Accounting, 27th Edition PDF by Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan E. Duchac

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Accounting, 27th Edition
by Carl S. Warren, James M. Reeve, Jonathan E. Duchac
Accounting, 27th Edition


Chapter 1 Introduction to
Accounting and Business 2
Nature of Business and Accounting 5
Types of Businesses 5
Role of Accounting in Business 6
Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business 6
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Bernie Madoff 9
Opportunities for Accountants 9
Business Connection: Pathways Commission 10
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 10
Business Entity Concept 11
International Connection: International Financial
Reporting Standards (IFRS) 11
Cost Concept 12
The Accounting Equation 13
Business Connection: The Accounting Equation 13
Business Transactions and the
Accounting Equation 14
Summary 18
Financial Statements 19
Income Statement 20
Statement of Owner’s Equity 21
Balance Sheet 21
Statement of Cash Flows 24
Interrelationships Among Financial Statements 25
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity 26
Chapter 2 Analyzing Transactions 56
Using Accounts to Record Transactions 59
Chart of Accounts 61
Business Connection: The Hijacking Receivable 61
Double-Entry Accounting System 62
Balance Sheet Accounts 62
Income Statement Accounts 63
Owner Withdrawals 63
Normal Balances 63
Journalizing 64
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Will Journalizing Prevent Fraud? 67
Journalizing and Posting to Accounts 68
Business Connection: Microsoft’s Unearned
Revenue 70
Business Connection: Computerized Accounting
Systems 72
Trial Balance 77
Errors Affecting the Trial Balance 78
Errors Not Affecting the Trial Balance 79
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Horizontal Analysis 80
Chapter 3 The Adjusting Process 110
Nature of the Adjusting Process 113
Accrual and Cash Basis of Accounting 113
Revenue and Expense Recognition 114
The Adjusting Process 114
Types of Accounts Requiring Adjustment 115
Adjusting Entries for Accruals 116
Accrued Revenues 117
Accrued Expenses 118
Business Connection: Earning Revenues from
Season Tickets 120
Adjusting Entries for Deferrals 120
Unearned Revenues 121
Prepaid Expenses 122
Business Connection: Sports Signing Bonus 122
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Free Issue 123
Adjusting Entries for Depreciation 124
Summary of Adjusting Process 126
Business Connection: Microsoft’s Deferred
Revenues 126
Adjusted Trial Balance 130
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Vertical Analysis 131
Chapter 4 Completing the
Accounting Cycle 160
Flow of Accounting Information 163
Financial Statements 165
Income Statement 165
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business: CEO's
Health? 167
Statement of Owner’s Equity 167
Balance Sheet 168
International Connection: International Differences 169
Closing Entries 169
Journalizing and Posting Closing Entries 170
Post-Closing Trial Balance 174
Accounting Cycle 174
Illustration of the Accounting Cycle 177
Step 1. Analyzing and Recording Transactions
in the Journal 177
Step 2. Posting Transactions to the Ledger 179
Step 3. Preparing an Unadjusted Trial Balance 179
Step 4. Assembling and Analyzing Adjustment
Data 180
Step 5. Preparing an Optional End-of-Period
Spreadsheet 180
Step 6. Journalizing and Posting Adjusting
Entries 180
Step 7. Preparing an Adjusted Trial Balance 182
Step 8. Preparing the Financial Statements 182
Step 9. Journalizing and Posting Closing Entries 184
Step 10. Preparing a Post-Closing Trial Balance 184
Fiscal Year 187
Business Connection: Choosing a Fiscal Year 188
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Working Capital and Current Ratio 188
End-of-Period Spreadsheet 189
Step 1. Enter the Title 190
Step 2. Enter the Unadjusted Trial Balance 190
Step 3. Enter the Adjustments 191
Step 4. Enter the Adjusted Trial Balance 192
Step 5. Extend the Accounts to the Income
Statement and Balance Sheet Columns 193
Step 6. Total the Income Statement and Balance
Sheet Columns, Compute the Net Income
or Net Loss, and Complete the Spreadsheet
Preparing the Financial Statements from the
Spreadsheet 194
Reversing Entries 196
Chapter 5 Accounting Systems 230
Basic Accounting Systems 232
Manual Accounting Systems 233
Subsidiary Ledgers 233
