Delmar's Standard Textbook of Electricity PDF by Stephen L. Herman

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Delmar's Standard Textbook of Electricity
by Stephen L. Herman
Delmar's Standard Textbook of Electricity

CONTENTS

Preface xvii
Introduction: Electrical Occupations xxiii
SECTION 1
Safety, Basic Electricity, and Ohm’s Law 2
SafETy OvErvIEw
S–1 General Safety Rules 4
S–2 Effects of Electric Current on the Body 5
S–3 On the Job 6
S–4 Protective Clothing 10
S–5 Ladders and Scaffolds 13
S–6 Fires 16
S–7 Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters 18
S–8 Arc-Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs) 20
S–9 Grounding 24
UNIT 1
Atomic Structure 29
1–1 Early History of Electricity 30
1–2 Atoms 31
1–3 The Law of Charges 35
1–4 Structure of the Atom 36
1–5 Electron Orbits 37
1–6 Valence Electrons 38
1–7 The Bump Theory 40
1–8 Power Sources 43
1–9 Insulators 44
1–10 Semiconductors 44
1–11 Molecules 44
1–12 Methods of Producing Electricity 46
1–13 Electrical Effects 47
UNIT 2
Electrical Quantities and Ohm’s Law 50
2–1 The Coulomb 51
2–2 The Ampere 51
2–3 The Electron Flow Theory 52
2–4 The Conventional Current Flow Theory 52
2–5 Speed of Current 54
2–6 Basic Electric Circuits 55
2–7 The Volt 57
2–8 The Ohm 58
2–9 The Watt 60
2–10 Other Measures of Power 61
2–11 Ohm’s Law 62
2–12 Metric Prefixes 67
UNIT 3
Static Electricity 73
3–1 Static Electricity 74
3–2 Charging an Object 76
3–3 The Electroscope 76
3–4 Static Electricity in Nature 79
3–5 Nuisance Static Charges 81
3–6 Useful Static Charges 81
UNIT 4
Magnetism 86
4–1 The Earth Is a Magnet 87
4–2 Permanent Magnets 88
4–3 The Electron Theory of Magnetism 88
4–4 Magnetic Materials 90
4–5 Magnetic Lines of Force 91
4–6 Electromagnetics 92
4–7 Magnetic Measurement 95
4–8 Magnetic Polarity 97
4–9 Demagnetizing 97
4–10 Magnetic Devices 98
UNIT 5
Resistors 103
5–1 Uses of Resistors 104
5–2 Fixed Resistors 105
5–3 Color Code 109
5–4 Standard Resistance Values of Fixed Resistors 113
5–5 Power Ratings 114
5–6 Variable Resistors 115
5–7 Schematic Symbols 118
SECTION 2
Basic Electric Circuits 122
UNIT 6
Series Circuits 123
6–1 Series Circuits 124
6–2 Voltage Drops in a Series Circuit 124
6–3 Resistance in a Series Circuit 126
6–4 Calculating Series Circuit Values 127
6–5 Solving Circuits 128
6–6 Voltage Dividers 139
6–7 The General Voltage Divider Formula 140
6–8 Voltage Polarity 141
6–9 Using Ground as a Reference 142
UNIT 7
Parallel Circuits 149
7–1 Parallel Circuit Values 150
7–2 Parallel Resistance Formulas 153
UNIT 8
Combination Circuits 173
8–1 Combination Circuits 174
8–2 Solving Combination Circuits 174
8–3 Simplifying the Circuit 175
SECTION 3
Meters and Wire Sizes 200
UNIT 9
Measuring Instruments 201
9–1 Analog Meters 202
9–2 The Voltmeter 204
9–3 Multirange Voltmeters 205
9–4 Reading a Meter 207
9–5 The Ammeter 210
9–6 Ammeter Shunts 211
9–7 Multirange Ammeters 213
9–8 The Ayrton Shunt 214
9–9 AC Ammeters 218
9–10 Clamp-On Ammeters 221
9–11 DC–AC Clamp-On Ammeters 223
9–12 The Ohmmeter 225
9–13 Shunt-Type Ohmmeters 227
9–14 Digital Meters 228
