Chemistry, 10th Edition PDF by Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl and Donald J. DeCoste

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Chemistry, 10th Edition
By Steven S. Zumdahl, Susan A. Zumdahl and Donald J. DeCoste
Chemistry, 10th Edition

Contents

To the Professor ix
To the Student xiii
Chapter 1 | Chemical Foundations 1
1.1 Chemistry: An Overview 3
1.2 The Scientific Method 5
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS A Note-able Achievement 7
1.3 Units of Measurement 8
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Critical Units! 10
1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement 11
1.5 Significant Figures and Calculations 14
1.6 Learning to Solve Problems Systematically 18
1.7 Dimensional Analysis 18
1.8 Temperature 22
1.9 Density 26
1.10 Classification of Matter 27
For Review 31 ∣ Key Terms 31 ∣ Questions and Exercises 33
Chapter 2 | Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 35
2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 36
2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 37
2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 40
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Berzelius, Selenium, and
Silicon 42
2.4 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 42
2.5 The Modern View of Atomic Structure:
An Introduction 46
2.6 Molecules and Ions 48
2.7 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 51
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Hassium Fits Right In 53
2.8 Naming Simple Compounds 53
For Review 64 ∣ Key Terms 64 ∣ Questions and Exercises 66
Chapter 3 | Stoichiometry 68
3.1 Counting by Weighing 69
3.2 Atomic Masses 70
3.3 The Mole 72
3.4 Molar Mass 77
3.5 Learning to Solve Problems 80
3.6 Percent Composition of Compounds 81
3.7 Determining the Formula of a Compound 83
3.8 Chemical Equations 90
3.9 Balancing Chemical Equations 92
3.10 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants
and Products 95
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS High Mountains—Low
Octane 96
3.11 The Concept of Limiting Reactant 100
For Review 111 ∣ Key Terms 111 ∣ Questions and Exercises 115
Chapter 4 | Types of Chemical Reactions
and Solution Stoichiometry 116
4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 117
4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and
Weak Electrolytes 119
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Arrhenius: A Man with
Solutions 122
4.3 The Composition of Solutions 123
4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 130
4.5 Precipitation Reactions 131
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Tiny Laboratories 135
4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 136
4.7 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 138
4.8 Acid–Base Reactions 140
4.9 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 147
4.10 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 152
4.11 Simple Oxidation–Reduction Titrations 158
For Review 160 ∣ Key Terms 160 ∣ Questions and Exercises 163
Chapter 5 | Gases 164
5.1 Pressure 165
5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and
Avogadro 167
5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 173
5.4 Gas Stoichiometry 179
5.5 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 183
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Separating Gases 185
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Chemistry of Air
Bags 186
5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 189
5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 196
5.8 Real Gases 198
5.9 Characteristics of Several Real Gases 201
5.10 Chemistry in the Atmosphere 202
For Review 205 ∣ Key Terms 205 ∣ Questions and Exercises 208
Chapter 6 | Thermochemistry 210
6.1 The Nature of Energy 211
6.2 Enthalpy and Calorimetry 218
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Nature Has Hot
Plants 221
6.3 Hess’s Law 225
6.4 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 229
6.5 Present Sources of Energy 236
6.6 New Energy Sources 240
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Farming the Wind 242
For Review 247 ∣ Key Terms 247 ∣ Questions and Exercises 249
Chapter 7 | Atomic Structure and
Periodicity 251
7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 252
7.2 The Nature of Matter 254
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Fireworks 256
7.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 260
7.4 The Bohr Model 262
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS 0.035 Femtometer Is a Big
Deal 265
7.5 The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom 266
7.6 Quantum Numbers 269
7.7 Orbital Shapes and Energies 270
7.8 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle 273
7.9 Polyelectronic Atoms 274
7.10 The History of the Periodic Table 276
7.11 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 278
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Chemistry of
Copernicium 279
7.12 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 284
7.13 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals 291
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Potassium—Too Much of a
Good Thing Can Kill You 293
