**Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Science, 10th Edition**

by Frederick J Gravetter, Larry B. Wall nau, Lori-Ann B. Forzano and James E. Witnauer

Introduction to Statistics 1

PRE VIEW 2

1-1 Statistics and Behavioral Sciences 3

1-2 Observations, Measurement, and Variables 11

1-3 Three Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics 19

1-4 Statistical Notation 28

Summary 32

Focus on Problem Solving 33

Demonstration 1.1 33

SPSS® 34

Problems 38

Frequency Distributions 43

PRE VIEW 44

2-1 Frequency Distributions and Frequency Distribution Tables 45

2-2 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables 51

2-3 Frequency Distribution Graphs 54

2-4 Stem and Leaf Displays 62

Summary 64

Focus on Problem Solving 65

Demonstration 2.1 65

Demonstration 2.2 66

SPSS® 67

Problems 70

Central Tendency 73

PRE VIEW 74

3-1 Overview 75

3-2 The Mean 77

3-3 The Median 85

3-4 The Mode 90

3-5 Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution 92

3-6 Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency 94

Summary 101

Focus on Problem Solving 101

Demonstration 3.1 102

SPSS® 102

Problems 106

Variability 109

PRE VIEW 110

4-1 Introduction to Variability 111

4-2 Defining Variance and Standard Deviation 116

4-3 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population 121

4-4 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample 124

4-5 Sample Variance as an Unbiased Statistic 130

4-6 More about Variance and Standard Deviation 133

Summary 141

Focus on Problem Solving 142

Demonstration 4.1 142

SPSS® 143

Problems 145

z-Scores: Location of Scores

and Standardized Distributions 149

PRE VIEW 150

5-1 Introduction 151

5-2 z-Scores and Locations in a Distribution 152

5-3 Other Relationships between z, X, the Mean,

and the Standard Deviation 157

5-4 Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution 160

5-5 Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores 164

5-6 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 167

Summary 170

Focus on Problem Solving 170

Demonstration 5.1 171

Demonstration 5.2 171

SPSS® 172

Problems 174

Probability 177

PRE VIEW 178

6-1 Introduction to Probability 179

6-2 Probability and the Normal Distribution 184

6-3 Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal

Distribution 192

6-4 Percentiles and Percentile Ranks 198

6-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 203

Summary 205

Focus on Problem Solving 206

Demonstration 6.1 206

SPSS® 207

Problems 210

Probability and Samples: The Distribution

of Sample Means 213

PRE VIEW 214

7-1 Samples, Populations, and the Distribution of Sample Means 214

7-2 Shape, Central Tendency, and Variability for the Distribution

of Sample Means 219

7-3 z-Scores and Probability for Sample Means 226

7-4 More about Standard Error 230

7-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 235

Summary 238

Focus on Problem Solving 239

Demonstration 7.1 239

SPSS® 240

Problems 240

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 243

PREVIEW 244

8-1 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing 244

8-2 Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis

8-3 More about Hypothesis Tests 261

8-4 Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests 266

8-5 Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size 270

8-6 Statistical Power 274

Summary 283

Focus on Problem Solving 284

Demonstration 8.1 285

Demonstration 8.2 285

Demonstration 8.3 286

SPSS® 287

Problems 287

Introduction to the t Statistic 291

PREVIEW 292

9-1 The t Statistic: An Alternative to z 292

9-2 Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic 298

9-3 Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic 303

9-4 Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests 312

Summary 315

Focus on Problem Solving 316

Demonstration 9.1 316

Demonstration 9.2 317

SPSS® 317

Problems 319

The t Test for Two Independent Samples 323

PRE VIEW 324

10-1 Introduction to the Independent-Measures Design 324

10-2 The Hypotheses and the Independent-Measures t Statistic 326

10-3 Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic 334

10-4 Effect Size and Confidence Intervals

for the Independent-Measures t 340

10-5 The Role of Sample Variance and Sample Size

in the Independent-Measures t Test 345

Summary 348

Focus on Problem Solving 349

Demonstration 10.1 349

Demonstration 10.2 351

SPSS® 351

Problems 354

The t Test for Two Related Samples 359

PRE VIEW 360

11-1 Introduction to Repeated-Measures Designs 360

11-2 The t Statistic for a Repeated-Measures Research Design 362

11-3 Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design 366

11-4 Effect Size, Confidence Intervals, and the Role of Sample Size and

Sample Variance for the Repeated-Measures t 369

11-5 Comparing Repeated- and Independent-Measures Designs 375

Summary 380

Focus on Problem Solving 380

Demonstration 11.1 381

Demonstration 11.2 382

SPSS® 382

Problems 384

Introduction to Analysis of Variance 391

PRE VIEW 392

12-1 Introduction: An Overview of Analysis of Variance 392

12-2 The Logic of Analysis of Variance 397

12-3 ANOVA Notation and Formulas 401

12-4 Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA 409

12-5 Post Hoc Tests 416

12-6 More about ANOVA 420

Summary 425

Focus on Problem Solving 426

Demonstration 12.1 426

Demonstration 12.2 428

SPSS® 428

Problems 431

Two-Factor Analysis of Variance 435

PRE VIEW 436

13-1 An Overview of the Two-Factor, Independent-Measures ANOVA 437

13-2 An Example of the Two-Factor ANOVA and Effect Size 446

13-3 More about the Two-Factor ANOVA 456

Summary 462

Focus on Problem Solving 463

Demonstration 13.1 464

SPSS® 466

Problems 471

Correlation and Regression 477

PRE VIEW 478

14-1 Introduction 479

14-2 The Pearson Correlation 482

14-3 Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation 487

14-4 Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation 494

14-5 Alternatives to the Pearson Correlation 498

14-6 Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression 507

Summary 520

Focus on Problem Solving 522

Demonstration 14.1 522

SPSS® 524

Problems 528

The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness

of Fit and Independence 533

PRE VIEW 534

15-1 Introduction to Chi-Square: The Test for Goodness of Fit 534

15-2 An Example of the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit 540