Special Journals 233
Revenue Journal 235
Cash Receipts Journal 238
Accounts Receivable Control Account and
Subsidiary Ledger 240
Purchases Journal 240
Cash Payments Journal 243
Accounts Payable Control Account and Subsidiary
Ledger 245
Business Connection: Accounting Systems and Profit
Measurement 246
Computerized Accounting Systems 247
Business Connection: TurboTax 249
E-Commerce 249
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Online Fraud 250
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Segment Analysis 250
Chapter 6 Accounting for
Merchandising Businesses 280
Nature of Merchandising Businesses 282
Operating Cycle 282
Financial Statements 283
Business Connection: Comcast Versus Lowe’s 284
Merchandising Transactions 284
Chart of Accounts for a Merchandising
Business 284
Purchases Transactions 285
Sales Transactions 290
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
The Case of the Fraudulent Price Tags 294
Freight 295
Summary: Recording Merchandise Inventory
Transactions 297
Dual Nature of Merchandise Transactions 297
Sales Taxes and Trade Discounts 299
Business Connection: Sales Taxes 300
The Adjusting Process 300
Adjusting Entry for Inventory Shrinkage 300
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
The Cost of Employee Theft 301
Adjusting Entries for Customer Refunds,
Allowances, and Returns 301
Financial Statements for
a Merchandising Business 303
Multiple-Step Income Statement 303
Single-Step Income Statement 305
Statement of Owner’s Equity 305
Balance Sheet 305
The Closing Process 306
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Asset Turnover 307
The Periodic Inventory System 309
Chart of Accounts Under the Periodic Inventory
System 309
Recording Merchandise Transactions Under the
Periodic Inventory System 310
Adjusting Process Under the Periodic Inventory
System 310
Financial Statements Under the Periodic Inventory
System 311
Closing Entries Under the Periodic Inventory
System 312
Practice Set: Lawn Ranger Landscaping
This set covers the complete accounting cycle for a
service business operated as a sole proprietorship.
Students follow a narrative of transactions to make
general journal entries. Includes instructions for an
optional solution with no debits and credits. This
set can be completed manually or with the General
Ledger software.
Chapter 7 Inventories 344
Control of Inventory 346
Safeguarding Inventory 346
Reporting Inventory 347
Inventory Cost Flow Assumptions 347
Business Connection: Pawn Stars and Specific
Identification 349
Inventory Costing Methods Under
a Perpetual Inventory System 350
First-In, First-Out Method 350
Last-In, First-Out Method 351
International Connection: International Financial
Reporting Standards (IFRS) 353
Weighted Average Cost Method 353
Business Connection: Computerized Perpetual
Inventory Systems 355
Inventory Costing Methods Under
a Periodic Inventory System 355
First-In, First-Out Method 355
Last-In, First-Out Method 356
Weighted Average Cost Method 357
Comparing Inventory Costing Methods 358
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Where's the Bonus? 359
Reporting Merchandise Inventory
in the Financial Statements 359
Valuation at Lower of Cost or Market 359
Business Connection: Good Samaritan 361
Merchandise Inventory on the Balance Sheet 361
Effect of Inventory Errors on the Financial
Statements 362
Financial Analysis and Interpretation: Inventory
Turnover and Days’ Sales in Inventory 365
Business Connection: Rapid Inventory at Costco 365
Estimating Inventory Cost 368
Retail Method of Inventory Costing 368
Gross Profit Method of Inventory Costing 369
Chapter 8 Internal Control
and Cash 394
Sarbanes-Oxley Act 396
Internal Control 398
Objectives of Internal Control 398
Business Connection: Employee Fraud 398
Elements of Internal Control 398
Control Environment 399
Risk Assessment 400
Control Procedures 400
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Tips on Preventing Employee Fraud in
Small Companies 401
Monitoring 402
Information and Communication 402
Limitations of Internal Control 403
Cash Controls over Receipts and Payments 403
Control of Cash Receipts 404
Control of Cash Payments 406
Business Connection: Mobile Payments 406
Bank Accounts 407
Bank Statement 407
Using the Bank Statement as a Control
over Cash 409
Bank Reconciliation 410
