Fitness and Wellness, 13th Edition PDF by Werner W. K. Hoeger, Sharon A. Hoeger, Amber L. Fawson, and Cherie I. Hoeger

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Fitness and Wellness, 13th Edition
By Werner W. K. Hoeger, Sharon A. Hoeger, Amber L. Fawson, and Cherie I. Hoeger
Fitness and Wellness, 13th Edition

Contents

Chapter 1
Introduction to Physical Fitness and Wellness 1
Lifestyle, Health, and Quality of Life 3
Life Expectancy 4
The Need to Prevent Disease, Not Only Cure It 5
Physical Activity Affects Health and Quality of Life 5
Physical Activity and Exercise Defined 5
Federal Guidelines for Physical Activity 7
Benefits of Physical Fitness 8
Types of Physical Fitness 11
Health-Related Fitness 11
Skill-Related Fitness 11
Wellness 12
The Path to Fitness and Wellness 13
Behavior Modification 13
Values and Behavior 14
Your Brain and Your Habits 15
Changing Habits through Mindfulness and Repetition 15
Changing Habits by Focusing on Long-Term Values 16
Planning and Willpower 16
Implementation Intentions 16
Motivation and Locus of Control 17
Fear of Implementation versus Joy of Implementation 18
Changing Behavior 18
The Transtheoretical Model for Changing Behavior 18
The Process of Change 20
SMART Goals 23
Goal Evaluation 24
A Word of Caution Before You Start Exercise 24
Assess Your Behavior 24
Assess Your Knowledge 25
Chapter 2
Assessment of Physical Fitness 32
The Value of Fitness Testing 33
Responders versus Nonresponders 34
Fitness Assessment Battery 34
Health Fitness Standard 34
Physical Fitness Standard 35
Cardiorespiratory Endurance 36
Assessing Cardiorespiratory Endurance 37
Muscular Fitness 40
Muscular Strength and Muscular Endurance 40
Determining Strength 41
Muscular Flexibility 44
Benefits of Good Flexibility 44
What Factors Affect Flexibility? 44
Assessing Flexibility 44
Body Composition 46
Body Shape and Health Risk 48
Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat 48
Assessing Body Composition 48
Effects of Exercise and Diet on Body Composition 55
Assess Your Behavior 55
Assess Your Knowledge 55
Chapter 3
Exercise Prescription 59
Monitoring Daily Physical Activity 60
Readiness for Exercise 62
Exercise Prescriptions 62
Cardiorespiratory Endurance 62
Cardiorespiratory Exercise Prescription 63
Daily Active Lifestyle 68
Muscular Fitness (Muscular Strength and Muscular
Endurance) 70
Overload Principle 70
Specificity of Training 70
Periodization 71
Muscular Strength-Training Prescription 71
Strength-Training Exercises 76
Strength-Training Exercise Guidelines 77
Core Strength Training 78
Designing Your Own Strength-Training Program 78
Dietary Recommendations for Strength Development 78
Flexibility 79
Muscular Flexibility Prescription 79
Designing a Flexibility Program 82
Exercises that May Cause Injury 82
Preventing and Rehabilitating Low Back Pain 83
Causes of Low Back Pain 83
Improving Body Posture 84
When to Call a Physician 84
Treatment Options 84
Designing a Low-Back Conditioning Program 87
Getting Started 87
Setting Fitness Goals 87
Assess Your Behavior 89
Assess Your Knowledge 89
Chapter 4
Evaluating Fitness Activities 101
Traditional Fitness Activities 102
Walking 103
Jogging 103
Deep-Water Jogging 104
Strength Training 104
Group Exercise Classes 104
Swimming 105
Water Aerobics 106
Cycling 106
Cross-Training 108
Cross-Country Skiing 108
Rowing 109
Elliptical Training/Stair Climbing 109
Racquet Sports 110
Yoga 110
High-Intensity Interval Training 110
New Fitness Trends 113
Ultra-Short Workouts 113
Core Training 113
Group Personal Training 113
Outdoor Training 114
Circuit Training 114
Functional Fitness 114
Dance Fitness 115
CrossFit 115
Flexibility and Mobility Rollers 115
Rating the Fitness Benefits of Aerobic Activities 115
Skill-Related Fitness 117
Team Sports 119
Tips to Enhance Your Aerobic Workout 119
Assess Your Behavior 121
Assess Your Knowledge 121
Chapter 5
Nutrition for Wellness 124
The Essential Nutrients 126
Carbohydrates 126
Fats 129
Proteins 131
Vitamins 132
Minerals 132
Water 132
Nutrition Standards 132
Dietary Reference Intakes 133
Daily Values 133
Macronutrient Composition Guidelines 136
Caloric Content of Food 136
Balancing the Diet 137
Nutrient Analysis 138
Vegetarianism 138
Nutrient Supplementation 140
Antioxidants 141
