Fundamentals of 3D Food Printing and Applications PDF by Fernanda C. Godoi, Bhesh R. Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash and Min Zhang

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Fundamentals of 3D Food Printing and Applications
Edited by Fernanda C. Godoi, Bhesh R. Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash and Min Zhang
Fundamentals of 3D Food Printing and Applications

Contents

List of Contributors xi
Preface xiii
1. An Introduction to the Principles of 3D Food Printing 1
Fernanda C. Godoi, Bhesh R. Bhandari, Sangeeta Prakash
and Min Zhang
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 3D Printing Techniques 3
1.2.1 Inkjet Printing 3
1.2.2 Extrusion-Based 3D Printing 6
1.2.3 Assessment of Printing Quality 11
1.3 Heating Mode: Powder Layer Binding 14
1.4 Summary and Future Directions 15
References 16
2. 3D Food Printing Technologies and Factors Affecting
Printing Precision 19
Zhenbin Liu and Min Zhang
2.1 Introduction 20
2.2 3D Food Printing Technologies and Factors Affecting
Printing Precision 20
2.2.1 Extrusion-Based Printing 23
2.2.2 Selective Laser Sintering 30
2.2.3 Binder Jetting 32
2.2.4 Inkjet Printing 34
2.3 Summary and Future Directions 35
References 37
 