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Bank Error in Your Favor (or Maybe Not) 413
Special-Purpose Cash Funds 413
Financial Statement Reporting of Cash 415
Business Connection: Managing Apple's Cash 415
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Ratio of Cash to Monthly Cash Expenses 415
Business Connection: Microsoft Corporation 417
Chapter 9 Receivables 440
Classification of Receivables 442
Accounts Receivable 442
Notes Receivable 442
Other Receivables 443
Uncollectible Receivables 443
Business Connection: Warning Signs 444
Direct Write-Off Method
for Uncollectible Accounts 444
Allowance Method for Uncollectible Accounts 445
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Collecting Past Due Accounts 446
Write-Offs to the Allowance Account 446
Business Connection: Failure to Collect 448
Estimating Uncollectibles 448
Business Connection: Allowance Percentages Across
Companies 453
Comparing Direct Write-Off
and Allowance Methods 453
Notes Receivable 454
Characteristics of Notes Receivable 454
Accounting for Notes Receivable 456
Reporting Receivables on the Balance Sheet 458
Business Connection: Delta Air Lines 458
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Accounts Receivable Turnover and
Days’ Sales in Receivables 459
Chapter 10 Long-Term Assets:
Fixed and Intangible 486
Nature of Fixed Assets 488
Classifying Costs 488
Business Connection: Fixed Assets 489
The Cost of Fixed Assets 490
Leasing Fixed Assets 491
Accounting for Depreciation 492
Factors in Computing Depreciation Expense 492
Straight-Line Method 493
Units-of-Activity Method 495
Double-Declining-Balance Method 497
Comparing Depreciation Methods 499
Partial-Year Depreciation 499
Business Connection: Depreciating Animals 500
Revising Depreciation Estimates 501
Repair and Improvements 502
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Capital Crime 503
Disposal of Fixed Assets 504
Discarding Fixed Assets 504
Selling Fixed Assets 505
Business Connection: Downsizing 506
Natural Resources 507
Intangible Assets 508
Patents 508
Copyrights and Trademarks 509
Goodwill 509
International Connection: International
Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 511
Financial Reporting for Long-Term Assets: Fixed
and Intangible 511
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio 512
Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio 512
Business Connection: Hub-and-Spoke or
Point-to-Point? 513
Exchanging Similar Fixed Assets 514
Gain on Exchange 514
Loss on Exchange 515
Chapter 11 Current Liabilities
and Payroll 536
Current Liabilities 538
Accounts Payable 538
Current Portion of Long-Term Debt 538
Short-Term Notes Payable 539
Payroll and Payroll Taxes 541
Liability for Employee Earnings 541
Deductions from Employee Earnings 541
Computing Employee Net Pay 544
Liability for Employer’s Payroll Taxes 545
Business Connection: The Most You Will Ever Pay 545
Accounting Systems for Payroll
and Payroll Taxes 545
Payroll Register 546
Employee’s Earnings Record 549
Payroll Checks 550
Computerized Payroll System 551
Internal Controls for Payroll Systems 551
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Overbilling Clients 552
Employees’ Fringe Benefits 552
Vacation Pay 552
Pensions 553
Postretirement Benefits Other Than
Pensions 554
Current Liabilities on the Balance Sheet 554
Business Connection: State Pension
Obligations 555
Contingent Liabilities 555
Probable and Estimable 555
Probable and Not Estimable 556
Reasonably Possible 556
Remote 557
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Quick Ratio 557
Practice Set: Fit & Fashionable
This set is a merchandising business operated as
a sole proprietorship. It includes a general journal,
special journals, and source documents and can be
completed manually or with the General Ledger
Practice Set: Chic Events by Jada
This set is a merchandising business operated
as a proprietorship. It includes payroll transactions
and purchases and sales with discounts,
along with source documents. It can be completed
manually or with the General Ledger
Chapter 12 Accounting for
Partnerships and Limited Liability
Companies 584
Proprietorships, Partnerships, and Limited
Liability Companies 586
Proprietorships 586
Partnerships 587
Business Connection: Breaking Up Is Hard To Do 587
Limited Liability Companies 588
Comparing Proprietorships, Partnerships,
and Limited Liability Companies 588
