Embroidery Thread 257 • Novelty
Yarns 258 • Composite Yarns 260
Yarn Performance and Yarn Quality 262
key terms 263
review questions 264
section review questions 264
Case Study: Antimicrobial Sewing Thread 265
suggested readings 265
 
Section IV: Fabrication
12 Weaving, Basic Weaves, and Fabrics | 269
Chapter Objectives 269
Fabric Quality 270
Woven Fabrics 272
The Loom 272 • Sustainability of Weaving 277
Characteristics of Woven Fabrics 278
Warp and Filling 278 • Grain 278 • Fabric Count 279 • Balance 279 •
Selvages 280 • Fabric Width 280 • Fabric Weight 281 • Properties of
Woven Fabrics 282 • Naming and Diagramming Woven Fabrics 282
The Three Basic Weaves 285
Plain Weave 285 • Twill Weave 295 • Satin Weave 300
key terms 304
review questions 305
Case Study: Threats and Opportunities for the Woven Industry 306
suggested readings 306
13 Fancy Weaves and Fabrics | 309
Chapter Objectives 309
Fancy Weaves: Types and Processes 311
Dobby Weaves 312 • Extra-Yarn Weaves 312 • Piqué Weaves 313 •
Jacquard Weaves 315 • Momie Weaves 316 • Leno Weaves 317 •
Double Cloth 318 • Pile Weaves 320 • Slack-Tension Weaves 324 •
Tapestry Weave 325
Narrow Fabrics 325
key terms 326
review questions 326
Case Study: Passion for Jacquard Design and Weaving 327
suggested readings 327
14 Knitting and Knit Fabrics | 329
Chapter Objectives 329
Knit Versus Woven Fabrics 330
Types of Knitting 331
Classifying Knits 333 • Sustainability of Knitting 336
Filling and Warp Knitting and Fabrics 337
Filling (or Weft) Knits 337 • Warp Knits 351
key terms 358
review questions 359
Case Study: Made in the United States 360
suggested readings 361
15 Other Fabrication Methods | 363
Chapter Objectives 363
Fabrics from Solutions 364
Films 364 • Foams 365
Fabrics from Fibers 367
Nonwoven or Fiberweb Structures 367 • Felt 373 • Netlike
Structures 374
Fabrics from Yarns 375
Braids 375 • Lace 375 • Embroidery 378
Composite Fabrics 378
Coated Fabrics 379 • Poromeric Fabrics 380 • Suedelike
Fabrics 381 • Flocked Fabrics 382 • Tufted-Pile Fabrics 384 •
Laminates 385 • Stitch-Bonded Fabrics 387 • Supported-Scrim
Structures 390 • Fiber-Reinforced Materials 390
Animal Products 392
Leather 392 • Suede 394 • Fur 394
key terms 396
review questions 396
section review questions 397
Case Study: Textile Protection from Dust Mites 398
suggested readings 398
 
