Natural Fibre Composites: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Testing PDF by Mohamed Zakriya G. and Ramakrishnan G.

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Natural Fibre Composites: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Testing
By Mohamed Zakriya G. and Ramakrishnan G.
Natural Fibre Composites: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Testing

Contents

Preface.......................................................................................ix
Foreword .................................................................................xi
About the Authors .............................................................................. xv
Chapter 1 Kinds of Natural Fibres and Its Special Characteristics ...................... 1
1.1 Introduction ............................................................................... 1
1.2 Classifcation of Natural Fibres ................................................. 2
1.3 Characterization of Fibres ......................................................... 3
1.3.1 Protein Fibre................................................................. 3
1.3.2 Mineral Fibre................................................................ 3
1.3.3 Cellulose Fibre.............................................................. 3
1.4 Performance Criteria of Individual Natural Fibres in Making Composites................................................................... 5
1.5 Conclusion ................................................................................. 7
References ............................................................................................ 7
Chapter 2 Interfacial Compatibility.................................................................... 13
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 13
2.2 Blends within Natural Fibres................................................... 13
2.3 Blends with Synthetic Fibres ................................................... 15
2.3.1 Interfacial Bonding Mechanism................................. 16
2.4 Characterization of Natural Fibre Blends................................ 17
2.5 Characterization of Natural Fibre with Synthetic Fibre Blends ....... 18
2.6 Conclusion ............................................................................... 19
References ..........................................................................................20
Chapter 3 Design of Experiments towards Manufacturing of Composites ........25
3.1 Introduction .............................................................................25
3.2 Experiments Based on Settings of Factors ..............................25
3.3 Experiments Based on Outputs ...............................................25
3.4 Conceptual Design .................................................................. 27
3.5 Design of Samples ................................................................... 29
3.6 Conclusion ...............................................................................30
References .......................................................................................... 31
Chapter 4 Modelling of Natural Fibre Composites............................................. 33
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 33
4.2 Modelling and Simulation of Composite Structures ...............34
4.3 Basics of Finite Element Analysis...........................................35
4.4 Design and Analysis through Software...................................37
4.4.1 Effect on Thermal Conductivity.................................37
4.4.2 Effect on Thermal Resistance (R)..............................39
4.4.3 Effect on Thermal Transmittance (U)........................40
4.4.4 Effect on Thermal Diffusivity (α) .............................. 43
4.5 Conclusion ...............................................................................45
References..........................................................................................45
Chapter 5 Process and Production Techniques of Composites...........................47
5.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 47
5.2 Fibre Reinforcements ..............................................................48
5.2.1 Spray Method .............................................................48
5.2.2 Lamination .................................................................49
5.2.3 Filament Winding.......................................................49
5.2.4 Pultrusion ...................................................................50
5.2.5 Compression Moulding .............................................. 51
5.2.6 Vacuum Bagging and Vacuum Infusion..................... 51
5.3 Form Reinforcements.............................................................. 52
5.4 Needle Punching Technology.................................................. 52
5.4.1 Structure I (Sandwich Type)....................................... 53
5.4.2 Structure II (Blended Structure)................................. 53
5.4.3 Structure III (Blended Fibre with 5% of Low Melt Polyester)............................................................54
5.4.4 Structure IV (Multiple Layer Nonwovens).................54
5.5 Material Selection in Design................................................... 55
5.6 Conclusion ...............................................................................56
References..........................................................................................56
Chapter 6 Product Life Cycle Assessment and Suitability ................................. 61
6.1 Introduction ............................................................................. 61
6.2 Life Cycle Assessment System................................................62
6.3 Weakening of Fibre Composite...............................................64
6.4 Natural Weathering .................................................................64
6.5 Artifcial Weathering...............................................................69
6.6 Strengthening Composite Performance...................................69
6.7 Conclusion ...............................................................................70
References..........................................................................................70
Chapter 7 Testing of Composites........................................................................73
7.1 Introduction .............................................................................73
7.2 Principle of Frequency-Modulated Thermal Wave Imaging.....74
7.3 Physical Testing.......................................................................75
7.3.1 Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and its Related Derivatives .................................................... 75
7.3.2 Measurement of Air Permeability..............................77
7.3.3 Measurement of Breaking Force and Elongation.......77
7.3.4 Measurement of Sound Absorption Coeffcient.........77
7.3.5 Measurement of Electrical Resistance.......................78
7.3.6 Measurement of Tensile Testing.................................78
7.3.7 Measurement of Rockwell Hardness Number............78
7.3.8 Measurement of Charpy Impact Test.........................79
7.3.9 Measurement of Three-Point Bending Test ...............79
7.4 Chemical Testing.....................................................................79
7.4.1 Measurement of Limiting Oxygen Index ................... 81
7.5 Biological Testing....................................................................81
7.5.1 In Vitro Testing .......................................................... 81
7.5.2 Fungal Retting............................................................82
7.6 Conclusion ...............................................................................82
References ..........................................................................................83
Chapter 8 Rheology and Insulation Behaviour of Composites...........................85
8.1 Introduction .............................................................................85
8.2 Physical Deformation of Composites ......................................86
8.2.1 Complex Viscosity of Fibre Composite......................87
8.2.2 Storage modulus of fbre composites..........................87
8.2.3 Loss Modulus of Fibre Composites............................87
8.2.4 Damping Factor of Composites (tan δ) ......................87
8.3 Insulation Behavior of Composites .........................................88
8.4 Surface Coating of Composites...............................................90
8.5 Conclusion ............................................................................... 91
References .......................................................................................... 91
Chapter 9 Application of Composites in Engineering........................................95
9.1 Introduction .............................................................................95
9.2 Aircraft....................................................................................96
9.3 Marine .....................................................................................97
9.4 Automobile ..............................................................................98
9.5 Building Construction ...........................................................100
9.6 General Applications.............................................................102
9.7 Conclusion ............................................................................. 102
References ........................................................................................ 103
Chapter 10 Applications of Composites in Artefact and Furniture Making ...... 107
10.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 107
10.2 Artefacts Mould Making.......................................................108
10.3 Furniture Making .................................................................. 110
10.4 Machinery Development and Sensors Utilization................. 111
10.5 Conclusion ............................................................................. 113
References ........................................................................................ 113
Chapter 11 Recycling of Natural Fibre Composites ........................................... 117
11.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 117
11.2 Chemical Recycling............................................................... 118
11.3 Thermal Recycling of Thermoset and Thermoplastic Composite.............................................................................. 119
11.4 Mechanical Recycling ...........................................................120
11.5 Thermoset and Thermoplastic Separation.............................120
11.6 Biological Recycling.............................................................. 121
11.7 Purifcation ............................................................................ 121
11.8 Re-Mould or Develop a Product............................................122
11.9 Conclusion ............................................................................. 122
References ........................................................................................ 123
Index...................................................................................................................... 125

