Nutrition for Health and Health Care, 7th Edition PDF by Linda Kelley DeBruyne and Kathryn Pinna

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Nutrition for Health and Health Care, 7th Edition
By Linda Kelley DeBruyne and Kathryn Pinna

Nutrition for Health and Health Care, 7th Edition

Contents

Preface xvi
Acknowledgments xx
Chapter 1
Overview of Nutrition and Health 1
Six Classes of Nutrients 6
kCalories: A Measure of Energy 6
Dietary Reference Intakes 8
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges 10
National Health Goals 11
National Trends 11
Dietary Ideals 13
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 14
Fitness Guidelines 16
The USDA Food Patterns 18
MyPlate 23
The Ingredient List 24
Nutrition Facts Panel 25
Claims on Labels 27
Nutrition in Practice Finding the Truth about
Nutrition 34
Chapter 2
Digestion and Absorption 39
The Digestive Organs 40
The Involuntary Muscles and the Glands 42
Digestion in the Mouth 45
Digestion in the Stomach 46
Digestion in the Small and Large Intestines 46
The Small Intestine 48
Absorption of Nutrients 49
The Vascular System 50
The Lymphatic System 51
Transport of Lipids: Lipoproteins 51
Gastrointestinal Hormones and Nerve Pathways 53
Gastrointestinal Microbes 53
The System at Its Best 54
Nutrition in Practice Food Safety 57
Chapter 3
Carbohydrates 67
Monosaccharides 68
Disaccharides 69
Polysaccharides 69
Sugars 74
Alternative Sweeteners: Sugar Alcohols 78
Alternative Sweeteners: Nonnutritive Sweeteners 79
Carbohydrates: Disease Prevention
and Recommendations 81
Carbohydrates: Food Sources 84
Carbohydrates: Food Labels and Health Claims 86
Nutrition in Practice The Glycemic Index in Nutrition
Practice 90
Chapter 4
Lipids 95
Triglycerides 97
Fatty Acids 98
Phospholipids 101
Sterols 101
Fats and Heart Health 103
Recommendations 106
Finding the Fats in Foods 108
Cutting Solid Fats and Choosing Unsaturated
Fats 110
Nutrition in Practice Figuring Out Fats 117
Chapter 5
Protein 125
The Structure of Proteins 126
Nonessential and Essential Amino Acids 127
Protein Turnover 129
Nitrogen Balance 129
Protein Deficiency 132
Malnutrition 133
Protein Excess 134
Protein and Amino Acid Supplements 135
Protein Recommendations and Intakes 136
Protein Quality 137
Protein Sparing 138
Protein on Food Labels 138
Nutrition in Practice Vegetarian Diets 141
Chapter 6
Energy Balance and Body Composition 147
Feasting 148
The Economics of Fasting 149
Energy In 152
Energy Out 152
Estimating Energy Requirements 155
Defining Healthy Body Weight 156
Body Composition 159
How Much Body Fat Is Too Much? 160
Health Risks of Underweight 161
Health Risks of Overweight and Obesity 162
Guidelines for Identifying Those at Risk from
Obesity 163
Other Risks of Obesity 163
Nutrition in Practice Eating Disorders 166
Chapter 7
Weight Management 173
Genetics and Weight 174
Environmental Stimuli 177
Over-the-Counter Weight-Loss Products 180
Other Gimmicks 180
Obesity Drugs 180
Surgery 181
A Healthful Eating Plan 182
Physical Activity 185
Behavior and Attitude 186
Weight Maintenance 188
Nutrition in Practice Fad Diets 195
Chapter 8
The Vitamins 199
Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene 203
Vitamin D 207
Vitamin E 211
Vitamin K 212
The B Vitamins 214
Thiamin 216
Riboflavin 216
Niacin 217
Pantothenic Acid and Biotin 218
Vitamin B6 218
Folate 219
Vitamin B12 220
Non–B Vitamins 222
Vitamin C 222
Nutrition in Practice Phytochemicals and Functional
Foods 229
Chapter 9
Water and the Minerals 237
Water Balance 238
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 240
Acid–Base Balance 241
Sodium 243
Chloride 244
Potassium 244
Calcium 245
Phosphorus 249
Magnesium 249
Sulfate 251
Iron 251
Zinc 256
Selenium 258
Iodine 259
Copper 260
Manganese 260
Fluoride 261
Chromium 261
Other Trace Minerals 261
Nutrition in Practice Vitamin and Mineral
Supplements 267
Chapter 10
Nutrition through the Life Span: Pregnancy
and Lactation 271
Nutrition Prior to Pregnancy 272
Prepregnancy Weight 272
Healthy Support Tissues 273
The Events of Pregnancy 274
Nutrient Needs during Pregnancy 276
Food Assistance Programs 281
Weight Gain 282
Weight Loss after Pregnancy 283
Physical Activity 284
Common Nutrition-Related Concerns of Pregnancy 285
Problems in Pregnancy 286
Practices to Avoid 288