Business Connection: Organizational Forms in the
Accounting Industry 588
Forming a Partnership and Dividing Income 589
Forming a Partnership 589
Dividing Income 590
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business: Tyranny
of the Majority 592
Partner Admission and Withdrawal 593
Admitting a Partner 593
Withdrawal of a Partner 598
Death of a Partner 598
Liquidating Partnerships 599
Gain on Realization 600
Loss on Realization 601
Loss on Realization—Capital Deficiency 603
Statement of Partnership Equity 606
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Revenue per Employee 606
Chapter 13 Corporations:
Organization, Stock Transactions,
and Dividends 628
Nature of a Corporation 630
Characteristics of a Corporation 630
Forming a Corporation 631
Business Connection: Alphabet (Google)'s Bylaws 632
Stockholders’ Equity 633
Paid-In Capital from Stock 634
Characteristics of Stock 634
Classes of Stock 635
Business Connection: You Have No Vote 635
Issuing Stock 636
Premium on Stock 637
No-Par Stock 638
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
The Professor Who Knew Too Much 639
Accounting for Dividends 639
Cash Dividends 639
Stock Dividends 641
Stock Splits 642
Business Connection: Buffett on Stock Splits 643
Treasury Stock Transactions 644
Business Connection: Treasury Stock or
Dividends? 645
Reporting Stockholders’ Equity 645
Stockholders’ Equity on the Balance Sheet 645
Reporting Retained Earnings 647
Statement of Stockholders’ Equity 648
International Connection: IFRS for SMEs 649
Reporting Stockholders’ Equity for Mornin’ Joe 649
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Earnings per Share 651
Practice Set: My Place, House of Décor
This set is a service and merchandising business
operated as a corporation. It includes narrative for
six months of transactions to be recorded in a general
journal. The set can be completed manually or
with the General Ledger software.
Chapter 14 Long-Term Liabilities:
Bonds and Notes 675
Financing Corporations 677
Nature of Bonds Payable 679
Bond Characteristics and Terminology 680
Proceeds from Issuing Bonds 680
Business Connection: Investor Bond Price
Risk 681
Accounting for Bonds Payable 681
Bonds Issued at Face Amount 681
Bonds Issued at a Discount 682
Amortizing a Bond Discount 683
Business Connection: U.S. Government Debt 684
Bonds Issued at a Premium 685
Amortizing a Bond Premium 686
Business Connection: Bond Ratings 687
Bond Redemption 687
Installment Notes 688
Issuing an Installment Note 689
Annual Payments 689
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
The Ratings Game 691
Reporting Long-Term Liabilities 691
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Times Interest Earned Ratio 691
Present Value Concepts and
Pricing Bonds Payable 693
Present Value Concepts 693
Pricing Bonds 696
Interest Rate Method of Amortization 697
Amortization of Discount by the Interest
Method 697
Amortization of Premium by the Interest Method 698
Chapter 15 Investments and Fair
Value Accounting 719
Why Companies Invest 721
Investing Cash in Current Operations 721
Investing Cash in Temporary Investments 722
Investing Cash in Long-Term Investments 722
Accounting for Debt Investments 722
Purchase of Bonds 723
Interest Revenue 723
Sale of Bonds 724
Accounting for Equity Investments 725
Cost Method: Less Than 20% Ownership 725
Equity Method: Between 20%–50%
Ownership 727
Consolidation: More Than 50% Ownership 729
Business Connection: More Cash Means More
Investments for Drug Companies 730
Valuing and Reporting Investments 730
Trading Securities 730
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Socially Responsible Investing 732
Available-for-Sale Securities 732
Held-to-Maturity Securities 734
Summary 734
Business Connection: Warren Buffett:
The Sage of Omaha 736
Fair Value Accounting 737
Effect of Fair Value Accounting on the
Financial Statements 737
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Dividend Yield 737
Comprehensive Income 739
Chapter 16 Statement of
Cash Flows 765
Reporting Cash Flows 767
Cash Flows from Operating Activities 768
Business Connection: Cash Crunch! 770
Cash Flows from (Used for) Investing Activities 770
Cash Flows from (Used for) Financing Activities 770
Noncash Investing and Financing Activities 770
Format of the Statement of Cash Flows 771
No Cash Flow per Share 771
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows—
