Tufted Carpet: Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes PDF by Howard L Needles and Von Moody

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Tufted Carpet: Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes
by Howard L Needles and Von Moody
Tufted Carpet: Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes and Processes

Contents

Part 1: Introduction to Carpet Fiber
1 Fiber Theory and Formation ................................................. 3
1.1 FIBER CLASSIFICATION ....................................................... 4
1.2 FIBER PROPERTIES ................................................................ 5
1.2.1 Primary Properties ........................................................ 6
1.2.2 Secondary Properties ................................................... 7
1.2.3 Primary Fiber Properties from an Engineering
Perspective .................................................................. 10
1.3 FIBER FORMATION AND MORPHOLOGY ........................ 11
1.3.1 Polymer Formation .................................................... 11
1.3.2 Fiber Spinning ............................................................ 13
1.3.3 Fiber Drawing and Morphology ................................ 16
1.3.4 Bulking and Texturizing ............................................... 18
1.3.5 Staple Formation ......................................................... 20
1.4 STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS ................... 21
2 Fiber Identification and Characterization ............................. 23
2.1 FIBER IDENTIFICATION .................................................... 23
2.1.1 Microscopic Identification ........................................... 23
2.1.2 Solubility ...................................................................... 24
2.1.3 Heating and Burning Characteristics .......................... 24
2.1.4 Density or Specific Gravity ......................................... 24
2.1.5 Staining ........................................................................ 24
2.2 STRUCTURAL, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL
CHARACTERIZATION .......................................................... 25
2.2.1 Optical and Electron Microscopy ............................... 25
2.2.2 Elemental and End-Group Analysis ........................... 25
2.2.3 Infrared Spectroscopy ................................................ 26
2.2.4 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy................................ 26
2.2.5 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy .............. 26
2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction ....................................................... 27
2.2.7 Thermal Analysis ........................................................ 27
2.2.8 Molecular Weight Determination ............................... 28
2.2.9 Mechanical and Tensile Property Measurements ....... 28
2.2.10 Specific Gravity .......................................................... 29
2.2.11 Environmental Properties ........................................... 29
2.2.12 Chemical Properties ................................................... 30
2.3 END-USE PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION ................... 31
2.3.1 Characteristics Related to Identity, Aesthetics,
and Comfort ................................................................ 31
2.3.2 Characteristics Related to Durability and Wear ......... 33
2.3.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics and
Response of Fiber to Its Environmental
Surroundings .............................................................. 33
3 Major Fibers and Their Properties ..................................... 35
3.1 NYLON 6 AND NYLON 6,6 FIBERS .................................... 35
3.1.1 Structural Properties ................................................... 36
3.1.2 Effect of Single-Step Versus Two-Step Production
of Nylon ...................................................................... 37
3.1.3 Physical Properties ..................................................... 38
3.1.4 Chemical Properties .................................................... 39
3.1.5 Nylon End-Use Properties .......................................... 39
3.2 POLYESTER FIBERS ............................................................ 40
3.2.1 Structural Properties ................................................... 40
3.2.2 Physical Properties ..................................................... 42
3.2.3 Chemical Properties .................................................... 42
3.2.4 Polyester End-Use Properties .................................... 42
3.3 ACRYLIC FIBERS ................................................................. 43
3.3.1 Structural Properties ................................................... 44
3.3.2 Physical Properties ..................................................... 44
3.3.3 Chemical Properties .................................................... 44
3.3.4 Acrylic End-Use Properties........................................ 46
3.4 MODACRYLIC FIBERS ......................................................... 47
3.4.1 Structural Properties ................................................... 47
3.4.2 Physical Properties ..................................................... 47
3.4.3 Chemical Properties ................................................... 49
3.4.4 Modacrylic End-Use Properties.................................. 49
3.5 POLYOLEFIN FIBERS ........................................................... 50
3.5.1 Polyethylene and Polypropylene................................ 50
3.5.2 Structural Properties ................................................... 50