Adolescent Pregnancy 291
Nutrition during Lactation 292
Contraindications to Breastfeeding 294
Nutrition in Practice Encouraging Successful
Breastfeeding 300
Chapter 11
Nutrition through the Life Span: Infancy,
Childhood, and Adolescence 303
Nutrient Needs during Infancy 304
Breast Milk 306
Infant Formula 309
The Transition to Cow’s Milk 311
Introducing First Foods 311
Looking Ahead 314
Mealtimes 315
Energy and Nutrient Needs 316
Hunger and Malnutrition in Children 320
Lead Poisoning in Children 321
Food Allergy 322
Hyperactivity 324
Childhood Obesity 325
Mealtimes at Home 330
Nutrition at School 334
Growth and Development during Adolescence 336
Energy and Nutrient Needs 336
Food Choices and Health Habits 337
Nutrition in Practice Childhood Obesity and
the Early Development of Chronic Diseases 345
Chapter 12
Nutrition through the Life Span: Later
Adulthood 351
Slowing the Aging Process 353
Nutrition and Disease Prevention 355
Cataracts and Macular Degeneration 356
Arthritis 356
The Aging Brain 357
Energy and Energy Nutrients 360
Vitamins and Minerals 362
Nutrient Supplements for Older Adults 363
The Effects of Drugs on Nutrients 364
Individual Preferences 365
Meal Setting 365
Depression 365
Food Assistance Programs 365
Meals for Singles 366
Nutrition in Practice Hunger and Community
Nutrition 373
Chapter 13
Nutrition Care and Assessment 379
How Illness Affects Nutrition Status 380
Responsibility for Nutrition Care 381
Identifying Risk for Malnutrition 382
The Nutrition Care Process 383
Historical Information 385
Dietary Assessment 386
Anthropometric Data 389
Biochemical Analyses 392
Physical Examination 395
Nutrition in Practice Nutritional Genomics 399
Chapter 14
Nutrition Intervention and Diet-Drug
Interactions 403
Care Planning 404
Approaches to Nutrition Care 406
Energy Intakes in Hospital Patients 408
Modified Diets 409
Variations in the Diet Order 413
Food Selection 414
Food Safety 414
Improving Food Intake 414
Drug Effects on Food Intake 416
Drug Effects on Nutrient Absorption 416
Dietary Effects on Drug Absorption 417
Drug Effects on Nutrient Metabolism 418
Dietary Effects on Drug Metabolism 419
Drug Effects on Nutrient Excretion 420
Dietary Effects on Drug Excretion 420
Drug-Nutrient Interactions and Toxicity 420
Nutrition in Practice Complementary and Alternative
Therapies 424
Chapter 15
Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Support 433
Oral Supplements 434
Candidates for Tube Feedings 435
Tube Feeding Routes 436
Enteral Formulas 438
Administration of Tube Feedings 441
Medication Delivery during Tube Feedings 445
Tube Feeding Complications 446
Transition to Table Foods 446
Candidates for Parenteral Nutrition 448
Venous Access 449
Parenteral Solutions 450
Administering Parenteral Nutrition 454
Managing Metabolic Complications 455
Candidates for Home Nutrition Support 457
Planning Home Nutrition Care 457
Quality-of-Life Issues 458
Nutrition in Practice Inborn Errors of Metabolism 463
Chapter 16
Nutrition in Metabolic and Respiratory Stress 469
Hormonal Responses to Stress 471
The Inflammatory Response 472
Determining Nutritional Requirements 474
Approaches to Nutrition Care in Acute Stress 476
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 477
Respiratory Failure 480
Nutrition in Practice Multiple Organ Dysfunction
Syndrome 486
Chapter 17
Nutrition and Upper Gastrointestinal
Disorders 489
Dry Mouth 490
Dysphagia 490
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease 494
Dyspepsia 496
Nausea and Vomiting 497
Gastroparesis 497
Gastritis 498
Peptic Ulcer Disease 498
Gastrectomy 500
Bariatric Surgery 503
Nutrition in Practice Nutrition and Oral Health 509
Chapter 18
Nutrition and Lower Gastrointestinal
Disorders 513
Constipation 514
Intestinal Gas 516
Diarrhea 516
Fat Malabsorption 519
Bacterial Overgrowth 521
Lactose Intolerance 521
Pancreatitis 523
Cystic Fibrosis 524
Celiac Disease 526
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 528
Short Bowel Syndrome 531
Irritable Bowel Syndrome 534
Diverticular Disease of the Colon 535
Colostomies and Ileostomies 536
Nutrition in Practice Probiotics and Intestinal
Health 542
Chapter 19
Nutrition and Liver Diseases 545
Fatty Liver 546
Hepatitis 547
Consequences of Cirrhosis 549
Treatment of Cirrhosis 552
