What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration PDF by Ellen Pastorino and Susann Doyle-Portillo

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What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
by Ellen Pastorino and Susann Doyle-Portillo
What is Psychology?: Foundations, Applications, and Integration
Contents
1 The Science of Psychology 2
1.1 What Is Psychology? 4
Correcting Common Misconceptions About the Field of Psychology 4
Psychology Will Teach You About Critical Thinking 6
1.2 The Science of Psychology: Goals, Hypotheses, and Methods 7
Psychologists Are Scientists: The Scientific Method 8
Psychologists Ask Questions: Hypotheses 10
Psychologists Strategize: Sampling and Research Methods 10
1.3 Ethical Principles of Psychological Research 20
Ethical Guidelines for Participants 20
Ethical Guidelines for Animal Research 22
1.4 Psychology in the Modern World: Foundations and Growth 22
Psychology’s Roots and Modern Perspectives 23
Specialty Areas in Psychology 27
Gender, Ethnicity, and the Field of Psychology 28
Psychology Applies to Your World Training to Be a Psychologist 30
1.5 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 32
Studying the Chapter 33
Are You Getting the Big Picture? The Science of Psychology 36
Part 1 ▶ Foundations in Biological Psychology 39
2 Neuroscience 42
2.1 Billions of Neurons: Communication in the Brain 44
The Anatomy of the Neuron 45
Psychology Applies to Your World Can Exposure to Wi-Fi Hotspots Affect Myelin in the Brain? 46
Signals in the Brain: How Neurons Fire Up 48
Jumping the Synapse: Synaptic Transmission 50
Cleaning Up the Synapse: Reuptake 51
2.2 Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Chemical Messengers in the Brain 52
Acetylcholine: Memory and Memory Loss 52
Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine: Deepening Our Understanding of Mental Illness 53
GABA and Glutamate: Regulating Brain Activity 54
Endorphins: Pain and Pleasure in the Brain 55
2.3 The Structure of the Nervous System 56
Sensing and Reacting: The Peripheral Nervous System 57
Voluntary Action: The Somatic Nervous System 58
Involuntary Actions: The Autonomic Nervous System 58
2.4 The Brain and Spine:The Central Nervous System 60
The Hindbrain 61
The Midbrain 62
The Forebrain 62
The Cortex 66
The Specialization of Function in the Lobes of the Cortex 70
2.5 Technologies for Studying the Brain 73
2.6 The Endocrine System: Hormones and Behavior 75
2.7 Integrating Psychology:The Big Picture 76
Studying the Chapter 77
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Neuroscience 80
3 Sensation and Perception 82
3.1 Measuring Sensation and Perception: Psychophysics 84
The Limits of Sensation: Absolute Thresholds 84
The Just Noticeable Difference and Weber’s Law 84
Processing Without Awareness: Subliminal Stimulation of the Senses 85
Extrasensory Perception: Can Perception Occur Without Our Five Senses? 85
3.2 Vision: Seeing the World 86
How Vision Works: Light Waves and Energy 87
The Anatomy of the Outer Eye 88
The Retina: Light Energy to Neural Messages 89
Adapting to Light and Darkness 91
How We See Color 92
The Visual Pathways of the Brain 95
3.3 Hearing: Listening to the World 96
Environmental Noise and Hearing Loss 97
The Anatomy and Function of the Ear 97
The Auditory Pathways of the Brain 98
3.4 The Other Senses: Taste, Smell, Touch, and the Body Senses 100
Taste: Information from the Tongue 100
Psychology Applies to Your World Why Don’t We All Like the Same Foods? 102
Smell: Aromas, Odors, and a Warning System 103
Touch: The Skin Sense 106
The Body Senses: Experiencing the Physical Body in Space 107
3.5 Perception: Interpreting Your World 108
Using What We Know: Top-Down Perceptual Processing 109
Building a Perception “from Scratch”: Bottom-Up Perceptual Processing 109
Understanding What We Sense: Perceiving Size, Shape, and Brightness 110
Depth Perception: Sensing Our 3-D World with 2-D Eyes 110
Perceiving Form: The Gestalt Approach 113
Perceiving Form: Feature Detection Theory 115
3.6 The Accuracy of Perception 116
Errors Due to Top-Down Processing: Seeing What We Expect to See 116
Errors Due to Perceptual Constancy: Tricks of the Brain 116
Cultural Factors in Perception 118
3.7 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 119
Studying the Chapter 121
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Sensation and Perception 124
4 Consciousness 126
4.1 Sleep, Dreaming, and Circadian Rhythm 128
Functions of Sleep: Why Do We Sleep, and What If We Don’t? 128
Variations in How Much Sleep We Need 130
Circadian Rhythm and Its Application to Our Lives 131
Stages of Sleep: What Research Tells Us 134
Dreaming: The Night’s Work 137
Sleep Disorders: Tossing and Turning—and More 138
