Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 5th Edition PDF by E. Bruce Goldstein

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Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 5th Edition
by E. Bruce Goldstein
Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, 5th Edition

Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Cognitive Psychology 3
Cognitive Psychology: Studying the Mind 5
What Is the Mind? 5
Studying the Mind: Early Work in Cognitive Psychology 6
Abandoning the Study of the Mind 10
Watson Founds Behaviorism 10
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 11
Setting the Stage for the Reemergence of the Mind in Psychology 11
The Rebirth of the Study of the Mind 13
Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts 13
Introduction of the Digital Computer 14
Conferences on Artificial Intelligence and Information Theory 15
The Cognitive “Revolution” Took a While 15
The Evolution of Cognitive Psychology 16
What Neisser Wrote 16
Studying Higher Mental Processes 17
Studying the Physiology of Cognition 18
New Perspectives on Behavior 18
Something to Consider 19
Learning from This Book 19
TES T YOURSELF 1.1 20
Chapter Summary 21
Think About It 22
Key Terms 22
CogLab Experiments 22
 
CHAPTER 2
Cognitive Neuroscience 25
Levels of Analysis 26
Neurons: Basic Principles 27
Early Conceptions of Neurons 27
The Signals That Travel in Neurons 29
METHOD Recording from a Neuron 30
Representation by Neural Firing 32
The Story of Neural Representation and Cognition: A Preview 32
Feature Detectors 33
Neurons That Respond to Complex Stimuli 35
Sensory Coding 36
TES T YOURSELF 2.1 38
Localized Representation 38
Localization Determined by Neuropsychology 38
METHOD Demonstrating a Double Dissociation 40
Localization Determined by Recording from Neurons 40
Localization Demonstrated by Brain Imaging 40
METHOD Brain Imaging 41
Distributed Representation 43
Looking at a Face 43
Remembering 44
Producing and Understanding Language 44
Neural Networks 45
Structural Connectivity 45
Functional Connectivity 46
METHOD Resting-State Functional Connectivity 46
The Dynamics of Cognition 49
The Default Mode Network 50
Something to Consider: Technology Determines the Questions
We Can Ask 52
TEST YOURSELF 2.2 55
Chapter Summary 56
Think About It 56
Key Terms 57
CogLab Experiment 57
CHAPTER 3
Perception 59
The Nature of Perception 60
Some Basic Characteristics of Perception 60
A Human Perceives Objects and a Scene 61
DEMONSTRATION Perceptual Puzzles in a Scene 62
A Computer-Vision System Perceives Objects and a Scene 63
Why Is It So Difficult to Design a Perceiving Machine? 65
The Stimulus on the Receptors Is Ambiguous 65
Objects Can Be Hidden or Blurred 65
Objects Look Different from Different Viewpoints 66
Scenes Contain High-Level Information 67
Information for Human Perception 67
Perceiving Objects 67
Hearing Words in a Sentence 68
TES T YOURSELF 3.1 70
Conceptions of Object Perception 70
Helmholtz’s Theory of Unconscious Inference 70
The Gestalt Principles of Organization 71
Taking Regularities of the Environment into Account 74
DEMONSTRATION Visualizing Scenes and Objects 75
Bayesian Inference 76
Comparing the Four Approaches 77
TES T YOURSELF 3.2 78
Neurons and Knowledge About the Environment 78
Neurons That Respond to Horizontals and Verticals 78
Experience-Dependent Plasticity 79
Perception and Action: Behavior 80
Movement Facilitates Perception 80
The Interaction of Perception and Action 81
Perception and Action: Physiology 82
What and Where Streams 82
METHOD Brain Ablation 82
Perception and Action Streams 83
Mirror Neurons 85
Something to Consider: Knowledge, Inference, and
Prediction 87
TES T YOURSELF 3.3 88
Chapter Summary 88
Think About It 89
Key Terms 90
CogLab Experiment 91
CHAPTER 4
Attention 93
Attention as Information Processing 95
Broadbent’s Filter Model of Attention 95
Modifying Broadbent’s Model: More Early Selection Models 96
A Late Selection Model 98
Processing Capacity and Perceptual Load 99
DEMONSTRATION The Stroop Effect 100
TES T YOURSELF 4.1 101
Directing Attention by Scanning a Scene 102
Scanning a Scene With Eye Movements 102
Scanning Based on Stimulus Salience 103
Scanning Based on Cognitive Factors 104
Scanning Based on Task Demands 104
Outcomes of Attention 105
Attention Improves Our Ability to Respond to a Location 105
