Advanced 3D-Printed Systems and Nanosystems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering PDF by Lisa C. du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E. Choonara and Viness Pillay

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Advanced 3D-Printed Systems and Nanosystems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering
Edited by Lisa C. du Toit, Pradeep Kumar, Yahya E. Choonara and Viness Pillay
Advanced 3D-Printed Systems and Nanosystems for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering


Contributors ix
Preface xiii
1 Bioinks for 3D printing of artificial extracellular matrices 1
Hitesh Chopra, Sandeep Kumar and Inderbir Singh
1. Introduction 1
2. Printing technologies used in three-dimensional printing 2
3. Application of 3D printing 5
4. Regulatory aspects 6
5. Bioinks 7
6. Novel material for bioink 22
7. Artificial extracellular matrix 24
8. Conclusion 26
References 27
2 Applications of 3D printing for the advancement of oral dosage
forms 39
Arisha Mahmood, Gautam Singhvi, Prachi Manchanda, Murali Monohar
Pandey, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan,
Ali Seyfoddin and Kamal Dua
1. Introduction 39
2. History 41
3. Three-dimensional printing techniques 41
4. Three-dimensional printing in oral dosage form design and
fabrication 45
5. Existing 3D-printed solid oral dosage forms 46
6. Advantages of 3D printing over conventional solid oral dosage forms 48
7. Applications of 3D printing 49
8. Limitations 50
9. The current context of 3D printing over conventional dosage form
techniques 51
10. Major challenges of 3D printing 52
11. Recent trends in the FDA regulation 52
12. Conclusion 53
References 53
3 Recent progress in 3D-printed polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue
engineering 59
Pierre P.D. Kondiah, Yahya E. Choonara, Pariksha J. Kondiah,
Thashree Marimuthu, Lisa C. du Toit, Pradeep Kumar and Viness Pillay
1. Introduction 59
2. Conventional 3D printing methodologies employed in bone
tissueeengineered platforms 60
3. Three-dimensional bioprinting employed for bone tissue engineering 63
4. Progress in 3D-printed natural and synthetic polymeric scaffolds for
bone tissue engineering 66
5. Concluding remarks and future considerations 76
Acknowledgments 77
References 77
4 Inorganic additives to augment the mechanical properties of
3D-printed systems 83
Mostafa Mabrouk, Gehan T. El-Bassyouni, Hanan H. Beherei,
Sayed H. Kenawy and Esmat M.A. Hamzawy
1. Introduction 83
2. Inorganic additives for enhancing the mechanical properties of
scaffolds by 3D printer 90
3. Conclusions 102
References 102
5 Cellulosic materials as bioinks for 3D printing applications 109
Ravindra V. Badhe and Sonali S. Nipate
1. Introduction 109
2. Cellulose for biomedical applications 111
3. Nanostructured cellulose 116
4. Cellulose polymer composites for 3D printing 120
5. Cell-laden celluloseecomposite bioinks for 3D printing 124
6. Future cellulose derivatives with bioink potential and industrial
applicability 126
7. Conclusion 128
References 128
6 4D printing and beyond: where to from here? 139
Lisa C. du Toit, Yahya E. Choonara, Pradeep Kumar and Viness Pillay
1. A definition of 4D printing: time as the fourth dimension 139
2. Intelligent materials for 4D printing 140
3. Emerging 4D printing technologies and their application in drug
delivery and tissue engineering 147
4. Conclusion and future perspectives 154
References 155
7 Nanomaterials combination for wound healing and skin regeneration 159
Nowsheen Goonoo and Archana Bhaw-Luximon
1. Biology of the skin 159
2. Wound healing and repair 162
3. Modeling of the wound healing process 164
4. Clinical methods of wound treatment 166
5. Commercial skin substitutes 168
6. Skin regeneration scaffolds 172
7. Scaffolds and their biological performances 172
8. Nanomaterials combination strategies for enhancing scaffold
performances 181
9. Dual function nanostructured scaffolds: delivery and repair 188
10. Challenges in engineering skin tissue scaffolds 195
11. Future outlooks 202
Abbreviations 202
References 203
8 Nanomedicine advances in cancer therapy 219
Nikita Hinge, Murali Monohar Pandey, Gautam Singhvi, Gaurav Gupta,
Meenu Mehta, Saurabh Satija, Monica Gulati, Harish Dureja and
Kamal Dua
1. Introduction 219
2. Drug targeting 222
3. Nanocarriers in cancer therapy and diagnosis 224
4. Current status of nanomedicines 237
5. Challenges in nanocarrier-based therapy 241
6. Future perspective 243
7. Conclusion 244
References 245
9 Nanomaterials for ocular tissue engineering and regeneration 255
Aditi Pandhare, Priyanka Bhatt and Yashwant Pathak
1. Introduction 255
2. Tissue-engineering and regeneration in ophthalmology 256
3. Ocular regeneration in frogs for comparison 258
4. Nanosystems of additive and arrestive tissue engineering 259
5. Stem cells for ocular tissue regeneration 261
6. Corneal regeneration 263
7. Nanotechnology-based systems and therapeutic approaches for
treating ocular disorders 268
8. Nanomaterial and therapeutic applications for ocular regeneration 269
9. Effects of nanomedicine on retinal dysfunction, blindness, and
ocular treatment 271
10. Conclusion 273
References 273
10 Nanotechnological paradigms for neurodegenerative disease
interventions 277
Pierre P.D. Kondiah, Yahya E. Choonara, Thashree Marimuthu,
Pariksha J. Kondiah, Lisa C. du Toit, Pradeep Kumar and Viness Pillay
1. Introduction 277
2. Nanoparticulate strategies for drug delivery platforms 278
3. Scaffolds for three-dimensional culture of neural cells 284
4. Conclusion and future outlook 290
Acknowledgments 290
References 290
Index 293