For Review 295 ∣ Key Terms 295 ∣ Questions and Exercises 298
Chapter 8 | Bonding: General Concepts 300
8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 301
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS No Lead Pencils 303
8.2 Electronegativity 305
8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 307
8.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 310
8.5 Energy Effects in Binary Ionic Compounds 314
8.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 318
8.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 319
8.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical
Reactions 322
8.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 325
8.10 Lewis Structures 325
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Nitrogen Under
Pressure 329
8.11 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 329
8.12 Resonance 333
8.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model 337
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Chemical Structure and
Communication: Semiochemicals 346
For Review 350 ∣ Key Terms 350 ∣ Questions and Exercises 352
Chapter 9 | Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 354
9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron
Model 355
9.2 The Molecular Orbital Model 366
9.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 369
9.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 376
9.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular
Orbital Models 377
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS What’s Hot? 378
For Review 380 ∣ Key Terms 380 ∣ Questions and Exercises 382
Chapter 10 | Liquids and Solids 383
10.1 Intermolecular Forces 385
10.2 The Liquid State 390
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Smart Fluids 392
10.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of
Solids 393
10.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals 397
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Closest Packing of
M & Ms 402
10.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids 403
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Graphene—Miracle
Substance? 405
10.6 Molecular Solids 410
10.7 Ionic Solids 412
10.8 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State 415
10.9 Phase Diagrams 422
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Making Diamonds at Low
Pressures: Fooling Mother Nature 426
For Review 428 ∣ Key Terms 428 ∣ Questions and Exercises 431
Chapter 11 | Properties of Solutions 433
11.1 Solution Composition 434
11.2 The Energies of Solution Formation 437
11.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 441
11.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions 445
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Lake Nyos
Tragedy 446
11.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point
Depression 451
11.6 Osmotic Pressure 454
11.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 459
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Drink of Champions—
Water 461
11.8 Colloids 461
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Organisms and Ice
Formation 462
For Review 463 ∣ Key Terms 463 ∣ Questions and Exercises 466
Chapter 12 | Chemical Kinetics 467
12.1 Reaction Rates 468
12.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction 472
12.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law 474
12.4 The Integrated Rate Law 478
12.5 Reaction Mechanisms 489
12.6 A Model for Chemical Kinetics 494
12.7 Catalysis 500
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Enzymes: Nature’s
Catalysts 504
For Review 506 ∣ Key Terms 506 ∣ Questions and Exercises 509
Chapter 13 | Chemical Equilibrium 510
13.1 The Equilibrium Condition 511
13.2 The Equilibrium Constant 514
13.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures 518
13.4 Heterogeneous Equilibria 520
13.5 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant 522
13.6 Solving Equilibrium Problems 531
13.7 Le Châtelier’s Principle 536
For Review 543 ∣ Key Terms 543 ∣ Questions and Exercises 546
Chapter 14 | Acids and Bases 548
14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 549
14.2 Acid Strength 552
14.3 The pH Scale 557
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Arnold Beckman, Man of
Science 559
14.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 560
14.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 562
14.6 Bases 571
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Amines 575
14.7 Polyprotic Acids 576
14.8 Acid–Base Properties of Salts 582
14.9 The Effect of Structure on Acid–Base
Properties 587
14.10 Acid–Base Properties of Oxides 589
14.11 The Lewis Acid–Base Model 589
14.12 Strategy for Solving Acid–Base Problems:
A Summary 592
For Review 592 ∣ Key Terms 592 ∣ Questions and Exercises 597
Chapter 15 | Acid–Base Equilibria 599
15.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a
Common Ion 600
15.2 Buffered Solutions 602
15.3 Buffering Capacity 611
15.4 Titrations and pH Curves 615
15.5 Acid–Base Indicators 629
15.6 Polyprotic Acid Titrations 634
For Review 636 ∣ Key Terms 636 ∣ Questions and Exercises 638
Chapter 16 | Solubility and Complex Ion
Equilibria 640
16.1 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product 641