METHOD Precueing 106
Attention Improves Our Ability to Respond to Objects 106
Attention Affects Perception 107
Attention Affects Physiological Responding 107
TES T YOURSELF 4.2 109
Divided Attention: Can We Attend to More Than One Thing
at a Time? 110
Divided Attention Can Be Achieved With Practice: Automatic Processing 110
Divided Attention Becomes More Difficult When Tasks Are Harder 111
Distractions 112
Distractions by Cell Phones while Driving 112
Distractions by the Internet 113
METHOD Experience Sampling 113
Distraction Caused by Mind Wandering 114
What Happens When We Don’t Attend? 115
Inattentional Blindness 116
Inattentional Deafness 116
Change Detection 117
DEMONSTRATION Change Detection 117
What About Everyday Experience? 118
Attention and Experiencing a Coherent World 119
Feature Integration Theory 119
Evidence for Feature Integration Theory 120
DEMONSTRATION Searching for Conjunctions 121
Something to Consider: Attentional Networks 122
TES T YOURSELF 4.3 124
Chapter Summary 124
Think About It 125
Key Terms 126
CogLab Experiment 127
CHAPTER 5
Short-Term and Working Memory 129
The Modal Model of Memory 132
Sensory Memory 134
The Sparkler’s Trail and the Projector’s Shutter 134
Sperling’s Experiment: Measuring the Capacity and Duration of the Sensory
Store 135
Short-Term Memory: Storage 137
METHOD Recall 138
What Is the Duration of Short-Term Memory? 138
How Many Items Can Be Held in Short-Term Memory? 138
DEMONSTRATION Digit Span 139
METHOD Change Detection 139
DEMONSTRATION Remembering Letters 141
How Much Information Can Be Held in Short-Term Memory? 141
TES T YOURSELF 5.1 142
Working Memory: Manipulating Information 143
DEMONSTRATION Reading Text and Remembering
Numbers 144
The Phonological Loop 145
DEMONSTRATION Articulatory Suppression 146
The Visuospatial Sketch Pad 146
DEMONSTRATION Comparing Objects 146
DEMONSTRATION Recalling Visual Patterns 147
DEMONSTRATION Holding a Spatial Stimulus in the Mind 148
The Central Executive 148
An Added Component: The Episodic Buffer 149
Working Memory and the Brain 150
The Effect of Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex 150
Prefrontal Neurons That Hold Information 152
The Neural Dynamics of Working Memory 153
Something to Consider: Why is More Working Memory
Better? 154
METHOD Event-Related Potential 156
TES T YOURSELF 5.2 157
Chapter Summary 158
Think About It 159
Key Terms 159
CogLab Experiment 159
CHAPTER 6
Long-Term Memory: Structure 161
Comparing Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
Processes 162
Serial Position Curve 164
Coding in Short-Term and Long-Term Memory 166
METHOD Measuring Recognition Memory 168
DEMONSTRATION Reading a Passage 168
Comparing Coding in Short-Term and Long-Term Memory 169
Locating Memory in the Brain 170
TES T YOURSELF 6.1 171
Episodic and Semantic Memory 172
Distinctions Between Episodic and Semantic Memory 172
Interactions Between Episodic and Semantic Memory 174
What Happens to Episodic and Semantic Memories as Time Passes? 175
METHOD Remember/Know Procedure 176
Back to the Future 177
TES T YOURSELF 6.2 179
Procedural Memory, Priming, and Conditioning 179
Procedural Memory 180
DEMONSTRATION Mirror Drawing 181
Priming 182
METHOD Avoiding Explicit Remembering in a Priming
Experiment 183
Classical Conditioning 184
Something to Consider: Memory Loss in the Movies 185
TES T YOURSELF 6.3 187
Chapter Summary 188
Think About It 189
Key Terms 189
CogLab Experiment 189
CHAPTER 7
LTM: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation 191
Encoding: Getting Information into Long-Term
Memory 193
Levels of Processing Theory 193
Forming Visual Images 194
Linking Words to Yourself 194
Generating Information 194
Organizing Information 195
DEMONSTRATION Remembering a List 195
Relating Words to Survival Value 197
Retrieval Practice 197
TES T YOURSELF 7.1 199
Effective Studying 199
Elaborate 199
Generate and Test 200
Organize 200
Take Breaks 200
Avoid “Illusions of Learning” 200
Be An “Active” Note-Taker 201
Retrieval: Getting Information Out of Memory 202
Retrieval Cues 202
METHOD Cued Recall 203
Matching Conditions of Encoding and Retrieval 204
TES T YOURSELF 7.2 207
Consolidation: Establishing Memories 208
Synaptic Consolidation: Experience Causes Changes at the Synapse 208
Systems Consolidation: The Hippocampus and the Cortex 210
