Advances in Laser Materials Processing: Technology, Research and Applications PDF by Jonathan Lawrence

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Advances in Laser Materials Processing: Technology, Research and Applications
Edited by Jonathan Lawrence
Advances in Laser Materials Processing: Technology, Research and Applications

CONTENTS

Contributors xv
Preface xix
1. "Light" Industry: An Overview of the Impact of Lasers
on Manufacturing 1
M. Sparkes, W.M. Steen
1.1 The Laser, and the Generation of a Mature Industry 1
1.2 Economic Impact of Laser Materials Processing 7
1.3 The Developing Application Space 8
1.4 Future Predictions 17
References 19
2. The Challenges Ahead for Laser Macro, Micro and Nano
Manufacturing 23
J. Lawrence, L. Li
2.1 Introduction 23
2.2 Laser Cutting 23
2.3 Laser Welding 29
2.4 Laser Drilling 32
2.5 Laser Surface Engineering 34
2.6 Additive Multiple Layer Manufacturing 35
2.7 Micro/Nano Fabrication 36
2.8 Fundamental Beam/Material Interactions and Process Modeling 40
2.9 Laser Systems 41
2.10 Conclusions 41
References 42
3. Laser Fusion Cutting of Difficult Materials 43
J. Lawrence, A. Riveiro, F. Quintero, J. Pou
3.1 Introduction 43
3.2 Principles Involved in Fusion Laser Cutting 44
3.3 Experiences in Laser Cutting of Difficult Materials 45
3.4 Attempts to Improve Cutting Process 50
3.5 Conclusions 62
Acknowledgments 62
References 62
4. Laser-Assisted Glass Cleaving 69
J. Lawrence, Y.L. Kuo, J. Lin
4.1 Introduction 69
4.2 The Multiple Laser System 70
4.3 Numerical Simulation 71
4.4 Numerical Results and Discussions 74
4.5 Crack Propagation in Laser Cleaving 81
4.6 Conclusions 85
Acknowledgments 86
References 86
Further Reading 87
5. Laser Dicing of Silicon and Electronics Substrates 89
I. Mingareev, C. Fornaroli, A. Gillner
5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Industrial Dicing Processes for Silicon and Electronic Substrates 90
5.3 Dicing of Silicon With Ultra-Fast Laser Radiation 96
5.4 Explanation of Surface Phenomena During Laser Dicing Processes 103
5.5 Factors Influencing the Aspect Ratio During Laser Dicing Processes 105
5.6 Increasing Dicing Modification Depth Using High-Repetition-Rate
Femtosecond Laser Radiation and Spatial Beam Shaping 115
References 118
6. Laser Machining of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic
Composites 121
P. Jäschke, V. Wippo, S. Bluemel, R. Staehr, H. Dittmar
6.1 Introduction 121
6.2 Welding of Thermoplastic Composites 124
6.3 Cutting of Composite Structures 132
6.4 Repair Preparation for Composites 140
6.5 Process Emissions 147
References 149
7. Understanding and Improving Process Control in Pulsed
and Continuous Wave Laser Welding 153
J. Lawrence, S. Katayama
7.1 Introduction 153
7.2 Laser Spot Welding Results, and Formation Mechanisms and Suppression
Procedures of Welding Defects 154
7.3 CW Laser Welding Results, and Formation Mechanisms and Suppression
Procedures of Welding Defects 166
7.4 Conclusions 180
References 181
8. Laser Microspot Welding in Electronics Production 185
J. Lawrence, I. Mys, M. Schmidt
8.1 Introduction 185
8.2 State-Of-The-Art 186
8.3 Micro Welding of Copper and Aluminum 189
8.4 Reliability of Copper-Aluminum Welded Joints 197
8.5 Conclusions 201
References 201
9. Laser Arc Hybrid Welding 203
B. Acherjee
9.1 Introduction 203
9.2 Laser MIG/MAG Hybrid Welding 210
9.3 Laser TIG Hybrid Welding 211
9.4 Laser PAW Hybrid Welding 213
9.5 Laser Arc Hybrid Welding Parameters 214
9.6 Improvements of Performance Characteristics and Weld Quality 221
9.7 Industrial Applications 224
9.8 Safety 227
9.9 Conclusion 229
References 231
10. Influencing the Weld Pool During Laser Welding 235
S. Nothdurft, A. Springer, S. Kaierle
10.1 Introduction 235
10.2 Approaches and Methods for Manipulating Weld-Pool Dynamics 238
10.3 Ultrasound-Assisted Laser-Beam Welding 244
Acknowledgments 254
References 255
11. Laser Transformation Hardening of Steel 257
A.K. Nath, S. Sarkar
11.1 Introduction 257
11.2 Recent Developments 268
11.3 Future Trends 291
11.4 Conclusion 293
References 293
12. Pulsed Laser Annealing Technology for Nano-Scale
Fabrication of Silicon-Based Devices in Semiconductors 299
J. Lawrence, K.L. Pey, P.S. Lee
12.1 Introduction 299
12.2 Laser-Induced Formation of p/n Junction 300
12.3 Laser-Induced Formation of Silicide 322
12.4 Conclusions and Future Trends 334
References 335
13. Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Techniques and Applications 339
M. Morales, D. Munoz-Martin, A. Marquez, S. Lauzurica, C. Molpeceres
13.1 Introduction 339
13.2 LIFT Experimental Setup 341
13.3 LIFT Physical Processes 344
13.4 Variations of LIFT 352
13.5 Applications of LIFT 357
13.6 Conclusions 370
Acknowledgments 371
References 371
14. Production of Biomaterial Coatings by Laser-Assisted Processes 381
