Biomass and Bioenergy: Applications PDF by Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Mohammad Jawaid and Umer Rashid

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Biomass and Bioenergy: Applications
By Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Mohammad Jawaid and Umer Rashid
Biomass and Bioenergy: Applications

Contents

1 Non-wood Renewable Materials: Properties Improvement
and Its Application ........................................................... 1
Rudi Dungani, H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, Ihak Sumardi,
Yoyo Suhaya, Endah Sulistyawati, Md. Nazrul Islam,
N. L. M. Suraya, and N. A. Sri Aprilia
2 Jatropha curcas L.: A Future Energy Crop
with Enormous Potential ........................................................................ 31
A. K. M. Aminul Islam, Zahira Yaakob, Jaharah A. Ghani,
and Nurina Anuar
3 Upgrading of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch
to Value-Added Products ........................................................................ 63
Mustakimah Mohamed, Suzana Yusup, Wahyudiono,
Siti Machmudah, Motonobu Goto, and Yoshimitsu Uemura
4 Bioenergy Derived from Electrochemically Active Biofi lms ............... 79
Mohammad Mansoob Khan
5 In-Situ Transesterifi cation Reaction for Biodiesel Production ........... 89
Ahmad Hafi idz Mohammad Fauzi, Ramli Mat, and Anwar Johari
6 Abaca Fiber: A Renewable Bio-resource for Industrial
Uses and Other Applications .................................................................. 107
Romel B. Armecin, Feliciano G. Sinon, and Luz O. Moreno
7 Microalgal Biomass as a Source of Renewable Energy ....................... 119
Syed Hammad Raza, Syed Harris Husssain,
Asad Abdullah Shahid, Uzair Hashmi, and Alvina Gul Kazi
8 Lignocellulosic Biomass: As Future Alternative
for Bioethanol Production ...................................................................... 145
Tanveer Bilal Pirzadah, Bisma Malik, Manoj Kumar,
and Reiaz Ul Rehman
9 Utilization of Sawmill By-Product for Making Cellulose
and Its Valuable Derivatives................................................................... 165
M. Jonayed Choudhury and G. M. Arifuzzaman Khan
10 Upgrading of Oil Palm Biomass to Value- Added Products ................ 187
Anli Geng
11 Polylactic Acid-Based Kenaf Biomass Synthesized via Ring
Opening Polymerization ......................................................................... 211
S. M. Nurhafi zah, H. Anuar, M. Mel, S. M. Sapuan,
and M. N. Nur Aimi
12 Chemical Functionalization of Cellulosic Fibers
for Green Polymer Composites Applications ....................................... 233
Manju Kumari Thakur, Aswinder Rana, and Vijay Kumar Thakur
13 Kapok Fiber: Applications ..................................................................... 251
Yian Zheng and Aiqin Wang
14 Nanofi brillated Cellulose: Sustainable Nanofi ller
with Broad Potentials Use ...................................................................... 267
Sami Boufi
15 Unlocking the Destructive Powers of Wood- Eating Termites:
From Pest to Biopolymer Derivatives Extractor .................................. 307
Kit-Ling Chin, Paik-San H’ng, and M. T. Paridah
16 Agricultural Residues from Crop Harvesting and Processing:
A Renewable Source of Bio-Energy ...................................................... 323
M. Ahiduzzaman, A. K. M. Aminul Islam, Zahira Yaakob,
Jaharah A. Ghani, and Nurina Anuar
17 Application of Micro- or Small-Scale Biomass- Derived
Fuel System for Power Generation ........................................................ 339
Sujan Chowdhury, Madiha Yasir, Yoshimitsu Uemura,
Norani Muti Mohamed, Azhar Uddin, and Takashi Yanagida
18 Application of Biomass-Derived Catalyst ............................................. 369
N. Saba, Mohammad Jawaid, and M. T. Paridah
Index ..................................................... 399
 
Chapter 1
Non-wood Renewable Materials: Properties
Improvement and Its Application

