# Mathematics for Machine Technology, Eighth Edition PDF by John C. Peterson and Robert D. Smith

Mathematics for Machine Technology, Eighth Edition
By John C. Peterson and Robert D. Smith Contents

vi PREFACE
1 sECtion 1 Common Fractions and Decimal Fractions
UNIT 1 Introduction to Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 1
UNIT 2 Addition of Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 8
UNIT 3 Subtraction of Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 14
UNIT 4 Multiplication of Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 20
UNIT 5 Division of Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 27
UNIT 6 Combined Operations of Common Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 33
UNIT 7 Computing with a Calculator: Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 40
UNIT 8 Computing with a Spreadsheet: Fractions and Mixed Numbers / 49
UNIT 9 Introduction to Decimal Fractions / 57
UNIT 10 Rounding Decimal Fractions and Equivalent Decimal and
Common Fractions / 63
UNIT 11 Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions / 69
UNIT 12 Multiplication of Decimal Fractions / 74
UNIT 13 Division of Decimal Fractions / 78
UNIT 14 Powers / 84
UNIT 15 Roots / 91
UNIT 16 Table of Decimal Equivalents and Combined Operations
of Decimal Fractions / 97
UNIT 17 Computing with a Calculator: Decimals / 103
UNIT 18 Computing with a Spreadsheet: Decimals / 112
UNIT 19 Achievement Review—Section One / 121
126 sECtion 2 Ratio, Propor tion, and Percentage
UNIT 20 Ratio and Propor tion / 126
UNIT 21 Direct and Inverse Proportions / 135
UNIT 22 Introduction to Percents / 141
UNIT 23 Basic Calculations of Percentages, Percents, and Rates / 145
UNIT 24 Percent Practical Applications / 150
UNIT 25 Achievement Review—Section Two / 157
160 sECtion 3 Linear Measurement: Customary (English) and Metric
UNIT 26 Customary (English) Units of Measure / 160
UNIT 27 Metric Units of Linear Measure / 169
UNIT 28 Degree of Precision, Greatest Possible Error, Absolute Error,
and Relative Error / 178
UNIT 29 Tolerance, Clearance, and Interference / 183
UNIT 30 Customary and Metric Steel Rules / 192
UNIT 31 Customary Vernier Calipers and Height Gages / 203
UNIT 32 Metric Vernier Calipers and Height Gages / 212
UNIT 33 Digital Calipers and Height Gages / 215
UNIT 34 Customary Micrometers / 218
UNIT 35 Metric Vernier Micrometers / 226
UNIT 36 Digital Micrometers / 231
UNIT 37 Customary and Metric Gage Blocks / 234
UNIT 38 Achievement Review—Section Three / 238
244 sECtion 4 Fundamentals of Algebra
UNIT 39 Symbolism and Algebraic Expressions / 244
UNIT 40 Signed Numbers / 253
UNIT 41 Algebraic Operations of Addition, Subtraction, and Multiplication / 267
UNIT 42 Algebraic Operations of Division, Powers, and Roots / 274
UNIT 43 Introduction to Equations / 287
UNIT 44 Solution of Equations by the Subtraction, Addition, and Division
Principles of Equality / 295
UNIT 45 Solution of Equations by the Multiplication, Root, and Power
Principles of Equality / 306
UNIT 46 Solution of Equations Consisting of Combined Operations
and Rearrangement of Formulas / 313
UNIT 47 Applications of Formulas to Cutting Speed, Revolutions
per Minute, and Cutting Time / 324
UNIT 48 Applications of Formulas to Spur Gears / 334
UNIT 49 Achievement Review—Section Four / 343
347 sECtion 5 Fundamentals of Plane Geometry
UNIT 50 Lines and Angular Measure / 347
UNIT 51 Protractors—Simple Semicircular and Vernier / 363
UNIT 52 Types of Angles and Angular Geometric Principles / 370
UNIT 53 Introduction to Triangles / 380
UNIT 54 Geometric Principles for Triangles and Other Common Polygons / 387
UNIT 55 Introduction to Circles / 399
UNIT 56 Arcs and Angles of Circles, Tangent Circles / 409
UNIT 57 Fundamental Geometric Constructions / 420
UNIT 58 Achievement Review—Section Five / 430
437 sECtion 6 Geometric Figures: Areas and Volumes
UNIT 59 Areas of Rectangles, Parallelograms, and Trapezoids / 437
UNIT 60 Areas of Triangles / 449
UNIT 61 Areas of Circles, Sectors, and Segments / 454
UNIT 62 Volumes of Prisms and Cylinders / 462
UNIT 63 Volumes of Pyramids and Cones / 473
UNIT 64 Volumes of Spheres and Composite Solid Figures / 481
UNIT 65 Achievement Review—Section Six / 488
494 sECtion 7 Trigonometry
UNIT 66 Introduction to Trigonometric Functions / 494
UNIT 67 Analysis of Trigonometric Functions / 506
UNIT 68 Basic Calculations of Angles and Sides of Right Triangles / 511
UNIT 69 Simple Practical Machine Applications / 519
UNIT 70 Complex Practical Machine Applications / 529
UNIT 71 The Cartesian Coordinate System / 542
UNIT 72 Oblique Triangles: Law of Sines and Law of Cosines / 546
UNIT 73 Achievement Review—Section Seven / 558
563 sECtion 8 Compound Angles
UNIT 74 Introduction to Compound Angles / 563
UNIT 75 Drilling and Boring Compound-Angular Holes: Computing Angles
of Rotation and Tilt Using Given Lengths / 567
UNIT 76 Drilling and Boring Compound-Angular Holes: Computing Angles
of Rotation and Tilt Using Given Angles / 573
UNIT 77 Machining Compound-Angular Surfaces: Computing Angles
of Rotation and Tilt / 581
UNIT 78 Computing Angles Made by the Intersection
of Two Angular Surfaces / 590
UNIT 79 Computing Compound Angles on Cutting and Forming Tools / 598
UNIT 80 Achievement Review—Section Eight / 608
610 sECtion 9 Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
UNIT 81 Introduction to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) / 610
UNIT 82 Control Systems, Absolute Positioning, Incremental Positioning / 621
UNIT 83 Location of Points: Polar Coordinate System / 631
UNIT 84 Binary Numeration System / 638
UNIT 85 Hexadecimal Numeration System / 645
UNIT 86 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Numeration Systems / 650
UNIT 87 An Introduction to G- and M-Codes for CNC Programming / 655
UNIT 88 Achievement Review—Section Nine / 669
674 APPEndixEs
A United States Customary and Metric Units of Measure / 674
B Principles of Plane Geometry / 676
C Formulas for Areas (A ) of Plane Figures / 678
D Formulas for Volumes (V ) of Solid Figures / 679
E Trigonometry / 680
F Common G- and M-Codes / 682