The Indirect Method 772
Net Income 773
Adjustments to Net Income 774
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Credit Policy and Cash Flow 777
Dividends and Dividends Payable 778
Common Stock 779
Bonds Payable 779
Building and Accumulated
Depreciation—Building 780
Land 780
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows 781
Business Connection: Growing Pains 782
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows—
The Direct Method 782
Cash Received from Customers 783
Cash Payments for Merchandise 783
Cash Payments for Operating Expenses 784
Gain on Sale of Land 785
Interest Expense 785
Cash Payments for Income Taxes 785
Reporting Cash Flows from Operating
Activities—Direct Method 786
International Connection: IFRS for Statement of
Cash Flows 786
Financial Analysis and Interpretation:
Free Cash Flow 787
Spreadsheet (Work Sheet) for Statement of Cash
Flows—The Indirect Method 789
Analyzing Accounts 789
Retained Earnings 789
Other Accounts 791
Preparing the Statement of Cash Flows 791
Chapter 17 Financial Statement
Analysis 823
Analyzing and Interpreting Financial
Statements 825
The Value of Financial Statement
Information 825
Techniques for Analyzing Financial Statements 826
Basic Analytical Methods 826
Horizontal Analysis 826
Vertical Analysis 829
Common-Sized Statements 830
Analyzing Liquidity 831
Current Position Analysis 832
Accounts Receivable Analysis 834
Inventory Analysis 835
Business Connection: Flying off the Shelves 837
Analyzing Solvency 837
Ratio of Fixed Assets to Long-Term Liabilities 838
Ratio of Liabilities to Stockholders’ Equity 838
Times Interest Earned 839
Business Connection: Liquidity Crunch 840
Analyzing Profitability 840
Asset Turnover 840
Return on Total Assets 841
Return on Stockholders’ Equity 842
Business Connection: Gearing for Profit 843
Return on Common Stockholders’ Equity 843
Earnings per Share on Common Stock 844
Price-Earnings Ratio 845
Dividends per Share 846
Dividend Yield 847
Business Connection: Investing for Yield 847
Summary of Analytical Measures 847
Corporate Annual Reports 849
Management Discussion and Analysis 849
Report on Internal Control 849
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Characteristics of Financial Statement Fraud 849
Report on Fairness of the Financial Statements 850
Unusual Items on the Income Statement 850
Unusual Items Affecting the Current Period’s
Income Statement 850
Unusual Items Affecting the Prior Period’s
Income Statement 852
Chapter 18 Introduction to
Managerial Accounting 883
Managerial Accounting 885
Differences Between Managerial and Financial
The Management Accountant in the
Organization 886
The Management Process 888
Business Connection: Line and Staff for Service
Companies 888
Uses of Managerial Accounting Information 889
Manufacturing Operations:
Costs and Terminology 890
Direct and Indirect Costs 891
Manufacturing Costs 892
Business Connection: Overhead Costs 893
Sustainability and Accounting 896
Sustainability 897
Eco-Efficiency Measures in Managerial
Accounting 897
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Environmental Managerial Accounting 898
Financial Statements for a
Manufacturing Business 898
Balance Sheet for a Manufacturing Business 898
Income Statement for a Manufacturing
Business 898
Service Focus: Managerial Accounting in the Service
Industry 903
Chapter 19 Job Order Costing 924
Cost Accounting Systems Overview 926
Job Order Cost Systems 926
Process Cost Systems 926
Job Order Cost Systems for
Manufacturing Businesses 927
Materials 927
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Phony Invoice Scams 929
Factory Labor 930
Business Connection: 3D Printing 931
Factory Overhead 931
Business Connection: Advanced Robotics 932
Work in Process 936
Finished Goods 937
Sales and Cost of Goods Sold 938
Period Costs 938
Summary of Cost Flows for Legend Guitars 938
Job Order Costing for Decision Making 940
Job Order Cost Systems for Service
Businesses 941
Types of Service Businesses 941
Flow of Costs in a Service Job Order
Cost System 942
Service Focus: Job Order Costing in a Law Firm 943
Practice Set: Hydro Paddle Boards
This practice set is a manufacturing business operated
as a corporation. This set uses a job order cost
system and includes subsidiary ledgers and job
cost records. This set can be solved manually or
with the General Ledger software.