9–15 The Low-Impedance Voltage Tester 231
9–16 The Oscilloscope 232
9–17 The Wattmeter 242
9–18 Recording Meters 244
9–19 Bridge Circuits 245
UNIT 10
Using Wire Tables and Determining Conductor Sizes 250
10–1 The American Wire Gauge (AWG) 251
10–2 Using the NEC Charts 253
10–3 Factors That Determine Ampacity 255
10–4 Correction Factors 257
10–5 Calculating Conductor Sizes and Resistance 262
10–6 Calculating Voltage Drop 271
10–7 Parallel Conductors 273
10–8 Testing Wire Installations 275
SECTION 4
Small Sources of Electricity 282
UNIT 11
Conduction in Liquids and Gases 283
11–1 The Ionization Process: Magnesium and Chlorine 284
11–2 Other Types of Ions 286
11–3 Electroplating 287
11–4 Electrolysis 288
11–5 Conduction in Gases 288
11–6 Ionization in Nature 292
UNIT 12
Batteries and Other Sources of Electricity 294
12–1 History of the Battery 295
12–2 Cells 296
12–3 Cell Voltage 297
12–4 Primary Cells 298
12–5 Secondary Cells: Lead-Acid Batteries 306
12–6 Other Secondary Cells 313
12–7 Series and Parallel Battery Connections 315
12–8 Other Small Sources of Electricity 317
UNIT 13
Magnetic Induction 327
13–1 Electromagnetic Induction 328
13–2 Fleming’s Left-Hand Generator Rule 330
13–3 Moving Magnetic Fields 331
13–4 Determining the Amount of Induced Voltage 331
13–5 Lenz’s Law 333
13–6 Rise Time of Current in an Inductor 335
13–7 The Exponential Curve 336
13–8 Inductance 338
13–9 R-L Time Constants 339
13–10 Induced Voltage Spikes 341
SECTION 5
Basics of Alternating Current 348
UNIT 14
Basic Trigonometry and Vectors 349
14–1 Right Triangles 350
14–2 The Pythagorean Theorem 351
14–3 Sines, Cosines, and Tangents 353
14–4 Formulas 356
14–5 Practical Application 356
UNIT 15
Alternating Current 367
15–1 Advantages of AC 368
15–2 AC Waveforms 368
15–3 Sine Wave Values 375
15–4 Resistive Loads 381
15–5 Power in an AC Circuit 382
15–6 Skin Effect in AC Circuits 383
SECTION 6
Alternating Current (AC) Circuits Containing Inductance 388
UNIT 16
Inductance in AC Circuits 389
16–1 Inductance 390
16–2 Inductive Reactance 393
16–3 Schematic Symbols 396
16–4 Inductors Connected in Series 397
16–5 Inductors Connected in Parallel 398
16–6 Voltage and Current Relationships in an Inductive Circuit 399
16–7 Power in an Inductive Circuit 400
16–8 Reactive Power 401
16–9 Q of an Inductor 402
UNIT 17
Resistive-Inductive Series Circuits 409
17–1 R-L Series Circuits 410
17–2 Impedance 411
17–3 Total Current 414
17–4 Voltage Drop Across the Resistor 414
17–5 Watts 415
17–6 Calculating the Inductance 416
17–7 Voltage Drop Across the Inductor 416
17–8 Total Voltage 416
17–9 Calculating the Reactive Power 416
17–10 Calculating the Apparent Power 418
17–11 Power Factor 420
17–12 Angle Theta 421
UNIT 18
Resistive-Inductive Parallel Circuits 434
18–1 Resistive-Inductive Parallel Circuits 435
18–2 Calculating Circuit Values 435
SECTION 7
AC Circuits Containing Capacitors 454
UNIT 19
Capacitors 455
19–1 Capacitors 456
19–2 Electrostatic Charge 459
19–3 Dielectric Constant 462
19–4 Capacitor Ratings 462
19–5 Capacitors Connected in Parallel 464
19–6 Capacitors Connected in Series 464