3.5.3 Physical Properties ..................................................... 51
3.5.4 Chemical Properties ................................................... 52
3.5.5 Polyolefin End-Use Properties ................................... 52
3.6 WOOL ..................................................................................... 53
3.6.1 Structural Properties ................................................... 53
3.6.2 Physical Properties ..................................................... 56
3.6.3 Chemical Properties ................................................... 57
3.6.4 Wool End-Use Properties ........................................... 58
Part 2: Carpet Making
4 Yarn Formation ..................................................................... 63
4.1 WOOLEN AND WORSTED SYSTEMS ................................ 64
4.2 STAPLE SYSTEMS................................................................. 65
4.3 FILAMENT SYSTEMS ........................................................... 65
5 Primary and Secondary Backing Construction ................. 67
5.1 WOVEN................................................................................... 67
5.1.1 Woven Primary or Secondary Backing Manufacture 68
5.1.2 Textile Substrate Formation ....................................... 69
5.1.3 Weaving ...................................................................... 70
5.1.4 Shedding Mechanisms ................................................ 72
5.1.5 Fill Insertion ............................................................... 73
5.2 NONWOVEN .......................................................................... 76
5.2.1 Nonwoven Primary or Secondary Backing
Formation .................................................................... 76
5.2.2 Mechanical Bonding or Entanglement of
Nonwovens ................................................................. 78
5.2.3 Stitching or Stitch Bonding .......................................... 79
5.2.4 Self Bonding ................................................................ 79
5.2.5 Adhesive Bonding ...................................................... 80
5.3 COMPOSITE FORMATION................................................... 80
5.4 NEW TUFTING PRIMARY BACKINGS ............................... 81
6 Carpet Construction ............................................................. 83
6.1 DESCRIPTION OF LAYERS OF PILE CARPET ................. 83
6.1.1 Primary Backings ....................................................... 83
6.1.2 Loop Pile Created by Tufting ..................................... 84
6.1.3 Shearing ...................................................................... 89
6.1.4 Secondary Backing ..................................................... 89
6.2 FINISHING.............................................................................. 90
Part 3: Coatings, Raw Materials, and Their Processes
7 Latex Coatings ...................................................................... 95
7.1 LATEX COMPOUNDS............................................................ 95
7.1.1 Filler ............................................................................ 98
7.1.2 Surfactants .................................................................. 98
7.1.3 Thickeners .................................................................. 99
7.1.4 Water ........................................................................... 99
7.1.5 Flame Retardants ........................................................ 99
7.1.6 Miscellaneous ............................................................. 99
7.2 EXAMPLES OF LATEX COMPOUNDS................................ 99
7.3 EFFECT OF FILLER ON LATEX-COATED
CARPET................................................................................ 101
7.4 EFFECT OF DENIER ON TUFTBIND .............................. 101
7.5 FLAME RETARDANCY..................................................... 103
7.6 SUMMARY............................................................................ 104
8 Polyurethane Coating ......................................................... 105
8.1 POLYURETHANE RAW MATERIALS AND
BASIC CHEMISTRY ............................................................ 105
8.2 MECHANICALLY FROTHED POLYURETHANE .............. 106
8.3 WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE ................................... 107
9 Cushion ................................................................................ 109
9.1 RESIDENTIAL ...................................................................... 109
9.2 COMMERCIAL ..................................................................... 110
9.3 FOAM PERFORMANCE .......................................................111
9.4 CUSHIONS AND PADS ....................................................... 112
10 Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol Coating................................. 115
10.1 RAW MATERIALS ................................................................ 115
10.1.1 Dispersion Resin....................................................... 116
10.1.2 Blending Resin.......................................................... 116
10.1.3 Plasticizer .................................................................. 116
10.1.4 Stabilizers .................................................................. 117
10.1.5 Thixotropic Agents ................................................... 117
10.1.6 Surfactants ................................................................ 117
10.1.7 Pigments ................................................................... 117
10.1.8 Fillers ........................................................................ 118
10.1.9 Lubricants ................................................................. 118
