The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, Volume VIII PDF by Krishnasami Venkataraman

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The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, Volume VIII
by Krishnasami Venkataraman
The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, Volume VIII
I. Introduction
II. Raw Materials
III. Intermediates
IV. Diazotization and Diazonium Salts
V. Classification of Dyes
VI. Application of Dyes
VII. Color and Its Measurement
VIII. Color and Chemical Constitution
IX. Nitroso Dyes
X. Nitro Dyes
XL Azo Dyes—General
XII. Monoazo and Disazo Dyes
XIII. Mordant Azo Dyes
XIV. Constitution of Metal-Dye Complexes
XV. Trisazo and Polykisazo Dyes
XVI. Urea and Cyanuric Acid Derivatives
XVII. Direct Cotton Dyes Aftertreated on the Fiber
XVIII. Pyrazolones
XIX. Thiazoles
XX. Stilbene Dyes
XXI. Azo Dyes for Cellulose Acetate
XXII. Azoic Dyes


XXIII. Diphenylmethanes and Triphenylmethanes
XXIV. Xanthene and Acridine Dyes
XXV. Azines, Oxazines, Thiazines
XXVI. Benzophenone, Benzoquinone, and Naphthoquinone Dyes
XXVII. Anthraquinone Dyes for Cellulose Acetate
XXVIII. Anthraquinone Mordant Dyes
XXIX. Acid Anthraquinone Dyes
XXX. Anthraquinone Vat Dyes
XXXI. Anthraquinone Vat Dyes—Anthraquinone Derivatives
XXXII. Anthraquinone Vat Dyes—Anthrone Derivatives
XXXIII. Indigoid and Thioindigoid Dyes
XXXIV. Solubilized Vat Dyes
XXXV. Sulfur Dyes
XXXVI. Sulfurized Vat Dyes
XXXVII. Phthalocyanines
XXXVIII. CyanineDyes
XXXIX. Miscellaneous Dyes
XL. The Action of Light on Dyes and Dyed Fibers
XLI. Chemical Constitution of Dyes in Relation to Substantivity
XLII. Identification, Analysis, and Evaluation of Dyestuffs
Author Index—Subject Index—Dyestuff Index


I. Introduction
K. Venkataraman
II. Raw Materials
G. Collin and M. Zander
III. Intermediates
N. N. Vorozhtsov, Jr.
IV. Color and the Electronic States of Organic Molecules
S. F. Mason
V. Diazotization and Coupling
J. M. Tedder
VI. Azo Dyes
C. V. Stead
VII. The Chemistry of Metal Complex Dyestuffs
R. Price
VIII. Disperse Dyes
J. M. Straley
Author Index—Subject Index


I. Application of Dyes by Dyeing
Oskar Glenz
II. Application of Dyes in Textile Printing
Karl Neufang
III. Basic Dyes
N. R. Ayyangar and B. D. Tilak
IV. Cationic Dyes for Synthetic Fibers
Donald R. Baer
V. Cyanine Dyes
G. E. Ficken
VI. The Photographic Color Development Process
J. Bailey and L. A. Williams
VII. Photochemistry of Dyes
Hans Meier
Author Index—Subject Index


Naphthoquinonoid Dyes and Pigments
B. D. Tilak
Acid Anthraquinone Dyes
W. Schoenauer, F. Benguerel, and J. Benz
Anthraquinonoid Vat Dyes
K. Venkataraman and V. N. Iyer
G. Booth
Phthalogen Dyestuffs
Heinrich Vollmann
Organic Pigments
J. Lenoir
Hair Dyes
John F. Corbett
Fluorescent Brightening Agents
Heinrich Gold
Author Index—Subject Index


I. Reactive Dyes: Reactive Groups
E. Siegel
II. Reactive Dyes: Chromophore Systems
Karl-Heinz Schiindehutte
III. Reactive Dyes: Application and Properties
D. Hildebrand
Author Index—Subject Index


I. Sulfur Dyes
D. G. Orton
II. Bunte Salt Dyes
C. D. Weston
III. Physical Chemistry of Dyeing: State of Dye in
Dyebath and in Substrate
E. H. Daruwalla
IV. Physical Chemistry of Dyeing: Kinetics,
Equilibrium, Dye-Fiber Affinity, and
S. R. Sivaraja Iyer
V. Applications of Synthetic Dyes to Biological
E. Gurr, Nitya Anand, M. K. Unni, and N. R. Ayyangar
Author Index—Subject Index

For a few years I considered writing an entirely new edition of "The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes." As a result of discussions with many friends and colleagues who are familiar with the two volumes, I decided in 1967 that the urgent need was not for a revision, because very little of the contents of the 1952 publication had become obsolete, but for a review of the subsequent developments.

The progress made in the chemistry of synthetic dyes in the last twenty years has been amazing. The discovery of reactive dyes is one major advance. There has also been extensive research on intermediates, disperse dyes, cationic dyes, cyanine dyes, pigments, and metal complexes, all of which have led to much new chemical knowledge. Consequently I realized that it was no longer possible for a single author to give accurate and authoritative accounts of the progress made in each specialized area of synthetic dyes. I have been fortunate in the response I have had to my invitations to contribute to the additional volumes. All the chapters have been written by acknowledged authorities, whose names are associated with many patents and papers, and who have worked for many years on the topics they have covered.

In addition to the synthesis and application of dyes of all types, fluorescent brightening agents and such fundamental topics as color and electronic states of organic molecules, photochemistry of dyes, physical chemistry of dyeing, and the relation between structure and technical properties are covered.

These volumes are intended primarily for chemists and technologists who are concerned with the synthesis of dyes and their applications, but since most of the chapters constitute essays in synthetic organic chemistry, they should be of interest to organic chemists in general. An important feature is the very thorough coverage and critical assessment of patent literature as well as publications' in scientific journals. The record of achievement presented in these volumes also indicates the directions of future research.

I am indebted to the authors for accepting my invitation and to the companies who made it possible for their leading scientists to spare the necessary time. The plan for this international multiauthor effort took concrete shape during ten days I spent in the Research Department of Farbenfabriken Bayer. I am grateful to Professor Petersen, Dr. Delfs, and their colleagues, and also to Dr. R. R. Davies (Imperial Chemical Industries, Dyestuffs Division) for their help in the organization of this series. My thanks are due to Mr. J. V. Rajan, Mr. G. V. Kulkarni, and Mr. S. A. Nair for preparing the Subject Indexes, checking literature references, and dealing with the heavy correspondence. Academic Press has handled production problems with its usual efficiency, and it is a pleasure to thank the staff for their cooperation. Finally, I wish to make grateful acknowledgment of the hospitality of the National Chemical Laboratory provided by the Director, Dr. B. D. Tilak, the Director- General of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. Y. Nayudamma, and his predecessor Dr. Atma Ram, without which I could not have undertaken this project.
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