19–7 Capacitive Charge and Discharge Rates 465
19–8 RC Time Constants 466
19–9 Applications for Capacitors 468
19–10 Nonpolarized Capacitors 468
19–11 Polarized Capacitors 471
19–12 Variable Capacitors 473
19–13 Capacitor Markings 474
19–14 Temperature Coefficients 476
19–15 Ceramic Capacitors 476
19–16 Dipped Tantalum Capacitors 476
19–17 Film Capacitors 477
19–18 Testing Capacitors 478
UNIT 20
Capacitance in AC Circuits 484
20–1 Connecting the Capacitor into an AC Circuit 485
20–2 Capacitive Reactance 486
20–3 Calculating Capacitance 487
20–4 Voltage and Current Relationships in a Pure Capacitive Circuit 488
20–5 Power in a Pure Capacitive Circuit 490
20–6 Quality of a Capacitor 491
20–7 Capacitor Voltage Rating 492
20–8 Effects of Frequency in a Capacitive Circuit 492
20–9 Series Capacitors 494
20–10 Parallel Capacitors 497
UNIT 21
Resistive-Capacitive Series Circuits 504
21–1 Resistive-Capacitive Series Circuits 505
21–2 Impedance 506
21–3 Total Current 507
21–4 Voltage Drop Across the Resistor 507
21–5 True Power 507
21–6 Capacitance 508
21–7 Voltage Drop Across the Capacitor 508
21–8 Total Voltage 508
21–9 Reactive Power 508
21–10 Apparent Power 510
21–11 Power Factor 511
21–12 Angle Theta 511
UNIT 22
Resistive-Capacitive Parallel Circuits 521
22–1 Operation of RC Parallel Circuits 522
22–2 Calculating Circuit Values 523
SECTION 8
AC Circuits Containing Resistance-Inductance-Capacitance 536
UNIT 23
Resistive-Inductive-Capacitive Series Circuits 537
23–1 RLC Series Circuits 538
23–2 Series Resonant Circuits 548
UNIT 24
Resistive-Inductive-Capacitive Parallel Circuits 556
24–1 RLC Parallel Circuits 557
24–2 Parallel Resonant Circuits 566
UNIT 25
Surge, Spike, and Lightning Protection 577
25–1 Surges and Spikes 578
25–2 Capacitors 579
25–3 Capacitor Charge Rate 580
25–4 Inductors 581
25–5 Isolation Transformers 583
25–6 Electrical Noise 583
25–7 Metal-Oxide Varistor (MOV) 585
25–8 Thermal Fuses 587
25–9 Surge Protector Ratings 588
25–10 Lightning Arresters 590
SECTION 9
Three-Phase Power 594
UNIT 26
Three-Phase Circuits 595
26–1 Three-Phase Circuits 596
26–2 Wye Connections 597
26–3 Delta Connections 600
26–4 Three-Phase Power 603
26–5 Watts and VARs 603
26–6 Three-Phase Circuit Calculations 604
26–7 Load 3 Calculations 611
26–8 Load 2 Calculations 612
26–9 Load 1 Calculations 612
26–10 Alternator Calculations 613
26–11 Power Factor Correction 614
SECTION 10
Transformers 622
UNIT 27
Single-Phase Transformers 623
27–1 Single-Phase Transformers 624
27–2 Isolation Transformers 625
27–3 Autotransformers 647
27–4 Transformer Polarities 650
27–5 Voltage and Current Relationships in a Transformer 654
27–6 Testing the Transformer 656
27–7 Transformer Nameplates 656
27–8 Determining Maximum Current 658
27–9 Transformer Impedance 658
UNIT 28
Three-Phase Transformers 670
28–1 Three-Phase Transformers 671
28–2 Closing a Delta 676
28–3 Three-Phase Transformer Calculations 677
28–4 Open-Delta Connection 682
28–5 Single-Phase Loads 683
28–6 Closed Delta with Center Tap 686
28–7 Closed Delta without Center Tap 687
28–8 Delta–Wye Connection with Neutral 687
