Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture, 13th Edition PDF by Julia T. Wood and Julia Wood

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Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture, 13th Edition
by Julia T. Wood and Julia Wood
Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture, 13th Edition

Contents

PREFACE xv
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxi
INTRODUCTION Opening the Conversation 1
The Social Construction of Inequality 2
Feminism—Feminisms 3
Becoming Aware 5
Why We Wrote This Book 7
Communication as the Fulcrum of Change 10
The Challenge of Studying Communication, Gender, and Culture 11
Features of Gendered Lives 11
PAR T 1 CONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS
Chapter 1 The Study of Communication, Gender, and Culture 15
Communication, Gender, and Culture as an Area of Study 15
Research on Gender, Communication, and Culture 15
Reasons to Learn about Communication, Gender, and Culture 17
Gender in a Transitional Era 17
Differences between Women and Men 18
Relationships among Gender, Culture, and Communication 19
Sex 19
Gender 21
Beyond Sex and Gender 25
Culture 28
Communication 30
Communication Is a Dynamic Process 30
Communication Is Systemic 30
Communication Has Two Levels of Meaning 31
Meanings Are Created through Human Interaction with Symbols 31
Chapter 2 Theoretical Approaches to Gender Development 34
Theoretical Approaches to Gender 34
Biological Theories of Gender 35
Interpersonal Theories of Gender 40
Psychodynamic Theories of Gender Development 40
Psychological Theories of Gender Development 41
Social Learning Theory 41
Cognitive Development Theory 42
Cultural Theories of Gender 44
Anthropology 44
Symbolic Interactionism 45
Critical Theories of Gender 46
Standpoint Theory 46
Queer Performative Theory 48
Theories Working Together 51
CHAPTER 3 The Rhetorical Shaping of Gender: Competing Images of Women 54
The Three Waves of Women’s Movements in the United States 55
The First Wave of Women’s Movements in the United States 55
Liberal Ideology: The Women’s Rights Movement 55
Cultural Ideology: The Cult of Domesticity 56
The Second Wave of Women’s Movements in the United States 58
Liberal Ideology 58
Cultural Ideology 64
Contemporary Feminism 66
Riot Grrrl 67
Power Feminism 67
Transfeminism 68
Mainstream Third-Wave Feminism 69
Hip-Hop Feminism 71
CHAPTER 4 The Rhetorical Shaping of Gender: Competing Images of Men 76
Profeminist Men’s Groups 77
NOMAS 78
ACT UP: The AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power 79
Men’s Antiviolence Groups 81
The White Ribbon Campaign 81
Walk a Mile in Her Shoes 82
Mentors in Violence Prevention 83
Masculinist Men’s Groups 84
Men’s Rights 84
Father’s Rights Groups 85
Mythopoetic Men 86
Promise Keepers 87
The Millions More Movement 89
Contemporary Men’s Movements 90
The Good Men Project 92
CHAPTER 5 Gendered Verbal Communication 96
Verbal Communication Expresses Cultural Views of Gender 97
Gendered Language Excludes 97
Language Defines Gender as Binary 97
Language Shapes Awareness of Gendered Issues 100
Language Organizes Perceptions of Gender 102
Language Evaluates Gender 102
Language Allows Self-Reflection 103
Gendered Styles of Verbal Communication 103
Gendered Speech Communities 104
The Lessons of Children’s Play 104
Boys’ Games 104
Girls’ Games 105
Gendered Communication Practices 106
Feminine Communication 107
Masculine Communication 108
The Gender-Linked Language Effect 110
Gender-Based Misinterpretations in Communication 110
Showing Support 110
Troubles Talk 111
The Point of the Story 112
Relationship Talk 112
Public Speaking 113
chapter 6 Gendered Nonverbal Communication 116
Functions of Nonverbal Communication 117
Supplement Verbal Communication 117
Regulate Interaction 118
Establish the Relationship Level of Meaning 118
Responsiveness 118
Liking 118
Power or Control 119
Forms of Nonverbal Communication 119
Artifacts 119
Proximity and Personal Space 122
Haptics (Touch) 123
Kinesics (Facial and Body Motion) 123