Preface
The rapidly increasing consumption of petroleum-based products and its negative impact on the environment has led to an increase in environmental consciousness when it comes to sustainable materials and products. Natural fbres are categorized as an environmentally friendly material which have good properties compared to synthetic fbres. When it comes to the properties of the natural fbres, it is impor­tant to state that there are differences between one type of fbre and another. The performance of a composite depends on many factors such as structure, mechanical composition, physical properties, cell dimensions, and microfbrillar angle. Fibre­reinforced composites have received much attention based on different applications because of their good properties and the advantages they have been found to have over synthetic fbres.

The aim of this book is to highlight the fundamental aspects of the manufac­turing, characterization, and testing of natural-fbre composites in such a manner that its contents are useful to readers in education, industry, or commerce. It thus fulfils the long-felt need for a comprehensive up-to-date textbook explaining this important sector of textile technology. Aspects covered include kinds of natural fbres and their special characteristics, interfacial compatibility, design of experi­ments towards manufacturing composites, modelling of natural fbre composites, process and production techniques of composites, product life cycle assessment and suitability, testing of composites, rheology and insulation behaviour of composites, applications of composites in engineering, applications of composites in artefact and furniture making, and recycling of natural fbre composites. The book is acceptable as a set text for textile courses from technician to degree and Master’s level. It will also prove particularly suitable for professionals wishing to update or broaden their understanding of natural fbre composites. The contents have been arranged for the convenient use of different levels of readership with the text gradually progressing from an explanation of basic terminology and principles to eventually encompassing the most advanced aspects of the technology, including the application of concepts. The indexed and referenced format of the text is supplemented by labelled diagrams and photographs so that the book may also serve as a handy reference work for study and business purposes. Terminology is defined either according to Textile Institute terms and definitions or current usage in the industry and is supplemented as neces­sary by American or continental terminology. Internationally accepted methods of notation help to clarify explanations of composites.

It is particularly satisfying that this book has proved useful in education, industry, and commerce throughout the world. I hope the abovementioned additions will fur­ther increase its usefulness.

The authors wish to express their gratitude and heartfelt thanks to the manage­ment of KCG College of Technology, Chennai (A group of Hindustan University, Chennai) and the management of Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore (A group of Kumaraguru Institutions, Coimbatore) as well as friends and family members for their continuous support.

Lastly, we thank CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group for their generous cooperation at every stage of the book’s production.

The authors are grateful to dedicate this book to the late A.W. Sahebjathi – a teacher (mother of Dr G. Mohammad Zakriya) – and Mr S. Govindan – a teacher (father of Dr G. Ramakrishnan).
 
It is US$10. To get this book send email: textileebooks@gmail.com

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