METHOD Multivoxel Pattern Analysis (MVPA) 213
Consolidation and Sleep: Enhancing Memory 214
Reconsolidation: The Dynamics of Memory 216
Reconsolidation: A Famous Rat Experiment 216
Reconsolidation in Humans 218
A Practical Outcome of Reconsolidation Research 219
Something to Consider: Alternative Explanations in Cognitive
Psychology 220
TES T YOURSELF 7.3 220
Chapter Summary 221
Think About It 222
Key Terms 222
CogLab Experiment 222
CHAPTER 8
Everyday Memory and Memory Errors 225
The Journey So Far 226
Autobiographical Memory: What Has Happened
in My Life 227
The Multidimensional Nature of Autobiographical Memory 227
Memory Over the Life Span 228
Memory for “Exceptional” Events 231
Memory and Emotion 231
Flashbulb Memories 232
METHOD Repeated Recall 233
TES T YOURSELF 8.1 236
The Constructive Nature of Memory 236
Source Monitoring Errors 236
The Illusory Truth Effect 238
How Real-World Knowledge Affects Memory 238
DEMONSTRATION Reading Sentences 240
DEMONSTRATION Memory for a List 242
What Is It Like to Have “Exceptional” Memory? 242
TES T YOURSELF 8.2 243
The Misinformation Effect 244
METHOD Presenting Misleading Postevent Information 244
Creating Memories for Events in People’s Lives 246
Creating Childhood Memories 246
Legal Implications of False Memory Research 247
Why Do People Make Errors in Eyewitness Testimony? 248
Errors of Eyewitness Identification 248
Errors Associated with Perception and Attention 249
Misidentifications Due to Familiarity 250
Errors Due to Suggestion 251
What Is Being Done to Improve Eyewitness Testimony? 252
Eliciting False Confessions 254
Something to Consider: Music- and Odor-Elicited
Autobiographical Memories 255
TES T YOURSELF 8.3 257
DEMONSTRATION Reading Sentences (Continued) 258
Chapter Summary 258
Think About It 259
Key Terms 260
CogLab Experiment 260
CHAPTER 9
Conceptual Knowledge 263
Basic Properties of Concepts and Categories 266
How Are Objects Placed into Categories? 266
Why Definitions Don’t Work for Categories 267
The Prototype Approach: Finding the Average Case 268
DEMONSTRATION Family Resemblance 269
METHOD Sentence Verification Technique 270
The Exemplar Approach: Thinking About Examples 272
Which Approach Works Better: Prototypes or Exemplars? 272
Is There a Psychologically “Basic” Level of Categories? 273
Rosch’s Approach: What’s Special About Basic Level Categories? 273
DEMONSTRATION Listing Common Features 274
DEMONSTRATION Naming Things 274
How Knowledge Can Affect Categorization 275
TES T YOURSELF 9.1 275
Network Models of Categorization 276
Representing Relationships Among Categories: Semantic
Networks 276
Introduction to Semantic Networks: Collins and Quillian’s
Hierarchical Model 276
METHOD Lexical Decision Task 279
Criticism of the Collins and Quillian Model 279
The Connectionist Approach 280
What Is a Connectionist Model? 280
How Are Concepts Represented in a Connectionist Network? 282
TES T YOURSELF 9.2 285
How Concepts Are Represented in the Brain 285
Four Proposals About How Concepts Are Represented
in the Brain 285
The Sensory-Functional Hypothesis 286
The Multiple-Factor Approach 286
The Semantic Category Approach 288
The Embodied Approach 290
Summarizing the Approaches 291
Something to Consider: The Hub and Spoke Model 291
METHOD Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) 292
TES T YOURSELF 9.3 293
Chapter Summary 293
Think About It 294
Key Terms 295
CogLab Experiment 295
CHAPTER 10
Visual Imagery 297
Imagery in the History of Psychology 299
Early Ideas About Imagery 299
Imagery and the Cognitive Revolution 299
METHOD Paired-Associate Learning 299
Imagery and Perception: Do They Share the Same
Mechanisms? 300
Kosslyn’s Mental Scanning Experiments 300
METHOD/DEMONSTRATION Mental Scanning 301
The Imagery Debate: Is Imagery Spatial or Propositional? 302
Comparing Imagery and Perception 303
TES T YOURSELF 10.1 305
Imagery and the Brain 305
Imagery Neurons in the Human Brain 305
METHOD Recording from Single Neurons in Humans 305
Brain Imaging 306
Multivoxel Pattern Analysis 308
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 308
Neuropsychological Case Studies 310
Conclusions from the Imagery Debate 312
Using Imagery to Improve Memory 312
Placing Images at Locations 313
DEMONSTRATION Method of Loci 313
Associating Images with Words 314
