Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment PDF by Pramendra K. Bajpai and Inderdeep Singh

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Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment
Edited by Pramendra K. Bajpai and Inderdeep Singh
Reinforced Polymer Composites: Processing, Characterization and Post Life Cycle Assessment

Contents

1 Overview and Present Status of Reinforced Polymer
Composites 1
Furkan Ahmad, Inderdeep Singh, and Pramendra K. Bajpai
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 FRPCs 4
1.2.1 Fabrication of Fiber Reinforced Composites 4
1.2.2 Present Status of FRPCs 5
1.3 FRPCs Applications and Future Prospects 9
1.4 Conclusion 12
References 12
2 Fabrication of Short Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 21
Ujendra K. Komal,Manish K. Lila, Saurabh Chaitanya, and Inderdeep Singh
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Challenges with Composite Materials 23
2.3 Preprocessing of Natural Fibers and Polymeric Matrix 25
2.3.1 Fiber Surface Modification 25
2.3.2 Compounding of Natural Fibers and Polymeric Matrix 25
2.4 Processing of Polymeric Matrix Composites 26
2.4.1 Selection of Processing Techniques 28
2.4.2 Injection Molding 29
2.4.2.1 Operating Parameters 29
2.4.2.2 Challenges in Injection Molding of Natural Fiber-Based
Composites 33
2.4.2.3 Fabrication of Polymeric Composites by Injection Molding
Process 34
2.4.2.4 Mechanical Performance of Injection Molded Composites 34
2.5 Conclusions 35
References 36
3 Fabrication of Composite Laminates 39
Sandhyarani Biswas and Jasti Anurag
3.1 Introduction 39
3.2 Fabrication Processes 40
3.2.1 Hand Lay-up Process 40
3.2.2 FilamentWinding Process 42
3.2.3 Compression Molding Process 43
3.2.4 Vacuum Bagging Process 45
3.2.5 Autoclave Molding 46
3.2.6 Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) Process 46
3.2.7 Pultrusion Process 48
3.3 Conclusions 49
References 50
4 Processing of Polymer-Based Nanocomposites 55
Ramesh K. Nayak, Kishore K.Mahato, and BankimC. Ray
4.1 Introduction 55
4.2 Classification of Nanomaterials 58
4.2.1 Nanocomposites 58
4.2.2 Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites 59
4.3 Fabrication Techniques of Polymer Matrix Nanocomposites 60
4.3.1 Ultrasonic and Dual Mixing 61
4.3.2 Three-Roll Mixing of Nano-fillers in PMC 63
4.3.3 IntercalationMethod 64
4.3.4 Sol–Gel Method 67
4.3.5 Direct Mixing of Polymer and Nano-fillers 68
4.3.5.1 Melt Compounding 68
4.3.5.2 Solvent Method 69
4.4 Future Perspective and Challenges 70
Acknowledgment 71
References 71
5 Advances in Curing Methods of Reinforced Polymer
Composites 77
AnkitManral, Furkan Ahmad, and Bhasha Sharma
5.1 Introduction 77
5.2 Curing Method 79
5.3 Thermal Curing of FRPC 81
5.3.1 Autoclave Curing 81
5.3.1.1 Properties of FRPCs Influenced by Autoclave Parameters 85
5.3.2 Induction Curing 86
5.3.3 Resistance Curing 89
5.3.4 Microwave Curing 90
5.3.4.1 Properties Influenced by Microwave Curing of FRPC 92
5.3.5 Ultrasonic Curing 93
5.4 Radiation Curing of FRPCs 93
5.4.1 Electron Beam Radiation Curing 96
5.4.2 Ultraviolet Curing (UV) 98
5.5 Conclusion 99
References 100
6 Friction andWear Analysis of Reinforced Polymer
Composites 105
Pawan Kumar Rakesh and Lalit Ranakoti
6.1 Introduction 105
6.1.1 Fiber Reinforced Plastics 105
6.1.2 Failure Mechanism of Fiber Reinforced Plastics 106
6.1.3 AdhesionWear 107
6.1.4 AbrasiveWear 109
6.1.5 FatigueWear 109
6.1.6 Wear Testing Method 111
6.2 Results and Discussion 114
6.3 Conclusions 116
References 116
7 Characterization Techniques of Reinforced Polymer
Composites 119
Manish K. Lila, Ujendra K. Komal, and Inderdeep Singh
7.1 Introduction 119
7.2 Fiber Reinforced Polymers 120
7.3 Characterization of FRPs 121
7.4 Chemical Characterization 122
7.5 Physical Characterization 126
7.5.1 Microscopic Characterization 126
7.5.2 Density 128
7.5.3 Void Fraction 129
7.5.4 Surface Hardness 130
7.5.5 Surface Roughness 131
7.6 Mechanical Characterization 132
7.6.1 Tensile test 133
7.6.2 Compression Test 134
7.6.3 Flexural Test 135
7.6.4 Impact Test 136
7.6.5 Shear Test 136
7.7 Thermal Characterization 137
7.7.1 Thermal Properties 138
7.7.2 Thermogravimetric Analysis 139
7.7.3 Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Differential Scanning
Calorimetry (DSC) 139
7.7.4 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) 140
7.8 Durability Characterization 140
7.8.1 Creep Testing 141
7.8.2 Fatigue Testing 141
7.8.3 Wear Testing 142
7.8.4 Fire Testing 143
7.8.5 Environmental Testing 143
7.9 Conclusion 144
References 144
8 Detection of Delamination in Fiber Metal Laminates Based on
Local Defect Resonance 147
Tanmoy Bose, Subhankar Roy, and Kishore Debnath
8.1 Introduction 147
8.2 Local Defect Resonance Based Nondestructive Evaluation 149
8.2.1 Concept of Local Defect Resonance 149