Three-dimensional (3D)-printed systems and nanosystems are highly progressive and evolving technologies that are rapidly etching their position in the realm of drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Three-dimensional printing is rapidly forging its niche as an advanced and transformative build technology holding significant application in pharmaceutical sciences for creating bioinspired solid 3D devices from a digital model with customizable, complex shapes, surfaces, and architectures, employing diverse materials. The noteworthy applications of 3D printing in pharmaceutical research include the design of personalized 3D-printed oral tablets, drug delivery devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds.

Nanostructures boasting diverse components, functionalities, and synergy are the current focus of the biomedical arena. Biomaterials such as nanostructured materials/ nanomaterials, which are materials possessing a nano/microstructure scale length in the order ofw1e1000 nm, have been lauded as a novel frontier for tissue engineering in diverse soft and hard tissues, with increased publications emanating in the last couple of decades in this regard.

The convergence of biofabrication with nanotechnology is a largely unexplored but a growing focus for constructing directional customizable biomaterial arrangements for promoting tissue regeneration, combined with the potential for controlled bioactive delivery. The impetus for this nanoprogression in 3D printing lies with the fact that nanostructures, including nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanofibers smaller than 500 nm, are poised to simulate native biological systems, thus enabling tissue regeneration via cell growth. Biopolymer matrix and nanostructure interactions emanate in these nanostructured materials possessing enhanced functionality and mechanical properties.

This book will exemplify the intricacies of nanostructures and 3D-printed systems in terms of their design as drug delivery or tissue engineering devices, their evaluation, and diverse applications.

The target audience of this book is academics, specifically pharmaceutical scientists, biomedical engineers, and material scientists focused on the design of drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue scaffolds from biomaterials, and professionals, including clinicians having an interest in the areas of advanced drug delivery systems for enhanced patient treatment and tissue engineering for both soft and hard tissue repair and regeneration.

A key goal of this book is to instill a realization of the progression in the fields of drug delivery and tissue engineering to create systems which are intelligent, biomimetic, and customized to the patient. Nanotechnology and 3D printing are two realms of technological advancement that are propelling these fields forward to greater levels of advancement for the enhanced treatment of diseases and tissue injury.

The book is structured in terms of these two technological realms, 3D printing and nanotechnology, and comprises 10 chapters written by leading scientific experts in these respective fields. The first six chapters are focused on 3D printing, with the first chapter introducing us to bioinks for printing of extracellular matrices, followed by chapters on 3D printing of oral dosage forms and scaffolds for tissue engineering.

We then delve into the potential of inorganic additives for enhancing the mechanical properties of 3D-printed constructs and subsequently focus on specialized bioinks in the form of cellulosic materials. To sum up this section, we investigate the advancing realm of 4D printing as the intelligent extension of 3D printing. The following four chapters focus on distinct areas of nanotechnological advancement within the pharmaceutical nanotechnological arena in terms of wound and ocular tissue regeneration, and specialized therapies targeted at the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

We thank and acknowledge the publishers, our contributing authors, and our research team at the Wits Advanced Drug Delivery Platform Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, for making this book possible. A special gratitude goes to John Leonard, Simon Holt, Emily Thomson, and the other staff at Elsevier for bringing this project to fruition, and we trust it will be an important contribution to the fields of pharmaceutical nanotechnology and 3D printing.
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