Chapter 20 Process Cost Systems 968
Process Cost Systems 970
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
On Being Green 970
Comparing Job Order and Process
Cost Systems 971
Cost Flows for a Process Manufacturer 973
Business Connection: Sustainable Papermaking 975
Cost of Production Report 976
Step 1: Determine the Units to Be
Assigned Costs 976
Step 2: Compute Equivalent Units of
Production 978
Step 3: Determine the Cost per Equivalent
Unit 981
Step 4: Allocate Costs to Units Transferred
Out and Partially Completed Units 982
Preparing the Cost of Production Report 984
Journal Entries for a Process Cost System 985
Service Focus: Costing the Power Stack 988
Using the Cost of Production
Report for Decision Making 989
Cost per Equivalent Unit Between Periods 989
Cost Category Analysis 989
Yield 990
Lean Manufacturing 991
Traditional Production Process 991
Lean Production Process 992
Average Cost Method 993
Determining Costs Using the Average
Cost Method 993
The Cost of Production Report 995
Chapter 21 Cost-Volume-Profit
Analysis 1020
Cost Behavior 1022
Variable Costs 1022
Fixed Costs 1024
Mixed Costs 1024
Summary of Cost Behavior Concepts 1027
Business Connection: Booking Fees 1028
Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships 1028
Contribution Margin 1029
Contribution Margin Ratio 1029
Unit Contribution Margin 1030
Mathematical Approach to
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 1031
Break-Even Point 1031
Target Profit 1035
Business Connection: Airline Industry Break-Even 1036
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business: Orphan
Drugs 1037
Graphic Approach to
Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 1037
Cost-Volume-Profit (Break-Even) Chart 1037
Profit-Volume Chart 1039
Use of Computers in Cost-Volume-Profit
Analysis 1042
Assumptions of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis 1042
Service Focus: Profit, Loss, and Break-Even in Major
League Baseball 1042
Special Cost-Volume-Profit Relationships 1042
Sales Mix Considerations 1043
Operating Leverage 1044
Margin of Safety 1046
Variable Costing 1047
Chapter 22 Budgeting 1074
Nature and Objectives of Budgeting 1076
Objectives of Budgeting 1076
Human Behavior and Budgeting 1077
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Budget Games 1078
Budgeting Systems 1078
Static Budget 1079
Service Focus: Film Budgeting 1080
Flexible Budget 1080
Computerized Budgeting Systems 1081
Master Budget 1082
Operating Budgets 1082
Sales Budget 1082
Production Budget 1084
Direct Materials Purchases Budget 1084
Direct Labor Cost Budget 1086
Factory Overhead Cost Budget 1088
Cost of Goods Sold Budget 1088
Selling and Administrative Expenses Budget 1090
Business Connection: Mad Men 1091
Budgeted Income Statement 1091
Financial Budgets 1092
Cash Budget 1092
Capital Expenditures Budget 1095
Budgeted Balance Sheet 1096
Chapter 23 Evaluating Variances
from Standard Costs 1124
Standards 1126
Setting Standards 1126
Types of Standards 1127
Reviewing and Revising Standards 1127
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Company Reputation: The Best of the Best 1127
Criticisms of Standard Costs 1127
Business Connection: Standard Costing in Action:
Expanding Brewing Operations 1128
Budgetary Performance Evaluation 1128
Budget Performance Report 1129
Manufacturing Cost Variances 1129
Direct Materials and Direct Labor Variances 1131