15-3 The Chi-Square Test for Independence 546

15-4 Effect Size and Assumptions for the Chi-Square Tests 553

Summary 558

Focus on Problem Solving 559

Demonstration 15.1 560

Demonstration 15.2 562

SPSS® 562

Problems 565

App endi xes

A Basic Mathematics Review 569

A-1 Symbols and Notation 571

A-2 Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages 573

A-3 Negative Numbers 579

A-4 Basic Algebra: Solving Equations 581

A-5 Exponents and Square Roots 584

B Statistical Tables 591

C Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text 603

D General Instructions for Using SPSS® 629

Statistics Organizer: Finding the Right Statistics for Your Data 635

Summary of Statistics Formulas 647

References 651

Name Index 657

Subject Index 659

PRE VIEW 2

1-1 Statistics and Behavioral Sciences 3

1-2 Observations, Measurement, and Variables 11

1-3 Three Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics 19

1-4 Statistical Notation 28

Summary 32

Focus on Problem Solving 33

Demonstration 1.1 33

SPSS® 34

Problems 38

Frequency Distributions 43

PRE VIEW 44

2-1 Frequency Distributions and Frequency Distribution Tables 45

2-2 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables 51

2-3 Frequency Distribution Graphs 54

2-4 Stem and Leaf Displays 62

Summary 64

Focus on Problem Solving 65

Demonstration 2.1 65

Demonstration 2.2 66

SPSS® 67

Problems 70

Central Tendency 73

PRE VIEW 74

3-1 Overview 75

3-2 The Mean 77

3-3 The Median 85

3-4 The Mode 90

3-5 Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution 92

3-6 Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency 94

Summary 101

Focus on Problem Solving 101

Demonstration 3.1 102

SPSS® 102

Problems 106

Variability 109

PRE VIEW 110

4-1 Introduction to Variability 111

4-2 Defining Variance and Standard Deviation 116

4-3 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population 121

4-4 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample 124

4-5 Sample Variance as an Unbiased Statistic 130

4-6 More about Variance and Standard Deviation 133

Summary 141

Focus on Problem Solving 142

Demonstration 4.1 142

SPSS® 143

Problems 145

z-Scores: Location of Scores

and Standardized Distributions 149

PRE VIEW 150

5-1 Introduction 151

5-2 z-Scores and Locations in a Distribution 152

5-3 Other Relationships between z, X, the Mean,

and the Standard Deviation 157

5-4 Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution 160

5-5 Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores 164

5-6 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 167

Summary 170

Focus on Problem Solving 170

Demonstration 5.1 171

Demonstration 5.2 171

SPSS® 172

Problems 174

Probability 177

PRE VIEW 178

6-1 Introduction to Probability 179

6-2 Probability and the Normal Distribution 184

6-3 Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal

Distribution 192

6-4 Percentiles and Percentile Ranks 198

6-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 203

Summary 205

Focus on Problem Solving 206

Demonstration 6.1 206

SPSS® 207

Problems 210

Probability and Samples: The Distribution

of Sample Means 213

PRE VIEW 214

7-1 Samples, Populations, and the Distribution of Sample Means 214

7-2 Shape, Central Tendency, and Variability for the Distribution

of Sample Means 219

7-3 z-Scores and Probability for Sample Means 226

7-4 More about Standard Error 230

7-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 235

Summary 238

Focus on Problem Solving 239

Demonstration 7.1 239

SPSS® 240

Problems 240

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 243

PREVIEW 244

8-1 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing 244

8-2 Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis

**Testing**2568-3 More about Hypothesis Tests 261

8-4 Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests 266

