# Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Science, 10th Edition PDF by Frederick J Gravetter, Larry B. Wall nau, Lori-Ann B. Forzano and James E. Witnauer

Essentials of Statistics for the Behavioral Science, 10th Edition
by Frederick J Gravetter, Larry B. Wall nau, Lori-Ann B. Forzano and James E. Witnauer

Contents

Introduction to Statistics 1
PRE VIEW 2
1-1 Statistics and Behavioral Sciences 3
1-2 Observations, Measurement, and Variables 11
1-3 Three Data Structures, Research Methods, and Statistics 19
1-4 Statistical Notation 28
Summary 32
Focus on Problem Solving 33
Demonstration 1.1 33
SPSS® 34
Problems 38
Frequency Distributions 43
PRE VIEW 44
2-1 Frequency Distributions and Frequency Distribution Tables 45
2-2 Grouped Frequency Distribution Tables 51
2-3 Frequency Distribution Graphs 54
2-4 Stem and Leaf Displays 62
Summary 64
Focus on Problem Solving 65
Demonstration 2.1 65
Demonstration 2.2 66
SPSS® 67
Problems 70
Central Tendency 73
PRE VIEW 74
3-1 Overview 75
3-2 The Mean 77
3-3 The Median 85
3-4 The Mode 90
3-5 Central Tendency and the Shape of the Distribution 92
3-6 Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency 94
Summary 101
Focus on Problem Solving 101
Demonstration 3.1 102
SPSS® 102
Problems 106
Variability 109
PRE VIEW 110
4-1 Introduction to Variability 111
4-2 Defining Variance and Standard Deviation 116
4-3 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Population 121
4-4 Measuring Variance and Standard Deviation for a Sample 124
4-5 Sample Variance as an Unbiased Statistic 130
4-6 More about Variance and Standard Deviation 133
Summary 141
Focus on Problem Solving 142
Demonstration 4.1 142
SPSS® 143
Problems 145
z-Scores: Location of Scores
and Standardized Distributions 149
PRE VIEW 150
5-1 Introduction 151
5-2 z-Scores and Locations in a Distribution 152
5-3 Other Relationships between z, X, the Mean,
and the Standard Deviation 157
5-4 Using z-Scores to Standardize a Distribution 160
5-5 Other Standardized Distributions Based on z-Scores 164
5-6 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 167
Summary 170
Focus on Problem Solving 170
Demonstration 5.1 171
Demonstration 5.2 171
SPSS® 172
Problems 174
Probability 177
PRE VIEW 178
6-1 Introduction to Probability 179
6-2 Probability and the Normal Distribution 184
6-3 Probabilities and Proportions for Scores from a Normal
Distribution 192
6-4 Percentiles and Percentile Ranks 198
6-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 203
Summary 205
Focus on Problem Solving 206
Demonstration 6.1 206
SPSS® 207
Problems 210
Probability and Samples: The Distribution
of Sample Means 213
PRE VIEW 214
7-1 Samples, Populations, and the Distribution of Sample Means 214
7-2 Shape, Central Tendency, and Variability for the Distribution
of Sample Means 219
7-3 z-Scores and Probability for Sample Means 226
7-4 More about Standard Error 230
7-5 Looking Ahead to Inferential Statistics 235
Summary 238
Focus on Problem Solving 239
Demonstration 7.1 239
SPSS® 240
Problems 240
Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 243
PREVIEW 244
8-1 The Logic of Hypothesis Testing 244
8-2 Uncertainty and Errors in Hypothesis Testing 256
8-3 More about Hypothesis Tests 261
8-4 Directional (One-Tailed) Hypothesis Tests 266
8-5 Concerns about Hypothesis Testing: Measuring Effect Size 270
8-6 Statistical Power 274
Summary 283
Focus on Problem Solving 284
Demonstration 8.1 285
Demonstration 8.2 285
Demonstration 8.3 286
SPSS® 287
Problems 287