10.1.10 Blowing Agents ........................................................ 118
10.1.11 Solvents or Diluents ................................................. 118
10.2 TROUBLESHOOTING ......................................................... 118
10.3 FORMULATION ................................................................... 121
10.4 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY ............................................... 121
10.5 FLEXIBILITY........................................................................ 122
10.6 INDENTATION ..................................................................... 123
10.7 CUTTING CARPET INTO TILE .......................................... 123
10.8 IMPERMEABILITY .............................................................. 123
10.9 SUMMARY............................................................................ 123
11 Hot Melt Coating ................................................................. 125
11.1 DISCUSSION OF HOT MELTS ........................................... 125
11.2 INGREDIENTS ..................................................................... 127
11.2.1 Polymers ................................................................... 127
11.2.2 Resins ........................................................................ 127
11.2.3 Wax ........................................................................... 127
11.2.4 Filler .......................................................................... 127
11.2.5 Oils ............................................................................ 128
11.2.6 Antioxidants .............................................................. 128
11.2.7 Flame Retardants ...................................................... 128
11.3 HOT MELT COATING PROCESS ....................................... 128
11.4 COMPOUNDING .................................................................. 130
11.5 EXAMPLES OF HOT MELT COATING
COMPOUNDS....................................................................... 130
12 Extrusion Coating Technology ........................................... 133
12.1 EXTRUSION COATING PROCESS .................................... 133
12.2 THE EXTRUDER .................................................................. 134
12.3 EXTRUDER DIE ................................................................... 134
12.4 DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT ............................................ 135
12.5 POLYMERS AND COMPOUNDS........................................ 136
12.6 EXAMPLES OF EXTRUSION COATING
COMPOUNDS....................................................................... 136
13 Carpet Tile Coatings and Reinforcements ........................ 139
13.1 COATING SYSTEMS FOR CARPET TILE......................... 140
13.1.1 Polyurethane ............................................................. 140
13.1.2 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) ........................................ 140
13.1.3 Hot Melt .................................................................... 140
13.1.4 Extrusion ................................................................... 141
13.2 FIBERGLASS REINFORCEMENT ...................................... 141
13.3 SUMMARY............................................................................ 141
Part 4: Carpet Enhancers
14 Antimicrobial Agents ......................................................... 145
14.1 USE ........................................................................................ 145
14.2 BACTERIAL SOURCES AND CONDITIONS
FAVORABLE TO GROWTH .............................................. 146
14.3 ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT SELECTION AND
CONSIDERATION............................................................... 147
14.4 RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS....................................... 148
14.5 PROOF OF CLAIMS ........................................................... 148
14.6 MICROORGANISM STRUCTURE ................................... 149
14.7 TYPES OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS.......................... 149
14.8 VARIOUS ANTIMICROBIAL TREATMENTS ................ 150
14.9 TESTING............................................................................... 152
14.10 PLACEMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS ............ 153
14.11 SUMMARY .......................................................................... 153
15 Color, Dyes, Dyeing, and Printing ..................................... 155
15.1 COLOR THEORY ................................................................. 155
15.1.1 The Munsell System ................................................. 159
15.1.2 Additive and Subtractive Systems ........................... 160
15.1.3 Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage System .. 161
15.2 DYES AND DYE CLASSIFICATION.................................. 162
15.2.1 Dyes Containing Anionic Functional Groups.......... 162
15.2.2 Dyes Containing Cationic Groups (Basic Dyes) ...... 165
15.2.3 Special Colorant Classes .......................................... 165
15.2.4 Dyeing of Blends ...................................................... 166
15.3 APPLICATION METHODS AND FACTORS
AFFECTING DYEING ........................................................ 167
15.3.1 Dyeing Methods ........................................................ 168
15.3.2 Printing Techniques .................................................. 169
15.3.3 Physical Factors Affecting Dyeing ........................... 172
15.3.4 Chemical Reagents ................................................... 172
15.4 DYES APPLIED TO FIBER CLASSES ............................... 173