Contents
1.1 Introduction ...................................................................... 2
1.2 The Overview of Selected Non-wood Biomass ................................................................ 3
1.2.1 Properties of Non-wood Biomass and Fibers ........................................................ 4
1.2.2 Availability of Non-wood Biomass and Fibers ...................................................... 9
1.3 Improvement of Properties ................................................................................................ 14
1.3.1 Physical Modifi cation ............................................................................................ 14
1.3.2 Chemical Modifi cation .......................................................................................... 15
1.3.3 Mechanical Modifi cation ....................................................................................... 17
1.3.4 Others .................................................................................................................... 18
1.4 Wood Versus Non-wood Materials: Similarities and Differences
in Various Applications ..................................................................................................... 18
1.4.1 Morphological and Chemical of Fiber Wood and Non-wood ............................... 18
1.4.2 Wood and Non-wood in Composites Applications ................................................ 20
1.5 Various Application of Modifi ed Non-wood Products ...................................................... 22
1.5.1 Structure Application ............................................................................................. 22
1.5.2 Furniture Application............................................................................................. 24
1.5.3 Sport Goods ........................................................................................................... 24
1.5.4 Automotive ............................................................................................................ 24
1.5.5 Others .................................................................................................................... 25
1.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................. 25
References ........................................................................................................... 26

Abstract 
Plant biomass are woody and non-wood materials (e.g., oil palm, bamboo, rattan, bagasse, and kenaf) and are abundant and renewable resource. Unfortunately, the heavy reliance on this resource is a threat to forest ecosystems and a recipe for accelerated land resource degradation. Due to the increasing scarcity of wood resources, many rural communities have shifted to utilization of crop residues for many different applications. The non-wood biomass is readily available, environmental friendly, and technologically suitable, and therefore, an excellent raw material for the future. The non-wood materials like bamboo, rattan, oil palm, and bagasse have superior properties and durability, which can be further prolonged by the modifi cation treatment. The modifi cation treatments increase the performance of the non-wood and could make it suitable for applications in many fi elds ranging from construction industry to automotive industry. This chapter deals with the properties improvement techniques of the selected non-wood biomasses and evaluates its applications for various purposes. The new developments dealing with the improvement of non-wood properties have also been presented in the chapter. The performance of non-wood biomass materials has been compared to the wood-based materials. Recent studies pertaining to the above topics have also been cited. Finally, the advanced applications of the improved non-wood biomasses have been highlighted.

Keywords Non-wood biomass • Biocomposites • Properties improvment • Fibers

1.1 Introduction
Fossil resource-based industry has serious negative impact on the global environment due to the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, along with a number of other pollution problems. Non-wood biomass (agricultural waste) is the most abundant resource and one that is also renewable. However, it also has various advantages of a techno-economical. Utilization of non-wood biomass has been based on the paradigm of a fossil resource-based society, and thus, it is critically important to establish sustainable production and utilization system for material, especially those in tropical regions where resources and biodiversity are plentiful.

In subtropical and tropical region, non-wood biomass are natural resources which plays very important role in the daily life of millions people. Traditionally, the main uses of non-wood biomass in ropes and twines mainly produced through cottage industries. Non-wood, especially, in a form of fi bers is converted into yarn, string, ropes, fl oor mats, bags, fl oor and wall coverings, and different handicrafts.

Meanwhile, the modern processing techniques have considerably extended their usefulness. Non-wood biomass are very promising alternative material because it is economical, renewable, and processable material that has been shown to exhibit equal or better physical and mechanical properties and comparable to some commercial wood species. Therefore, it is becoming more important to establish sustainable and renewable resources for societies. In addition, establishment of basic science and technology dealing with lignocellulosic materials, including bamboo, oil palm, rattan, and bagasse, is indispensable to the promotion of nonwood industries of tropical countries.

Polymers and reinforcing fi bers from renewable resources, e.g., annual plants or non-wood, is one way to produce renewable and biodegradable composite materials for various applications such as furniture, automotive components, structural, and others. In the composite industry, non-wood fi bers are used to produce a wide variety of products with different properties: fi ber as fi ller reinforcement, biofi ller, fi ber for polymer composite, upholstery material, packaging materials such as board and corrugated board, and fl uff products for diapers.

The declining supply of raw material causing concern and in this context the natural fi ber material can be seen as a good alternative material for the local timber industry to produce value-added biocomposite product in tropical countries. Biocomposite product needs further development as a long-term strategy to develop the tremendous wealth of non-wood (natural plant) fi ber that is currently under utilized. Interest in using non-wood biomass, which is predominantly lignocellulosic materials, in the production of biocomposites has gained momentum in recent years. The non-wood biomass has not been fully exploited as source cellulosic fi ber, principally to biocomposites technology development. Lignocellulosic, in this context, is referring to a non-wood biomass fi bers which have different properties due to differences in chemical composition and morphological of fi bers (Abdul Khalil et al. 2012 ). Malaysia and Indonesia produce total of over 90 % of lignocellulosic material from oil palm industry only (Yuliansyah et al. 2009 ). Other lignocellulosic source mentioned was sugar cane bagasse, bamboo, rattan, and natural fi bers (kenaf).
 
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