3. Critical Variables in 3D Food Printing 41
Antonio Derossi, Rossella Caporizzi, Ilde Ricci and Carla Severini
3.1 3D Printing Technology Applied to the Food Sector 41
3.2 Structural Configuration of 3D Printers 47
3.2.1 Stepper Motors Drive the Movements of a 3D
Printer in Four Axes: Basic Features and Their Effects 51
3.3 Computer-Aided Design Systems to Create 3D Virtual
Models of Food 54
3.4 Process Planning of 3D Food Printing 60
3.4.1 Basic Principles of the Slicing Software to Prepare
3D Food Printing 62
3.4.2 Printing Variables and Their Effects on the Quality
of 3D Edible Objects 63
3.5 The Firmware of the 3D Printer: Basic Principles and
Settings That Affect the Printing Quality 80
3.6 G-Code: The Language To Drive Printers and To
Optimise Printing Quality 83
3.7 Conclusions 87
References 88
4. Cereal-Based and Insect-Enriched Printable Food:
From Formulation to Postprocessing Treatments.
Status and Perspectives 93
Rossella Caporizzi, Antonio Derossi and Carla Severini
4.1 Introduction 93
4.2 3D Printing Technologies for Cereal-Based Formulations 94
4.3 Factors Affecting the Printability of a Dough 97
4.3.1 Effect of Ingredients and Nutritional Compounds
in the 3D Printing Process 98
4.3.2 The Use of Binding Agents to Improve the
Printability of Dough 100
4.4 Postprocessing Technologies 102
4.5 Textural Properties of 3D-Printed Cereal-Based Products 104
4.6 Printing Variables Affecting the Quality of Cereal-Based
Products 107
4.7 Innovative Food Formulations in 3D Printing: The Case
of Cereal-Based Products Enriched With Edible Insects 108
4.7.1 Nutritional Properties of Edible Insects 108
4.7.2 Current Research in 3D Printing for Obtaining
Insect-Enriched Products 110
4.8 Conclusions 113
References 113
5. 3D Printed Food From Fruits and Vegetables 117
Ilde Ricci, Antonio Derossi and Carla Severini
5.1 Introduction 117
5.2 Potential Application of 3D Printing Technology for
Vegetable-Based Products 118
5.2.1 Potential Nutritional and Healthy Properties of 3D
Printed Fruit and Vegetables Used for 3D Printing 119
5.3 Processing Steps for Fruit and Vegetable Printing 123
5.3.1 Selection of Raw Fruits and Vegetables and
Designing of Personalised Food Formulas 126
5.3.2 Processing Steps for Preparing Fruits and
Vegetables for 3D Printing 129
5.4 Settings of Conditions for Fruit and Vegetable
3D Printing 134
5.5 Methods to Improve the Shelf-Life of Vegetable
3D Printed Foods 139
5.6 The Use of Fruit and Vegetable Waste for 3D Food
Printing as Future Perspectives 141
5.7 Conclusion 143
References 144
Further Reading 148
6. 3D Printing Chocolate: Properties of Formulations
for Extrusion, Sintering, Binding and Ink Jetting 151
Matthew Lanaro, Mathilde R. Desselle and Maria A. Woodruff
6.1 Introduction 151
6.2 Properties of Chocolate 152
6.2.1 Chocolate Structure 155
6.2.2 Chocolate Rheology 157
6.3 Chocolate Formulations 158
6.3.1 Common Chocolate Products 158
6.3.2 Specialty Chocolate Products 160
6.4 3D Printing Platform 161
6.5 3D Printing Chocolate: Extrusion 163
6.5.1 Process Optimisation 166
6.6 3D Printing Chocolate: Sintering and Binding 168
6.7 3D Printing Chocolate: Inkjet 169
6.8 Future Trends 171
References 171
7. Potential Applications of Dairy Products,
Ingredients and Formulations in 3D Printing 175
Megan M. Ross, Alan L. Kelly and Shane V. Crowley
7.1 Introduction 175
7.2 Overview of Relevant 3D Printing Technologies 177
7.3 Structure-Forming Mechanisms Involving
Milk Components 181
7.3.1 Milk Proteins 181
7.3.2 Milk Fat 184
7.3.3 Lactose 185
7.4 Studies of Printable Dairy Structures 186
7.5 Analytical Tools for 3D-Printed Dairy Applications 188
7.6 Case Study: 3D Printing of Processed Cheese 193
7.7 Research Needs, Challenges and Opportunities 197
7.7.1 Safety and Acceptance 197
7.7.2 Research Challenges 197
7.7.3 Industrial Advantages and Disadvantages 199
References 200
Further Reading 206
8. Material, Process and Business Development for
3D Chocolate Printing 207
Liang Hao, Yan Li, Ping Gong and Weil Xiong
8.1 Introduction 208
8.2 Commercial Feasibility Study 210
8.2.1 Chocolate Background 210
8.2.2 Chocolate Status Quo 210
8.2.3 Research on the 3D Chocolate Printing
Business Model 211
8.3 Development of Chocolate 3D Printing Technology 216
8.3.1 Chocolate Features 216
8.3.2 Chocolate Additive Layer Manufacturing 219
8.3.3 Experimental 221
8.3.4 Results and Discussion 223
8.3.5 Conclusions 229
8.4 Optimisation of Chocolate 3D Printing Technology 230
8.4.1 Adaptive Extrusion Layer Thickness Optimisation
Based on Area Change Rate 230
8.4.2 Layer Scanning Speed Optimisation Based on
Perimeter Change Rate 233
8.4.3 Conclusions 236
8.5 Extension of Chocolate 3D Printing Application
Technology 237
8.5.1 Healthcare Products and Chocolate 3D Printing 238
8.5.2 Feasibility Experiment of Adding Healthcare
Products 240
8.6 Summary and Outlook 251
References 252
Further Reading 254
9. Creation of Food Structures Through
Binder Jetting 257
Sonia Holland, Tim Foster and Chris Tuck
9.1 Introduction to Binder Jetting 257
9.2 Powder Characteristics and Interlayer Cohesion 260
9.3 Powder Binding Mechanisms 262
9.4 Suggested Analysis 265
9.5 Formulating a Functional Printing Ink 267
9.5.1 Ink Jetting Theory 267
9.5.2 Viscosity Considerations for Ink Jetting 269
9.5.3 The Effects of Additives to Enhance Viscosity 271
9.5.4 Surface Tension and Density 273
9.6 Controls and Considerations During and Postprinting 274
9.6.1 Printer Settings 274
9.6.2 Combining Powder and Ink During Print 276
9.7 Postprocessing 278
9.8 Application and Outlook for Food Materials 278
References 283
10. 3D Food Printing Technology at Home, Domestic
Application 289
Estefanı´a Rubio and So`nia Hurtado
10.1 Global Scope 290
10.2 3D Food Printing Technology 291
10.2.1 How Does 3D Food Printing Work? 291
10.2.2 3D Food Printers 292
10.3 Food Preparations for Extruder-Based 3D Food Printing 300
10.3.1 Food Preparation Examples Related to Print Purpose 301
10.3.2 Rheological Limitations and Technical Considerations 302
10.3.3 3D Printer Device-Related Technical Considerations 307
10.4 3D Food Printing at Home 308
10.4.1 A 3D Food Printer Conceived as a ‘Mini Food Factory’ 308
10.4.2 Versatility: Everyday Cooking and Fine Cuisine,
at Home and Hospitality 310
10.4.3 Traditional Recipes and Adapted Formulations 311
10.4.4 Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Environment Friendly
and a Potential Contributor to Circular Economy 314
10.4.5 Domestic Applications with Dietetic Purposes 315
10.5 Limitations, General Considerations and Conclusions 322
References 324
11. Prosumer-Driven 3D Food Printing: Role of Digital
Platforms in Future 3D Food Printing Systems 331
Siddharth Jayaprakash, In˜igo Flores Ituarte and
Jouni Partanen
11.1 Introduction 331
11.2 What Is Prosumption? 333
11.3 Evolution of Prosumption 334
11.4 Current State of 3D Food Printing 335
11.4.1 Market Segmentation 335
11.4.2 3D Food Printing Ecosystem and Associated
Value Chains 337
11.4.3 Ingredient Portfolio 340
11.4.4 Machine Concepts 341
11.5 Food Prosumption With 3D Food Printing 342
11.5.1 Change Drivers 342
11.5.2 Future of Food 343
11.5.3 Digital Platform for 3D Food Printing 345
11.5.4 Futuristic Application Areas 345
11.5.5 Example Use Cases 348
11.5.6 The Impact 350
11.6 Conclusions 351
References 352
12. Safety and Labelling of 3D Printed Food 355
Jasper L. Tran
12.1 Introduction 356
12.2 3D Printed Food’s Possibilities and Implications 356
12.2.1 3D Printed Food’s Endless Possibilities 356
12.2.2 Implications of 3D Printed Food 358
12.3 3D Printed Food’s Safety and Labelling Issues 361
12.3.1 Safety Issues 362
12.3.2 Labelling Issues 365
12.4 Conclusion 368
References 369
13. Future Outlook of 3D Food Printing 373
Sangeeta Prakash, Bhesh R. Bhandari, Fernanda C. Godoi
and Min Zhang
13.1 Introduction 373
13.2 Future of 3D Printing 374
13.2.1 Constructs with Varying Microstructure Leading
to Novel Food Textures 375
13.2.2 Improved Texture-Modified Food for People
with Swallowing and Chewing Difficulties 375
13.2.3 Increased Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Children 377
13.2.4 Healthy Foods With Reduced Fat, Sugar and Salt 378
13.2.5 Preventing Wastage of Perishables and Sustainability 379
13.3 What to Expect in the Next 5 Years? 380
References 381
Index 383
 
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