Direct Materials Variances 1131
Service Focus: Standard Costing in the Restaurant
Industry 1133
Direct Labor Variances 1134
Factory Overhead Variances 1136
The Factory Overhead Flexible Budget 1136
Variable Factory Overhead Controllable Variance 1138
Fixed Factory Overhead Volume Variance 1139
Reporting Factory Overhead Variances 1141
Factory Overhead Account 1142
Recording and Reporting Variances
from Standards 1143
Nonfinancial Performance Measures 1146
Chapter 24 Decentralized
Operations 1172
Centralized and Decentralized Operations 1174
Advantages of Decentralization 1174
Disadvantages of Decentralization 1175
Business Connection: Dover Corporation: Many
Pieces, One Picture 1175
Responsibility Accounting 1175
Responsibility Accounting for Cost Centers 1176
Responsibility Accounting for Profit Centers 1178
Service Department Charges 1178
Profit Center Reporting 1180
Responsibility Accounting
for Investment Centers 1181
Return on Investment 1182
Business Connection: Coca-Cola Company: Go West
Young Man 1184
Residual Income 1185
The Balanced Scorecard 1187
Service Focus:Turning Around Charles Schwab 1188
Transfer Pricing 1188
Market Price Approach 1189
Negotiated Price Approach 1190
Cost Price Approach 1192
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
The Ethics of Transfer Prices 1193
Chapter 25 Differential Analysis,
Product Pricing, and
Activity-Based Costing 1218
Differential Analysis 1220
Lease or Sell 1222
Discontinue a Segment or Product 1223
Make or Buy 1225
Replace Equipment 1226
Process or Sell 1228
Accept Business at a Special Price 1229
Business Connection: 60% Off! 1230
Setting Normal Product Selling Prices 1231
Service Focus: Revenue Management 1232
Product Cost Concept 1232
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Price Fixing 1234
Target Costing 1234
Production Bottlenecks 1235
Activity-Based Costing 1237
Estimated Activity Costs 1237
Activity Rates 1238
Overhead Allocation 1238
Business Connection: The ABC's of Schwab 1239
Dangers of Product Cost Distortion 1240
Total and Variable Cost Concepts to
Setting Normal Price 1241
Total Cost Concept 1241
Variable Cost Concept 1244
Chapter 26 Capital Investment
Analysis 1272
Nature of Capital Investment
Analysis 1274
Business Connection: Business Use of Investment
Analysis Methods 1275
Methods Not Using Present Values 1275
Average Rate of Return Method 1275
Cash Payback Method 1276
Methods Using Present Values 1278
Present Value Concepts 1278
Net Present Value Method and
Index 1281
Internal Rate of Return Method 1283
Business Connection: Panera Bread Rate of
Return 1285
Additional Factors in Capital Investment
Analysis 1286
Income Tax 1286
Unequal Proposal Lives 1286
Lease Versus Purchase 1288
Uncertainty 1288
Service Focus: If You Build It, They Will
Come 1288
Changes in Price Levels 1289
Qualitative Considerations 1289
Capital Investment for Sustainability 1289
Integrity, Objectivity, and Ethics in Business:
Assumption Fudging 1290
Capital Rationing 1290
Mornin’ Joe MJ-1
Financial Statements for Mornin’ Joe MJ-2
Financial Statements for Mornin’ Joe
International MJ-5
Appendix A: Interest Tables A-1
Appendix B: International Financial Reporting
Standards (IFRS) B-1
Appendix C: Revenue Recognition C-1
Appendix D: Nike Inc., Form 10-K for the Fiscal
Year Ended May 31, 2016 D-1
Glossary G-1
Index I-1 
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