J. Lawrence, J. Pou, F. Lusquiños, R. Comesaña, M. Boutinguiza
14.1 Introduction 381
14.2 The Laser Way to Produce Coatings 382
14.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition of Bioceramics 383
14.4 Laser Cladding of Bioceramics 394
14.5 Conclusions 406
References 406
15. Thick Metallic Coatings Produced by Coaxial and Side
Laser Cladding: Processing and Properties 413
J. Lawrence, V. Ocelík, J.T.M. De Hosson
15.1 Introduction 413
15.2 Coaxial Laser Cladding Geometry and Theoretical Calculations 428
15.3 Experimental Evaluation of Coaxial and Side Cladding Processes 432
15.4 Statistical Relations Between Processing Parameters
and Laser Track Geometry 435
15.5 Microstructural Characteristics and Properties of Thick Metallic Coatings 444
15.6 Conclusions 455
Acknowledgments 457
References 457
16. Laser Consolidation—A Rapid Manufacturing Process
for Making Net-Shape Functional Components 461
L. Xue
16.1 Introduction 461
16.2 Process Description 462
16.3 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Consolidated
(LC) Materials 463
16.4 Case Studies of Various Industrial Applications 484
16.5 Future Trend of the Technology 501
Acknowledgments 502
References 502
17. Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Processes 507
H. Sahasrabudhe, S. Bose, A. Bandyopadhyay
17.1 Introduction 507
17.2 Techniques 509
17.3 Materials Processed Using Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Techniques 514
17.4 Materials Used in Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Techniques 518
17.5 Applications 526
17.6 Summary and Future Trends 532
References 535
18. Direct Infrared Laser Machining of Semiconductors
for Electronics Applications 541
I. Mingareev, L. Shah, M. Richardson, M. Ramme
18.1 Introduction 541
18.2 Main Principles of Laser-Matter Interactions 543
18.3 Infrared Ultrashort Pulse Laser Processing 550
18.4 Infrared Nanosecond Pulse Laser Processing 557
18.5 Summary 567
References 569
19. Laser Processing of Direct-Write Nano-Sized Materials 571
J. Lawrence, O.F. Swenson, V. Marinov
19.1 Introduction 571
19.2 Direct-Write Deposition of Nano-Sized Materials 572
19.3 Background of Nano-Sized Materials Sintering 576
19.4 Laser Sintering of Direct-Write Nano-Sized Materials 580
19.5 Future Trends 590
19.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice 591
Acknowledgments 592
References 592
20. Micro- and Nano-Parts Generated by Laser-Based Solid
Freeform Fabrication 595
J. Lawrence, A. Ostendorf, A. Neumeister, S. Dudziak, S. Passinger, J. Stampfl
20.1 Introduction 595
20.2 Manufacturing Based on Photopolymerization 598
20.3 Materials for Micro Stereolithography and Two-Photon Laser Lithography 614
20.4 Manufacturing Based on Sintering, Melting, and Cladding 618
20.5 Materials for Micro Sintering, Melting, and Cladding 628
20.6 Conclusions 630
References 630
Further Reading 633
21. Laser-Assisted Additive Fabrication of Micro-Sized Coatings 635
R.M. Mahamood, E.T. Akinlabi
21.1 Introduction 635
21.2 Types of Micro-Sized Coatings and Their Areas of Applications 637
21.3 Laser Based Additive Manufacturing for Micro-Sized Coatings 638
21.4 Case Studies: Fabrication of Ti6Al4V and TiC/Ti6Al4V Composite
on Ti6Al4V Substrate Using Laser Metal Deposition Process 646
21.5 Summary 661
Acknowledgments 661
References 661
Further Reading 664
22. Multiphysics Modelling of Laser Solid Freeform
Fabrication Techniques 665
J. Lawrence, M. Alimardani, C.P. Paul, E. Toyserkani, A. Khajepour
22.1 Introduction 665
22.2 Physics of LSFF 668
22.3 Multiphysics Modelling of LSFF Processes 672
22.4 Numerical Multiphysics Modelling—A Case Study 677
22.5 Conclusions 689
References 690
23. Process Control of Laser Materials Processing 693
J. Lawrence, R.T. Deam
23.1 Introduction 693
23.2 Theory 694
23.3 Experiments 699
23.4 Experimental Results 700
23.5 Discussion 703
23.6 Conclusions 705
Acknowledgments 706
References 706
24. Development of Laser Processing Technologies
via Experimental Design 707
H. Sohrabpoor, A. Issa, A. Al Hamaoy, I.U. Ahad, E. Chikarakara,
K. Bagga, D. Brabazon
24.1 Introduction 707
24.2 Design of Experiments (DoE) Methods 709
24.3 Modeling and Optimization of Laser Processes With Nonconventional
Approaches 716
24.4 Experimental Analysis of Laser Processing 718
24.5 Conclusion 726
References 727
25. Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Reliability
of Laser-Machined Structures 731
M. Mehrpouya, H. Lavvafi, A. Darafsheh
25.1 Introduction 731
25.2 Laser Micromachining and Its Features 732
25.3 Laser Sources for Laser Machining 736
25.4 Methods of Microstructure and Surface Evaluation 742
25.5 Mechanical Characteristics and Laser-Induced Thermal Effects 746
25.6 Summary 756
References 757
Index 763
 
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