Paralanguage 124
Physical Appearance 124
Interpreting Nonverbal Behavior 129
Respecting Gendered Styles of Nonverbal Communication 131
PART 2 GENDERED COMMUNICATION IN PRACTICE
chapter 7 Becoming Gendered 134
Gendering Communication in the Family 136
Unconscious Processes 136
Gender Identity 136
Ego Boundaries 139
Parental Communication about Gender 140
Parental Modeling 143
The Personal Side of the Gender Drama 143
Growing Up Masculine 144
Don’t Be Feminine 144
Be Successful 144
Be Aggressive 145
Be Sexual 145
Be Self-Reliant 146
Embody and Transcend Traditional Views of Masculinity 146
Growing Up Feminine 147
Appearance Still Counts 147
Be Sensitive and Caring 148
Negative Treatment by Others 148
Be Superwoman 150
There Is No Single Meaning of Feminine Anymore 151
Growing Up Outside Conventional Genders 152
chapter 8 Gendered Education: Communication in Schools 155
Gendered Expectations and Pressures Facing Students 156
Academics 156
Boys and Men 156
Girls and Women 156
LGBTQ Students 161
Gender Isn’t the Whole Story 162
Athletics 162
Gender Pressures from Peers 164
Pressures to Conform to Masculinity 165
Pressures to Conform to Femininity 166
Gendered Expectations and Pressures Facing Faculty 169
chapter 9 Gendered Close Relationships 173
The Meaning of Personal Relationships 173
Models of Personal Relationships 174
The Male Deficit Model 174
The Alternate Paths Model 175
Gendered Styles of Friendship 176
Feminine Friendships: Closeness in Dialogue 176
Masculine Friendships: Closeness in the Doing 178
Friendships across Gender 181
Gendered Romantic Relationships 181
Developing Romantic Intimacy 182
Gendered Patterns in Committed Relationships 183
Gendered Modes of Expressing Affection 184
Gendered Preferences for Autonomy and Connection 185
Gendered Responsibility for Relational Health 186
Gendered Power Dynamics 186
chapter 10 Gendered Organizational Communication 194
Gendered Stereotypes in the Workplace 195
Stereotypes of Women 195
Sex Object 195
Mother 196
Child 198
Iron Maiden 199
Stereotypes of Men 200
Sturdy Oak 200
Fighter 201
Breadwinner 201
Nonbinary Gender in Organizations 201
Masculine Norms in Professional Life 202
Traditionally Masculine Images of Leaders 202
Traditionally Masculine Norms for Career Paths 203
Gendered Patterns in Organizations 204
Formal Practices 204
Leave Policies 204
Work Schedules 205
Informal Practices 206
Unwelcoming Environments 206
The Informal Network 206
Mentoring Relationships 208
Glass Ceilings and Walls 210
Efforts to Redress Gendered Inequity in Institutions 210
Equal Opportunity Laws 211
Affirmative Action Policies 211
Quotas 214
Goals 214
Diversity Training 215
chapter 11 Gendered Media 219
Media Saturation of Cultural Life 220
Media Impacts 220
Set the Agenda 220
Regulate Images of Gender 221
Underrepresent Women, Minorities, and LGBTQ People 221
Portray Men Stereotypically 222
Portray Women Stereotypically 223
Gendered Images in Advertising 225
Motivate Us to Consume 228
Gender and Social Media 230
Social Networking 230
Learning and Sharing Information 231
Holding Others Accountable 233
Activism 233
Consequences of Gendered Media 234
Normalize Unrealistic Standards 234
Normalize Violence against Women 235
chapter 12 Gendered Power and Violence 239
The Many Faces of Gendered Violence 239
Gender Intimidation 240
Sexual Harassment 241
Quid Pro Quo 241
Hostile Environment 241
Sexual Assault 242
Intimate Partner Violence 246
Genital Surgery 250
Male Circumcision 250
Sunna 250
Excision or Clitoridectomy 250
Infibulation 251
Gender-Based Murder 252
Reproductive Violence 253
Cultural Foundations of Gendered Violence 254
The Normalization of Violence in Media 255
The Normalization of Violence by Institutions 255
Schools 255
Family 255
Law Enforcement 256
Language 256
Resisting Gendered Violence: Where Do We Go from Here? 256
Personal Efforts to Reduce Gendered Violence 256
Social Efforts to Reduce Gendered Violence 257
Taking a Voice 258
GLOSSARY 261
REFERENCES 269
INDEX 301
 
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