Introduction to the t Statistic 291
PREVIEW 292
9-1 The t Statistic: An Alternative to z 292
9-2 Hypothesis Tests with the t Statistic 298
9-3 Measuring Effect Size for the t Statistic 303
9-4 Directional Hypotheses and One-Tailed Tests 312
Summary 315
Focus on Problem Solving 316
Demonstration 9.1 316
Demonstration 9.2 317
SPSS® 317
Problems 319
The t Test for Two Independent Samples 323
PRE VIEW 324
10-1 Introduction to the Independent-Measures Design 324
10-2 The Hypotheses and the Independent-Measures t Statistic 326
10-3 Hypothesis Tests with the Independent-Measures t Statistic 334
10-4 Effect Size and Confidence Intervals
for the Independent-Measures t 340
10-5 The Role of Sample Variance and Sample Size
in the Independent-Measures t Test 345
Summary 348
Focus on Problem Solving 349
Demonstration 10.1 349
Demonstration 10.2 351
SPSS® 351
Problems 354
The t Test for Two Related Samples 359
PRE VIEW 360
11-1 Introduction to Repeated-Measures Designs 360
11-2 The t Statistic for a Repeated-Measures Research Design 362
11-3 Hypothesis Tests for the Repeated-Measures Design 366
11-4 Effect Size, Confidence Intervals, and the Role of Sample Size and
Sample Variance for the Repeated-Measures t 369
11-5 Comparing Repeated- and Independent-Measures Designs 375
Summary 380
Focus on Problem Solving 380
Demonstration 11.1 381
Demonstration 11.2 382
SPSS® 382
Problems 384
Introduction to Analysis of Variance 391
PRE VIEW 392
12-1 Introduction: An Overview of Analysis of Variance 392
12-2 The Logic of Analysis of Variance 397
12-3 ANOVA Notation and Formulas 401
12-4 Examples of Hypothesis Testing and Effect Size with ANOVA 409
12-5 Post Hoc Tests 416
Summary 425
Focus on Problem Solving 426
Demonstration 12.1 426
Demonstration 12.2 428
SPSS® 428
Problems 431
Two-Factor Analysis of Variance 435
PRE VIEW 436
13-1 An Overview of the Two-Factor, Independent-Measures ANOVA 437
13-2 An Example of the Two-Factor ANOVA and Effect Size 446
13-3 More about the Two-Factor ANOVA 456
Summary 462
Focus on Problem Solving 463
Demonstration 13.1 464
SPSS® 466
Problems 471
Correlation and Regression 477
PRE VIEW 478
14-1 Introduction 479
14-2 The Pearson Correlation 482
14-3 Using and Interpreting the Pearson Correlation 487
14-4 Hypothesis Tests with the Pearson Correlation 494
14-5 Alternatives to the Pearson Correlation 498
14-6 Introduction to Linear Equations and Regression 507
Summary 520
Focus on Problem Solving 522
Demonstration 14.1 522
SPSS® 524
Problems 528
The Chi-Square Statistic: Tests for Goodness
of Fit and Independence 533
PRE VIEW 534
15-1 Introduction to Chi-Square: The Test for Goodness of Fit 534
15-2 An Example of the Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit 540
15-3 The Chi-Square Test for Independence 546
15-4 Effect Size and Assumptions for the Chi-Square Tests 553
Summary 558
Focus on Problem Solving 559
Demonstration 15.1 560
Demonstration 15.2 562
SPSS® 562
Problems 565
App endi xes
A Basic Mathematics Review 569
A-1 Symbols and Notation 571
A-2 Proportions: Fractions, Decimals, and Percentages 573
A-3 Negative Numbers 579
A-4 Basic Algebra: Solving Equations 581
A-5 Exponents and Square Roots 584
B Statistical Tables 591
C Solutions for Odd-Numbered Problems in the Text 603
D General Instructions for Using SPSS® 629
Statistics Organizer: Finding the Right Statistics for Your Data 635
Summary of Statistics Formulas 647
References 651
Name Index 657
Subject Index 659

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