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Chemistry of
Teeth 645
16.2 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis 649
16.3 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 656
For Review 661 ∣ Key Terms 661 ∣ Questions and Exercises 663
Chapter 17 | Spontaneity, Entropy,
and Free Energy 664
17.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy 665
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Entropy: An Organizing
Force? 671
17.2 Entropy and the Second Law of
Thermodynamics 671
17.3 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity 672
17.4 Free Energy 675
17.5 Entropy Changes in Aqueous Solutions 678
17.6 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions 679
17.7 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions 683
17.8 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure 689
17.9 Free Energy and Equilibrium 692
17.10 Free Energy and Work 697
For Review 699 ∣ Key Terms 699 ∣ Questions and Exercises 701
Chapter 18 | Electrochemistry 703
18.1 Galvanic Cells 704
18.2 Standard Reduction Potentials 706
18.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free
Energy 714
18.4 Dependence of Cell Potential on
Concentration 717
18.5 Batteries 722
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Fuel Cells—Portable
Energy 725
18.6 Corrosion 726
18.7 Electrolysis 728
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Chemistry of Sunken
Treasure 732
18.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes 733
For Review 738 ∣ Key Terms 738 ∣ Questions and Exercises 741
Chapter 19 | The Nucleus: A Chemist’s
View 743
19.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay 744
19.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay 749
19.3 Nuclear Transformations 752
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Tennessine 753
19.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity 754
19.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus 758
19.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 762
19.7 Effects of Radiation 766
For Review 768 ∣ Key Terms 768 ∣ Questions and Exercises 770
Chapter 20 | The Representative
Elements 772
20.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements 773
20.2 The Group 1A Elements 778
20.3 The Chemistry of Hydrogen 779
20.4 The Group 2A Elements 781
20.5 The Group 3A Elements 783
20.6 The Group 4A Elements 784
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Beethoven: Hair Is the
Story 786
20.7 The Group 5A Elements 787
20.8 The Chemistry of Nitrogen 788
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Nitrous Oxide: Laughing Gas
That Propels Whipped Cream and Cars 794
20.9 The Chemistry of Phosphorus 795
20.10 The Group 6A Elements 797
20.11 The Chemistry of Oxygen 797
20.12 The Chemistry of Sulfur 799
20.13 The Group 7A Elements 801
20.14 The Group 8A Elements 805
For Review 806 ∣ Key Terms 806 ∣ Questions and Exercises 809
Chapter 21 | Transition Metals and
Coordination Chemistry 810
21.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey 811
21.2 The First-Row Transition Metals 816
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Titanium Dioxide—Miracle
Coating 818
21.3 Coordination Compounds 821
21.4 Isomerism 825
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS The Importance of
Being cis 828
21.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron
Model 830
21.6 The Crystal Field Model 832
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Transition Metal Ions Lend
Color to Gems 835
21.7 The Biological Importance of Coordination
Complexes 838
21.8 Metallurgy and Iron and Steel Production 843
For Review 850 ∣ Key Terms 850 ∣ Questions and Exercises 853
Chapter 22 | Organic and Biological
Molecules 854
22.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons 855
22.2 Alkenes and Alkynes 863
22.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 866
22.4 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 868
22.5 Polymers 874
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Wallace Hume
Carothers 875
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Super-Slippery Slope 876
22.6 Natural Polymers 881
CHEMICAL CONNECTIONS Tanning in the
Shade 889
For Review 896 ∣ Key Terms 896 ∣ Questions and Exercises 900
Appendix 1 | Mathematical Procedures A1
A1.1 Exponential Notation A1
A1.2 Logarithms A4
A1.3 Graphing Functions A6
A1.4 Solving Quadratic Equations A7
A1.5 Uncertainties in Measurements A10
Appendix 2 | The Quantitative Kinetic
Molecular Model A14
Appendix 3 | Spectral Analysis A18
Appendix 4 | Selected Thermodynamic
Data A21
Appendix 5 | Equilibrium Constants and
Reduction Potentials A24
A5.1 Values of Ka for Some Common Monoprotic
Acids A24
A5.2 Stepwise Dissociation Constants for Several
Common Polyprotic Acids A24
A5.3 Values of Kb for Some Common Weak Bases A25
A5.4 Ksp Values at 258C for Common Ionic Solids A25
A5.5 Standard Reduction Potentials at 258C (298 K) for
Many Common Half-Reactions A26
Appendix 6 | SI Units and Conversion
Factors A27
Appendix 7 | Molecular Spectroscopy:
An Introduction A28
Answers to Selected Exercises A31
Index A65
 
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