28–9 T-Connected Transformers 688
28–10 Scott Connection 691
28–11 Zig-Zag Connection 691
28–12 Six-Phase Transformer Connections 692
28–13 The Double-Delta Connection 694
28–14 The Double-Wye Connection 695
SECTION 11
DC Machines 700
UNIT 29
DC Generators 701
29–1 What Is a Generator? 702
29–2 Armature Windings 710
29–3 Brushes 711
29–4 Pole Pieces 711
29–5 Field Windings 712
29–6 Series Generators 714
29–7 Shunt Generators 716
29–8 Compound Generators 720
29–9 Compounding 721
29–10 Countertorque 722
29–11 Armature Reaction 724
29–12 Setting the Neutral Plane 727
29–13 Paralleling Generators 728
UNIT 30
DC Motors 733
30–1 DC Motor Principles 734
30–2 Shunt Motors 737
30–3 Series Motors 739
30–4 Compound Motors 740
30–5 Terminal Identification for DC Motors 742
30–6 Determining the Direction of Rotation of a DC Motor 743
30–7 Speed Control 745
30–8 The Field-Loss Relay 747
30–9 Horsepower 748
30–10 Brushless DC Motors 750
30–11 Converters 753
30–12 Permanent Magnet Motors 754
30–13 The Right-Hand Motor Rule 760
SECTION 12
AC Machines 764
UNIT 31
Three-Phase Alternators 765
31–1 Three-Phase Alternators 766
31–2 The Rotor 769
31–3 The Brushless Exciter 770
31–4 Alternator Cooling 770
31–5 Frequency 773
31–6 Output Voltage 774
31–7 Paralleling Alternators 775
31–8 Sharing the Load 777
31–9 Field-Discharge Protection 777
UNIT 32
Three-Phase Motors 780
32–1 Three-Phase Motors 781
32–2 The Rotating Magnetic Field 781
32–3 Connecting Dual-Voltage Three-Phase Motors 793
32–4 Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors 799
32–5 Wound-Rotor Induction Motors 820
32–6 Synchronous Motors 823
32–7 Selsyn Motors 829
UNIT 33
Single-Phase Motors 836
33–1 Single-Phase Motors 837
33–2 Split-Phase Motors 837
33–3 Resistance-Start Induction-Run Motors 840
33–4 Capacitor-Start Induction-Run Motors 847
33–5 Dual-Voltage Split-Phase Motors 848
33–6 Determining the Direction of Rotation for Split-Phase Motors 851
33–7 Capacitor-Start Capacitor-Run, or Permanent Split Capacitor, Motors 852
33–8 Shaded-Pole Induction Motors 854
33–9 Multispeed Motors 858
33–10 Repulsion-Type Motors 859
33–11 Construction of Repulsion Motors 860
33–12 Repulsion-Start Induction-Run Motors 863
33–13 Repulsion-Induction Motors 865
33–14 Single-Phase Synchronous Motors 865
33–15 Stepping Motors 867
33–16 Universal Motors 874
UNIT 34
Motor Installation 886
34–1 Motor Full-Load Current 887
34–2 Single-Phase AC Motors 887
34–3 Three-Phase Motors 889
34–4 Determining Conductor Size for a Single Motor 890
34–5 Termination Temperature 890
34–6 Overloads 892
34–7 Sizing Overload Heaters for Large Motors 897
34–8 Motor Starter Size 900
34–9 Short-Circuit Protection 900
34–10 Multiple Motor Calculations 910
UNIT 35
Harmonics 916
35–1 What Are Harmonics? 917
aPPENDIX a
Identifying the Leads of a Three-Phase,
Wye-Connected, Dual-Voltage Motor 927
aPPENDIX B
AC Formulas 930
aPPENDIX C
Greek Alphabet 941
aPPENDIX D
Metals 942
aPPENDIX E
Scientific Notation 944
aPPENDIX f
Answers to Practice Problems 948
Glossary 966
Index 978
 
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