Nutrition Therapy for Cirrhosis 552
Nutrition in Practice Alcohol in Health and Disease 561
Chapter 20
Nutrition and Diabetes Mellitus 565
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus 566
Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus 567
Types of Diabetes Mellitus 567
Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 569
Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 569
Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus 571
Treatment Goals 573
Evaluating Diabetes Treatment 574
Nutrition Therapy: Dietary Recommendations 575
Nutrition Therapy: Meal-Planning Strategies 577
Insulin Therapy 580
Antidiabetic Drugs 583
Physical Activity and Diabetes Management 584
Sick-Day Management 585
Pregnancy in Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes 586
Gestational Diabetes 586
Nutrition in Practice The Metabolic Syndrome 591
Chapter 21
Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases 595
Consequences of Atherosclerosis 597
Causes of Atherosclerosis 597
Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease 599
Evaluating Risk for Coronary Heart Disease 599
Lifestyle Management to Reduce CHD Risk 600
Vitamin Supplementation and CHD Risk 603
Lifestyle Changes for Hypertriglyceridemia 605
Drug Therapies for CHD Prevention 605
Treatment of Heart Attack 607
Stroke Prevention 608
Stroke Management 608
Factors That Influence Blood Pressure 609
Factors That Contribute to Hypertension 609
Treatment of Hypertension 611
Consequences of Heart Failure 614
Medical Management of Heart Failure 615
Nutrition in Practice Helping People with Feeding
Disabilities 620
Chapter 22
Nutrition and Renal Diseases 625
Consequences of the Nephrotic Syndrome 627
Treatment of the Nephrotic Syndrome 627
Causes of Acute Kidney Injury 630
Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury 630
Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury 631
Consequences of Chronic Kidney Disease 633
Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease 635
Kidney Transplants 640
Formation of Kidney Stones 642
Consequences of Kidney Stones 643
Prevention and Treatment of Kidney Stones 643
Nutrition in Practice Dialysis 648
Chapter 23
Nutrition, Cancer, and HIV Infection 653
How Cancer Develops 654
Nutrition and Cancer Risk 655
Consequences of Cancer 658
Treatments for Cancer 658
Nutrition Therapy for Cancer 661
Prevention of HIV Infection 665
Consequences of HIV Infection 666
Treatments for HIV Infection 668
Nutrition Therapy for HIV Infection 669
Nutrition in Practice Ethical Issues in Nutrition
Care 675
Appendix A Aids to Calculation A-2
a.1 Conversion Factors A -2
a.2 Percentages A -2
a.3 Weights and Measures A -3
Appendix B WHO: Nutrition Recommendations B-1
Appendix C Choose Your Foods: Food Lists for
Diabetes C-1
C.1 The Food Lists C-1
C.2 Serving Sizes C-1
C.3 The Foods on the Lists C-1
C.4 Controlling Energy, Fat, and Sodium C-2
C.5 Planning a Healthy Diet C-3
Appendix D Physical Activity and Energy
Requirements D-1
Appendix E Nutrition Assessment: Supplemental
Information E-1
E.1 Weight Gain during Pregnancy E-1
E.2 Growth Charts E-1
E.3 Measures of Body Fat and Lean Tissue E-2
E.4 Nutritional Anemias E-8
E.5 Cautions about Nutrition Assessment E-12
Appendix F Enteral Formulas F-1
Glossary GL-1
Index I-1
Case Studies
Chapter 10
Woman in Her First Pregnancy 294
Chapter 11
Boy with Disruptive Behavior 324
Chapter 12
Elderly Man with a Poor Diet 366
Chapter 13
Nutrition Screening and Assessment 396
Chapter 14
Implementing Nutrition Care 407
Chapter 15
Injured Hiker Requiring Enteral Nutrition Support 448
Patient with Intestinal Disease Requiring Parenteral
Nutrition 456
Chapter 16
Patient with a Severe Burn 477
Elderly Man with Emphysema 480
Chapter 17
Woman with GERD 496
Nutrition Care after Gastric Surgery 503
Chapter 18
Patient with Short Bowel Syndrome 533
Young Adult with Irritable Bowel Syndrome 535
Chapter 19
Man with Cirrhosis 556
Chapter 20
Child with Type 1 Diabetes 585
Woman with Type 2 Diabetes 587
Chapter 21
Patient with Cardiovascular Disease 614
Chapter 22
Woman with Acute Kidney Injury 632
Man with Chronic Kidney Disease 640
Chapter 23
Woman with Cancer 664
Man with HIV Infection 671
 
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