8-5 Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size 270

8-6 Statistical Power 274

Summary 283

Focus on Problem Solving 284

Demonstration 8.1 285

Demonstration 8.2 285

Demonstration 8.3 286

SPSS® 287

Problems 287

Introduction to the t Statistic 291

PREVIEW 292

9-1 The t Statistic: An Alternative to z 292

9-2 Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic 298

9-3 Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic 303

9-4 Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests 312

Summary 315

Focus on Problem Solving 316

Demonstration 9.1 316

Demonstration 9.2 317

SPSS® 317

Problems 319

The t Test for Two Independent Samples 323

PRE VIEW 324

10-1 Introduction to the Independent-Measures Design 324

10-2 The Hypotheses and the Independent-Measures t Statistic 326

10-3 Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic 334

10-4 Effect Size and Confidence Intervals

for the Independent-Measures t 340

10-5 The Role of Sample Variance and Sample Size

in the Independent-Measures t Test 345

Summary 348

Focus on Problem Solving 349

Demonstration 10.1 349

Demonstration 10.2 351

SPSS® 351

Problems 354

The t Test for Two Related Samples 359

PRE VIEW 360

11-1 Introduction to Repeated-Measures Designs 360

11-2 The t Statistic for a Repeated-Measures Research Design 362

11-3 Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design 366

11-4 Effect Size, Confidence Intervals, and the Role of Sample Size and

Sample Variance for the Repeated-Measures t 369

11-5 Comparing Repeated- and Independent-Measures Designs 375

Summary 380

Focus on Problem Solving 380

Demonstration 11.1 381

Demonstration 11.2 382

SPSS® 382

Problems 384

Introduction to Analysis of Variance 391

PRE VIEW 392

12-1 Introduction: An Overview of Analysis of Variance 392

12-2 The Logic of Analysis of Variance 397

12-3 ANOVA Notation and Formulas 401

12-4 Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA 409

12-5 Post Hoc Tests 416

12-6 More about ANOVA 420

Summary 425

Focus on Problem Solving 426

Demonstration 12.1 426

Demonstration 12.2 428

SPSS® 428

Problems 431

Two-Factor Analysis of Variance 435

PRE VIEW 436

13-1 An Overview of the Two-Factor, Independent-Measures ANOVA 437

13-2 An Example of the Two-Factor ANOVA and Effect Size 446

13-3 More about the Two-Factor ANOVA 456

Summary 462

Focus on Problem Solving 463

Demonstration 13.1 464

SPSS® 466

Problems 471

Correlation and Regression 477

PRE VIEW 478

14-1 Introduction 479

14-2 The Pearson Correlation 482

14-3 Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation 487

14-4 Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation 494

14-5 Alternatives to the Pearson Correlation 498

14-6 Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression 507

Summary 520

Focus on Problem Solving 522

Demonstration 14.1 522

SPSS® 524

Problems 528

The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness

of Fit and Independence 533

PRE VIEW 534

15-1 Introduction to Chi-Square: The Test for Goodness of Fit 534

15-2 An Example of the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit 540

15-3 The Chi-Square Test for Independence 546

15-4 Effect Size and Assumptions for the Chi-Square Tests 553

Summary 558

Focus on Problem Solving 559

Demonstration 15.1 560

Demonstration 15.2 562

SPSS® 562

Problems 565

App endi xes

A Basic Mathematics Review 569

A-1 Symbols and Notation 571

A-2 Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages 573

A-3 Negative Numbers 579

A-4 Basic Algebra: Solving Equations 581

A-5 Exponents and Square Roots 584

B Statistical Tables 591

C Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text 603

D General Instructions for Using SPSS® 629

Statistics Organizer: Finding the Right Statistics for Your Data 635

Summary of Statistics Formulas 647

References 651

Name Index 657

Subject Index 659