Section V: Finishing
16 Finishing: An Overview | 403
Chapter Objectives 403
Finishing Technology 406
Routine Steps in Producing a Fabric 408
Fiber Processing 408 • Yarn Processing 409 • Yarn Preparation 409 •
Fabrication 410 • Fabric Preparation 410 • Whitening 413 • Alternate
Preparation Steps 414 • Coloration 415 • Finishing 415 •
Drying 415 • Reworking 416
Routine Finishing Steps for Wool Fabrics 417
Sustainability of Finishing 418
key terms 419
review questions 419
Case Study: Eco-Denim 420
suggested readings 420
17 Aesthetic Finishes | 423
Chapter Objectives 423
Applied Design Versus Structural Design 424
Aesthetic Finishes 426
Luster 426 • Drape 429 • Texture and Hand 431
Performance of Aesthetic Finishes 441
key terms 442
review questions 442
Case Study: Softeners and Fabric Sewability 443
suggested readings 443
18 Special-Purpose Finishes | 445
Chapter Objectives 445
Special-Purpose Finishes 446
Stabilization Finishes 447
Shrinkage Control 447 • Durable Press Finishes 450
Appearance-Retention Finishes 453
Soil- and Stain-Release Finishes 453 • Abrasion-Resistant
Finishes 455 • Antislip Finishes 455 • Fume-Fading-Resistant
Finishes 455 • Surface or Back Coatings 455 • Light-Stabilizing
Finishes 456 • Pilling-Resistant Finishes 456 • Anti-Yellowing
Finishes 457
Comfort-Related Finishes 457
Water-Repellent Finishes 457 • Moisture Management Finishes 459 •
Porosity-Control Finishes 460 • Water-Absorbent Finishes 460 •
Ultraviolet-Absorbent Finishes 460 • Antistatic Finishes 461 •
Phase-Change and Temperature Regulation Finishes 461
Biological-Control Finishes 462
Insect- and Moth-Control Finishes 462 • Mold- and Mildew-Control
Finishes 463 • Rot-Proof Finishes 464 • Antimicrobial Finishes 464 •
Microencapsulated Finishes 465
Safety-Related Finishes 466
Flame-Retardant Finishes 466 • Liquid-Barrier Finishes 468 •
Light-Reflecting Finishes 468
key terms 469
review questions 469
Case Study: Skin Cancer Prevention 470
suggested readings 471
19 Dyeing and Printing | 473
Chapter Objectives 473
Theory and Practice in Dyeing and Printing 474
Color Theory 476 • Colorants 479 • Sustainability of Dyeing and
Printing 482
Stages of Dyeing and Printing 485
Fiber Stage 487 • Yarn Stage 488 • Piece or Fabric Stage 489 •
Product Stage 490
Dyeing 491
Batch Dyeing 491 • Package Dyeing 492 • Combination Dyeing 492 •
Resist Dyeing 494
Printing 495
Direct Printing 498 • Discharge Printing 500 • Screen Printing 501 •
Other Printing Methods 502
Color Problems 503
key terms 506
review questions 507
section review questions 508
Case Study: Indigo Farming 508
suggested readings 509
 
Section VI: Other Issues Related
to Textiles
20 Care of Textile Products | 513
Chapter Objectives 513
Factors Related to Cleaning 515
Soil and Soil Removal 515 • Detergency 516 • Solvents 517 •
Synthetic Detergents and Soaps 518 • Other Cleaning Additives 521 •
Sustainability of Cleaning 523
Cleaning of Apparel and Interior Textiles 525
Laundering 525 • Sorting 525 • Washing Machines 525 • Dryers and
Drying 529 • Commercial Laundering 531 • Dry Cleaning 531 • Home
Solvent Cleaning 533 • Professional Wet Cleaning 534 • Cleaning of
Interior Textiles 534
Storage and Conservation Practices 537
Storage 537 • Textile Conservation 538
key terms 539
review questions 539
Case Study: Sustainable Laundry Practices 540
suggested readings 540
21 Legal and Sustainability Issues
Related to Textiles | 543
Chapter Objectives 543
Laws and Regulations 544
Silk Regulation, 1932 545 • Wool Products Labeling Act, 1939
(Amended) 545 • Fur Products Labeling Act, 1952 (Amended) 546 •
Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, 1960 (Amended) 546 •
Permanent Care Labeling Regulation, 1972 (Amended) 548 • Mandatory
and Voluntary Labeling Programs 551 • Flammable Fabrics Act, 1953, and
Its Amendment 552 • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
(FIFRA) 555 • Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) 555
Professional and Consumer Rights and Responsibilities 556
Codes 556 • Tort 556 • Consumer Recourse 557
Sustainability Issues 558
Laws and Regulations 559 • Product Demand and Corporate
Responsibility 561 • Efforts Within the Global Textile Complex 564 •
Disposal and Recycling 567
key terms 568
review questions 569
Case Study: Sustainability 570
suggested readings 570
22 Career Exploration | 573
Chapter Objectives 573
Critical Career Preparation 574
Career Opportunities 575
Product Development 575 • Production 577 •
Design 578 • Sourcing 580 • Merchandising 581 •
Marketing 583 • Entrepreneurs 584 • Government 585 •
Other Career Areas 585
Summary 586
key terms 587
review questions 587
section review questions 588
Case Study: The Resume 588
suggested readings 589
Appendices
A Fiber Names in Other Languages | 590
B Fibers Not Produced in the United States | 591
C Selected Trade Names | 592
D A Map of the World | 597
E Standard Care Terminology | 598
F A Guide to Stain Removal | 600
Glossary | 603
Index | 619
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