8.2.2 Modeling of GLARE-Fiber Metal Laminate 150
8.2.3 Determination of LDR Frequency from Steady State Analysis 152
8.3 Super-Harmonic and Subharmonic Excitation in Fiber Metal
Laminates 153
8.4 Detection of LDR Frequency Using Bicoherence Analysis 155
8.4.1 Theory of Bicoherence Estimation 155
8.4.2 Case Study of a Flat Bottom Hole 157
8.4.2.1 Modeling of a Flat Bottom Hole 157
8.4.2.2 Determination of LDR Frequency Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
Plot 159
8.4.2.3 Determination of LDR Frequency Using Bicoherence Analysis 159
8.4.2.4 Validation of the LDR Frequency Using Steady State Analysis 161
8.5 Concluding Remarks 161
References 162
9 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Composites by
Conventional and Nonconventional Manufacturing
Processes 165
Manpreet Singh, Sarbjit Singh, and Parvesh Antil
9.1 Introduction 165
9.2 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites by
Conventional Machining 166
9.2.1 Conventional Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 166
9.2.2 Grinding Assisted Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 167
9.2.3 Vibration Assisted Drilling (VAD) of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 168
9.2.4 High Speed Drilling (HSD) of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 168
9.2.5 Drilling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites with Drill Bit
Geometry of Different Materials 168
9.2.6 Milling of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 171
9.2.7 Turning of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites 171
9.3 Secondary Processing of Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites by
NonconventionalMachining 173
9.3.1 Laser Beam Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 173
9.3.2 UltrasonicMachining of Reinforced PolymerMatrix Composites 174
9.3.3 AbrasiveWater Jet Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 175
9.3.4 Electrical Discharge Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 178
9.3.5 Electrochemical Discharge Machining of Reinforced Polymer Matrix
Composites 179
9.4 Concluding Remarks 180
References 181
10 Hybrid Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites:
Mechanical Strength Characterization and Life
Assessment 189
Parvesh Antil, Sarbjit Singh, andManpreet Singh
10.1 Introduction 189
10.2 Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs) 191
10.2.1 Matrix 191
10.2.2 Reinforcement 191
10.2.3 Fabrication of HGFRPC 192
10.2.4 Morphology of Normal and Hybrid PMC 193
10.2.5 Mechanical Strength Analysis 194
10.2.6 Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy 197
10.3 Environmental Degradation of PMCs 199
10.4 Life Assessment of PMCs 201
10.4.1 Morphological Inspection 202
10.5 Conclusions 205
References 206
11 Fire Performance of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric
Composites 209
Divya Zindani, Kaushik Kumar, and João Paulo Davim
11.1 Introduction 209
11.2 Flammability Aspects and Thermal Properties of Natural Fibers and
Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymeric Composites 210
11.3 Fire Retardants 216
11.4 Flame Retardants 216
11.4.1 Mineral Flame Retardants 216
11.4.2 Bulging of Flame Retardants 217
11.5 Fire Performance for Usability as Materials in Transportation 218
11.6 Fire Performance for Usability as Building Materials 219
11.7 Summary 220
References 221
12 Post Life Cycle Processing of Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer
Composites 225
N.H. Salwa, S.M. Sapuan,M.T.Mastura, andM.Y.M. Zuhri
12.1 Introduction 225
12.2 Polymer Composites 226
12.2.1 Thermoplastic Polymer 227
12.2.2 Reinforcing Fibers in Composites 228
12.2.3 Green Bio-composites 229
12.3 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) 230
12.3.1 Definition 230
12.3.1.1 Goal and Scope 233
12.3.1.2 Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) 234
12.3.1.3 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) 235
12.3.1.4 Life Cycle Results Interpretation 237
12.4 LCA Studies on Bio-composites 238
12.4.1 LCA Bio-composites 238
12.4.1.1 LCA Natural Fiber 239
12.4.2 LCA Biopolymer 240
12.5 LCA Limitations 241
12.6 Conclusions 243
Acknowledgment 244
References 244
13 Reprocessing and Disposal Mechanisms for Fiber Reinforced
Polymer Composites 249
Vijay Chaudhary, Khushi Ram, and Furkan Ahmad
13.1 Introduction 249
13.2 Reprocessing or Recycling Methods of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Composites 251
13.3 Mechanical Recycling 252
13.4 Chemical Recycling 254
13.5 Hydrolytic Degradation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite 255
13.6 Photodegradation of Polymer Composite 256
13.7 Biodegradation of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 257
13.8 Conclusion 258
References 262
Index 267
 
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