15.4.1 Dyes for Protein Fibers ............................................ 173
15.4.2 Dyes for Polyamide Fibers ....................................... 173
15.4.3 Dyes for Polyester Fibers ......................................... 174
15.4.4 Dyes for Acrylic Fibers ............................................ 174
15.4.5 Dyes for Polyolefin Fibers ....................................... 175
16 Stain Blockers and Fluorochemicals ................................. 177
16.1 BACKGROUND .................................................................... 177
16.2 STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS FOR NYLON CARPET ...... 178
16.3 TECHNOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY .................................... 179
16.4 FLUOROCHEMICALS ......................................................... 180
16.5 STAIN RESISTANCE TECHNOLOGY................................ 181
16.6 APPLICATION OF STAIN RESIST CHEMICALS ............. 183
16.6.1 Basic Information ..................................................... 184
16.6.2 Development of the Foam Application.................... 184
16.7 EXAMPLES OF STAIN RESISTANT
APPLICATIONS .................................................................. 188
16.7.1 Batch Exhaust ........................................................... 188
16.7.2 Continuous Exhaust .................................................. 188
16.7.3 Use in Drying Only ................................................... 188
16.7.4 Foam Application ...................................................... 189
16.7.5 Exhaustion of Stain Blocker on Nylon ...................... 189
16.8 PERFORMANCE TESTING ................................................. 191
Part 5: Performance, Cleaning, and Recycling
17 Performance Issues ............................................................ 195
17.1 STANDARDS AND TESTS.................................................. 195
17.1.1 Standards and Tests for Carpets ................................. 196
17.1.2 Standards and Tests for Backing ................................ 196
17.2 APPEARANCE RETENTION............................................... 196
17.3 FLAMMABILITY .................................................................. 197
17.3.1 Pill Test ....................................................................... 199
17.3.2 Discussion of Pill Test Results ................................... 200
17.3.3 Radiant Panel Test ...................................................... 204
17.4 SOUND ABSORPTION........................................................ 207
17.4.1 Testing Terminology ................................................... 209
17.4.2 Testing of Carpet ........................................................ 209
17.4.3 Impact Sound Insulation ............................................ 210
17.5 OTHER PERFORMANCE ISSUES ...................................... 211
17.5.1 Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) Yellowing ........... 211
17.5.2 Discoloration from Stain Blockers ............................. 211
17.5.3 Pile Crush or Matting ................................................. 211
17.5.4 Shading ....................................................................... 211
17.5.5 Pilling .......................................................................... 212
17.5.6 Fuzzing ........................................................................ 212
17.5.7 Delamination or Backing Separation ......................... 212
17.5.8 Indentation .................................................................. 213
17.5.9 Static ......................................................................... 213
17.5.10 Grinning .................................................................... 213
18 Maintenance and Cleaning................................................. 215
18.1 CLEANING METHODS AND EQUIPMENT....................... 215
18.2 REMOVAL OF STAINS AND CLEANING HINTS............. 216
18.3 CLEANING STAINS AND SPILLS ..................................... 217
18.3.1 Common Spill Removal ........................................... 217
19 Recycling.............................................................................. 219
19.1 DISCUSSION ........................................................................ 219
19.2 USES ...................................................................................... 220
19.2.1 Plastic Lumber .......................................................... 220
19.2.2 Concrete Reinforcement ........................................... 220
19.2.3 Asphalt Modification ................................................ 221
19.2.4 Use in Soil................................................................. 221
19.3 RECOVERY PROCESSES.................................................... 221
19.3.1 Individual Carpet Component Separation Through
Super Critical Fluid Separation ................................. 222
19.3.2 Compatibilization of Carpet Components.................. 222
19.3.3 Depolymerization ...................................................... 222
19.4 EXAMPLES OF CARPET RECYCLING .......................... 222
19.4.1 Carpet Used for Energy ........................................... 222
19.4.2 Company Specific Examples of Recycling .............. 223
Appendix: Carpet Test Methods ............................................. 225
Glossary ..................................................................................... 227
Bibliography .............................................................................. 237
Index .......................................................................................... 239
 
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