Gender, Ethnic, and Cultural Variations in Sleep 141
4.2 Hypnosis 143
The Experience of Hypnosis 143
Variations in Hypnotic Susceptibility 143
Explaining Hypnosis: Applying Neodissociation and Response Set Theories 144
Evaluating the Research: What Hypnosis Can and Cannot Do 145
4.3 Psychoactive Drugs 146
Variations in Drug Use 147
Drug Tolerance and Substance Use Disorder 148
How Drugs Work: Biology, Expectations, and Culture 149
Alcohol and Other Depressants 149
Opiates (Narcotics): The Painkillers 155
Stimulants: Legal and Otherwise 156
Hallucinogens: Distorting Reality 160
Psychology Applies to Your World The Mystery of Bath Salts 160
4.4 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 164
Studying the Chapter 165
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Consciousness 168
5 Motivation and Emotion 170
5.1 Theories of Motivation 172
Motivation as Instinct 172
Motivation as a Drive 172
Arousal Theories of Motivation 174
Self-Determination Theory of Motivation 175
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 176
5.2 Hunger and Eating 178
The Origins of Hunger 178
Psychology Applies to Your World The Obesity Epidemic 184
The Battle of the Bulge: Why Is Losing Weight So Hard? 186
Culture and Weight-Based Prejudice 187
Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa, Anorexia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder 188
5.3 Sexual Motivation 193
Sexual Desire: A Mixture of Chemicals, Thoughts, and Culture 194
The Sexual Response Cycle 195
Variations in Sexuality: Generational, Age, Gender, and Sexual Orientation Differences 197
Whom Do We Desire? Sexual Orientation 199
5.4 Theories and Expression of Emotion 203
The James-Lange Theory of Emotion 204
The Facial Feedback Hypothesis 206
The Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion 206
Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory of Emotion 208
Communicating Emotions: Culture, Gender, and Facial Expressions 209
5.5 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 211
Studying the Chapter 213
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Motivation and Emotion 216
Part 2 ▶ Foundations in Cognitive Psychology 219
6 Learning 222
6.1 Learning from the First Days of Life: Habituation 224
Paying Attention and Learning to Ignore: Orienting Reflexes and Habituation 224
Possible Benefits of Habituation: Protecting the Brain 225
Dishabituation 226
Practical Applications of Habituation 226
6.2 Classical Conditioning: Learning Through the Association of Stimuli 227
The Elements of Classical Conditioning 228
Factors Affecting Classical Conditioning 231
Real-World Applications of Classical Conditioning 232
Extinction of Classically Conditioned Responses 236
Psychology Applies to Your World Using Taste Aversion to Help People 237
6.3 Operant Conditioning: Learning from the Consequences of Our Actions 239
E. L. Thorndike’s Law of Effect 239
B. F. Skinner and the Experimental Study of Operant Conditioning 242
Acquisition and Extinction 244
Schedules of Reinforcement 245
Discrimination and Generalization 249
Shaping New Behaviors 249
Decisions That Must Be Made When Using Operant Conditioning 250
The Role of Cognition in Learning 255
6.4 Observational Learning or Modeling: Learning by Watching Others 257
Albert Bandura and the Bobo Doll Experiments 257
Observational Learning and Cognition 259
6.5 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 261
Studying the Chapter 261
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Learning 264
7 Memory 266
7.1 The Functions of Memory: Encoding, Storing, and Retrieving 268
Explicit and Implicit Memory 268
7.2 The Development of New Memories 269
The Traditional Three-Stages Model of Memory 269
The Capacity of Short-Term Memory: Seven (Plus or Minus Two) 272
The Duration of Short-Term Memory: It’s Yours for 30 Seconds 273
Elaborative Rehearsal: Making Memories Stick 274
Levels of Processing 275
The Serial-Position Curve and Age-related Changes in Memory 276
The Working Memory Model: Parallel Memory 278
7.3 Long-Term Memory: Permanent Storage 281
The Capacity of Long-Term Memory 281
Encoding in Long-Term Memory 281
Organization in Long-Term Memory 282
Declarative and Procedural Long-Term Memories 283
Amnesia: What Forgetting Can Teach Us About Memory 286
7.4 Retrieval and Forgetting in Long-Term Memory 288
Recognition and Recall 288
Forgetting: Why Can’t I Remember That? 289
Psychology Applies to Your World Tips for Improving Your Memory 290
7.5 The Accuracy of Memory 295
Memory Is Not Like a Video Camera 295
Eyewitness Memory 296
7.6 The Biology of Memory 297
7.7 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 300
Studying the Chapter 301
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Memory 304
8 Cognition, Language, and Intelligence 306