Multivitamins 142
Vitamin D 142
Folate 144
Are Supplements Recommended? 144
Benefits of Foods 144
Probiotics 145
Fish 146
Advanced Glycation End Products 146
Eating Disorders 146
Anorexia Nervosa 147
Bulimia Nervosa 148
Binge-Eating Disorder 148
Emotional Eating 149
Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) 149
Treatment 149
2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans 149
Key Recommendations 150
Physical Activity Recommendations 150
A Lifetime Commitment to Wellness 150
Assess Your Behavior 151
Assess Your Knowledge 151
Chapter 6
Weight Management 154
An Epidemic of Excessive Body Weight and
Obesity 155
Overweight versus Obese 156
Tolerable Weight 157
Fad Dieting 157
Principles of Weight Management 159
Energy-Balancing Equation 159
Diet and Metabolism 160
Recommendation 161
Sleep and Weight Management 162
Light Exposure and BMI 162
Monitoring Body Weight 163
Physical Activity and Weight Management 163
Strength Training and Weight Loss 164
The Myth of Spot Reducing 165
The Role of Exercise Intensity and Exercise Duration in
Weight Management 165
Overweight and Fit Debate 167
Designing Your Own Weight Loss Program 168
Estimating Your Caloric Intake 168
Monitoring Your Diet Through Daily Food Logs 170
Foods that Aid in Weight Loss 171
Protein Intake 171
Effect of Food Choices on Long-Term Weight Gain 171
Behavior Modification and Adherence to a Lifetime
Weight Management Program 172
You Can Do It! 175
Assess Your Behavior 175
Assess Your Knowledge 176
Chapter 7
Stress Management 182
The Mind/Body Connection 183
Emotions Can Trigger Physical
Responses 183
What Is Stress? 184
Eustress and Distress 184
How the Body Responds and Adapts to Stress 184
Alarm Reaction 184
Resistance 185
Exhaustion/Recovery 186
Examples of General Adaptation Syndrome 186
Thirty-Second Body Scan 187
How Behavior Patterns Affect Health 187
Certain Type A Behavior Increases Risk for Disease 187
Vulnerability to Stress 188
Sources of Stress 190
Sleep Management 192
How Much Sleep Do I Need? 192
What Happens If I Don’t Get Enough Sleep? 192
College Students Are Among the Most
Sleep-Deprived 193
Does It Help to “Catch Up” on Sleep on Weekends? 193
Time Management 194
Five Steps to Time Management 194
Managing Technostress 195
Coping with Stress 196
Identify and Change Stressors Within Your
Control 196
Accept and Cope with Stressors Beyond Your
Control 196
Physical Activity 196
Relaxation Techniques 198
Progressive Muscle Relaxation 198
Breathing Techniques for Relaxation 200
Visual Imagery 200
Meditation 201
Which Technique Is Best? 202
Assess Your Behavior 202
Assess Your Knowledge 202
Chapter 8
A Healthy Lifestyle Approach 206
A Wellness Lifestyle 207
Spiritual Well-Being 207
Causes of Death 208
Diseases of the Cardiovascular System 208
Types of Cardiovascular Disease and Prevalence 209
Risk Factors for CHD 210
Cancer 222
DNA Mutations and Tumor Formation 222
Metastasis 223
Guidelines for Preventing Cancer 224
Make Dietary Changes 224
Monitor Alcohol Consumption 226
Abstain from Tobacco 227
Avoid Excessive Sun Exposure 227
Monitor Estrogen, Radiation Exposure, and Potential
Occupational Hazards 228
Be Physically Active 229
Other Risk Factors for Cancer 229
Genetics versus the Environment 229
Early Detection 230
Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease 230
Accidents 230
Substance Abuse 231
Alcohol 231
Illegal Drugs 232
Treatment for Chemical Dependency 234
Sexually Transmitted Infections 234
Types and Causes of Sexually Transmitted Infections 234
HIV/AIDS 234
Preventing STIs 236
Assess Your Behavior 237
Assess Your Knowledge 237
Chapter 9
Relevant Fitness and Wellness Issues 241
Wellness Behavior Modification Issues 242
Safety of Exercise Participation and Injury
Prevention 243
Considerations for Women 252
Nutrition and Weight Control 257
Exercise and Aging 261
Fitness/Wellness Consumer Issues 263
What’s Next? 268
Assess Your Behavior 268
Assess Your Knowledge 269
Appendix A: Strength-Training Exercises 272
Appendix B: Flexibility Exercises 281
Appendix C: Exercises for the Prevention
and Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain 284
Appendix D: Contraindicated Exercises 287
Answer Key 291
Glossary 292
Index 298
 
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