Something to Consider: Individual Differences in Visual
Imagery 314
TES T YOURSELF 10.2 317
Chapter Summary 317
Think About It 318
Key Terms 318
CogLab Experiment 318
CHAPTER 11
Language 321
What is Language? 322
The Creativity of Human Language 322
The Universal Need to Communicate with Language 323
Studying Language 323
Understanding Words: A Few Complications 325
Not All Words Are Created Equal: Differences in Frequency 325
The Pronunciation of Words Is Variable 325
There Are No Silences Between Words in Normal Conversation 326
Understanding Ambiguous Words 327
Accessing Multiple Meanings 327
METHOD Lexical Priming 327
Frequency Influences Which Meanings Are Activated 328
TES T YOURSELF 11.1 330
Understanding Sentences 331
Parsing: Making Sense of Sentences 331
The Garden Path Model of Parsing 332
The Constraint-Based Approach to Parsing 332
Prediction, Prediction, Prediction… 336
TES T YOURSELF 11.2 337
Understanding Text and Stories 337
Making Inferences 337
Situation Models 339
Having Conversations 342
The Given–
New Contract 342
Common Ground: Taking the Other Person into Account 343
Establishing Common Ground 343
Syntactic Coordination 345
METHOD Syntactic Priming 345
Something to Consider: Music and Language 347
Music and Language: Similarities and Differences 347
Expectations in Music and Language 348
Do Music and Language Overlap in the Brain? 349
TES T YOURSELF 11.3 350
Chapter Summary 351
Think About It 352
Key Terms 353
CogLab Experiment 353
CHAPTER 12
Problem Solving & Creativity 355
What Is a Problem? 356
The Gestalt Approach 356
Representing a Problem in the Mind 356
The Idea of Insight 357
DEMONSTRATION Two Insight Problems 358
Functional Fixedness and Mental Set 359
DEMONSTRATION The Candle Problem 359
The Information-Processing Approach 362
Newell and Simon’s Approach 362
DEMONSTRATION The Tower of Hanoi Problem 363
The Importance of How a Problem Is Stated 366
DEMONSTRATION The Mutilated Checkerboard Problem 366
METHOD Think-Aloud Protocol 368
TES T YOURSELF 12.1 369
Using Analogies to Solve Problems 369
Analogical Transfer 369
DEMONSTRATION Duncker’s Radiation Problem 370
Analogical Encoding 372
Analogy in the Real World 373
METHOD In Vivo Problem-Solving Research 373
How Experts Solve Problems 374
Differences Between How Experts and Novices Solve Problems 374
Expertise Is Only an Advantage in the Expert’s Specialty 376
Creative Problem Solving 376
What Is Creativity? 377
Practical Creativity 377
Generating Ideas 378
DEMONSTRATION Creating an Object 380
Creativity and the Brain 381
Opening the Mind to Think “Outside the Box” 382
METHOD Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation 382
Brain “Preparation” for Insight and Analytical Problem Solving 382
Networks Associated with Creativity 383
Something to Consider: Wired to Create: Things Creative
People Do Differently 386
Daydreaming 386
Solitude 387
Mindfulness 388
TES T YOURSELF 12.2 389
Chapter Summary 390
Think About It 391
Key Terms 391
CHAPTER 13
Judgment, Decisions, and Reasoning 393
Inductive Reasoning: Making Judgments from
Observations 394
The Availability Heuristic 396
DEMONSTRATION Which Is More Prevalent? 396
The Representativeness Heuristic 398
DEMONSTRATION Judging Occupations 398
DEMONSTRATION Description of a Person 399
DEMONSTRATION Male and Female Births 400
Attitudes Can Affect Judgment 400
Evaluating False Evidence 402
TES T YOURSELF 13.1 404
Deductive Reasoning: Syllogisms and Logic 404
Categorical Syllogisms 404
Mental Models of Deductive Reasoning 407
Conditional Syllogisms 409
Conditional Reasoning: The Wason Four-Card Problem 410
DEMONSTRATION The Wason Four-Card Problem 411
TES T YOURSELF 13.2 413
Decision Making: Choosing Among Alternatives 413
The Utility Approach to Decisions 413
How Emotions Affect Decisions 416
Decisions Can Depend on the Context Within Which They Are Made 417
Decisions Can Depend on How Choices Are Presented 418
DEMONSTRATION What Would You Do? 419
Neuroeconomics: The Neural Basis of Decision Making 420
Something to Consider: The Dual Systems Approach to
Thinking 422
Postscript: Donders Returns 424
TES T YOURSELF 13.3 424
Chapter Summary 425
Think About It 426
Key Terms 427
CogLab Experiment 427
GLOSSARY 428
REFERENCES 445
NAME INDEX 475
SUBJECT INDEX 483
 
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