8.1 Thinking: How We Use What We Know 308
Visual Images: How Good Is the Mental Picture? 308
Concepts: How We Organize What We Know 310
8.2 Problem Solving: Putting Our Thinking to Good Use 315
Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problems 315
Creativity: Overcoming Obstacles to Problem Solving 317
8.3 Reasoning, Decision Making, and Judgment 319
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning 319
Dialectical Reasoning or Thinking 319
Decision Making: Outcomes and Probabilities 320
Judgments: Estimating the Likelihood of Events 321
8.4 Language: Communication, Thought, and Culture 323
How Humans Acquire Language 324
The Function of Language in Culture and Perception 326
Psychology Applies to Your World Are Humans the Only Animals to Use Language? 328
8.5 Defining and Measuring Intelligence 330
Measuring Intelligence by Abilities and IQs 330
The Nature of Intelligence: The Search Continues 335
Nature, Nurture, and IQ: Are We Born Intelligent, or Do We Learn to Be? 339
Diversity in Intelligence: Race, Gender, and Age 341
8.6 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 346
Studying the Chapter 347
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Cognition, Language, and Intelligence 350
Part 3 ▶ Foundations in Developmental and Social Psychology 353
9 Human Development 356
9.1 Human Development: How Does It All Begin? 358
Nature-Nurture Revisited: How Biology and Culture Lead to Diversity 358
Prenatal Development 359
Application: The Importance of a Positive Prenatal Environment 360
9.2 Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood 362
Brain Development 362
Reflexes and Motor Development 363
9.3 Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood 365
Perceptual Development: Gathering Information from the Environment 365
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development 367
Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Culture and Thinking 372
Moral Reasoning: How We Think About Right and Wrong 373
9.4 Psychosocial Development in Infancy and Childhood 376
Temperament: The Influence of Biology 376
Attachment: Learning About Relationships 377
Variations in Parenting Styles 379
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development: The Influence of Culture 380
Gender-Role Development 382
9.5 Physical Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 385
Puberty: Big Changes, Rapid Growth, and Impact on Behavior 386
Brain Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 387
Physical Changes from Early to Later Adulthood 389
Gender and Reproductive Capacity 390
9.6 Cognitive Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 391
Formal Operations Revisited: Applying Cognition to Adolescent Behavior 391
Postformal Thought: Developing Adult Reasoning 393
Changes in Mental Abilities 393
9.7 Psychosocial Changes in Adolescence and Adulthood 395
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Adolescence and Adulthood 395
Emerging Adulthood 397
Variations in Social Relations in Adolescence and Adulthood 398
Parenting 402
Psychology Applies to Your World Career Development 404
9.8 Death and Dying 405
Emotional Reactions to Death: Kübler-Ross’s Stages 405
Bereavement and Grief: How We Respond to Death 406
9.9 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 408
Studying the Chapter 409
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Human Development 412
10 Social Psychology 414
10.1 Evaluating the World: Attitudes 416
Acquiring Attitudes Through Learning 416
Attitude-Behavior Consistency 417
Cognitive Consistency and Attitude Change 418
Persuasion and Attitude Change 419
10.2 Forming Impressions of Others 422
The Attribution Process 422
Heuristics and Biases in Attribution 422
10.3 Prejudice: Why Can’t We All Just Get Along? 426
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 426
Stereotype Threat: Prejudice Can Be a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy 427
Psychology Applies to Your World The Duplex Mind and Prejudice 428
Social Transmission of Prejudice 429
Intergroup Dynamics and Prejudice 431
Reducing Prejudice in the Real World 433
10.4 Being Drawn to Others: The Nature of Attraction 435
Proximity and Exposure: Attraction to Those Who Are Nearby 435
Similarity: Having Things in Common 436
The Importance of Physical Attractiveness 437
The “Chemistry” of Lust, Love, and Romance 438
10.5 Group Influence 439
Social Forces Within Groups: Norms and Cohesiveness 439
Conformity Within a Group 441
Is Working in a Group Better Than Working Alone? 443
10.6 Requests and Demands: Compliance and Obedience 446
Compliance Techniques: Getting People to Say “Yes” 446
Obedience: Doing What We Are Told to Do 448
10.7 Aggression: Hurting Others 453
Biological Theories of Aggression 454
Learning Theories of Aggression 455
Situations That Promote Aggressive Behavior 456
10.8 Choosing to Help Others: Prosocial Behavior 457
The Murder of Kitty Genovese 457
The Bystander Effect 458
Choosing to Help 458
10.9 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 460
Studying the Chapter 461
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Social Psychology 464
11 Personality 466
11.1 The Psychoanalytic Approach: Sigmund Freud and the Neo-Freudians 468
Freud’s Levels of Awareness 468
Freud’s Structure of Personality 469
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development 470
Neo-Freudian Theories Explaining Variations in Personality: Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney 473
Contributions and Criticisms of the Psychoanalytic Approach 474
11.2 The Trait Approach: Consistency and Stability in Personality 475
Gordon Allport’s Trait Theory 476
Psychology Applies to Your World Are You a Sensation Seeker? 476
Raymond Cattell’s Factor Analytic Trait Theory 478
Hans Eysenck Narrows the Traits: The PEN Model 478
The Five Factor Trait Theory 480
Genetic Contributions to Personality 481
Stability and Change in Personality 482
Contributions and Criticisms of the Trait Approach 484
11.3 The Social Cognitive Approach: The Environment and Patterns of Thought 485
Reciprocal Determinism: Albert Bandura’s Interacting Forces 485
Julian Rotter’s Locus of Control: Internal and External Expectations 486
Contributions and Criticisms of the Social Cognitive Approach 486
11.4 The Humanistic Approach: Free Will and Self-Actualization 487
Abraham Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs Theory 487
Carl Rogers and Self Theory 488
Contributions and Criticisms of the Humanistic Approach 490
11.5 Scientifically Measuring Personality 490
Personality Inventories: Mark Which One Best Describes You 491
Projective Tests: Tell Me What You See 492
Rating Scales and Direct Observation 493
Clinical Interviews 494
11.6 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 494
Studying the Chapter 495
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Personality 498
Part 4 ▶ Foundations in Physical and Mental Health 501
12 Health, Stress, and Coping 504
12.1 What Is Stress? Stress and Stressors 506
Life Events: Change Is Stressful 506
Catastrophes: Natural Disasters and Wars 510
Daily Hassles: Little Things Add Up! 510
Conflict: Approach and Avoidance 512
12.2 The Stress Response 514
Cognitive Appraisal: Assessing Stress 515
Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome: The Body’s Response to Stress 516
Gender and the Stress Response 518
Stress and the Immune System: Resistance to Disease 518
12.3 Coping with Stress 520
Problem-Focused Coping: Change the Situation 520
Emotion-Focused Coping: Change Your Reaction 521
Managing Stress: Applying the Research 523
12.4 Personality and Health 527
Type A Personality: Ambition, Drive, and Competitiveness 527
Learned Helplessness: I Can’t Do It 529
The Hardy Personality: Control, Commitment, and Challenge 530
12.5 Lifestyle, Health, and Well-Being 531
Health-Defeating Behaviors 531
Psychology Applies to Your World Technology’s Health Effects 533
Health-Promoting Behaviors 536
Happiness and Well-Being 538
12.6 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 539
Studying the Chapter 541
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Health, Stress, and Coping 544
13 Mental Health Disorders 546
13.1 What Is Abnormal Behavior? 548
Prevalence of Mental Health Disorders 548
Explaining Abnormal Behavior: Perspectives Revisited 549
13.2 The DSM Model for Classifying Abnormal Behavior 551
The Structure of the DSM 551
How Good Is the DSM Model? 554
13.3 Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Trauma-Related Disorders: It’s Not Just “Nerves” 555
Components of Excessive Anxiety 555
Types of Excessive Anxiety Disorders 556
Research Explaining Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Trauma-Related Disorders 560
13.4 Dissociative and Somatic Symptom Disorders: Other Forms of Anxiety? 564
Dissociative Disorders: Multiple Personalities 564
Somatic Symptom Disorders: “Doctor, I’m Sure I’m Sick” 565
13.5 Mood Disorders: Beyond the Blues 567
Depressive Disorders: A Change to Sadness 567
Bipolar-Related Disorders: The Presence of Mania 569
Research Explaining Mood Disorders 569
Psychology Applies to Your World Suicide Facts and Misconceptions 570
Gender and Depression 574
13.6 Schizophrenia: Disintegration 576
Individual Variations: Onset, Gender, Ethnicity, and Prognosis 577
Symptoms of Schizophrenia 578
Research Explaining Schizophrenia: Genetics, the Brain, and the Environment 579
13.7 Personality Disorders: Maladaptive Patterns of Behavior 582
Antisocial Personality Disorder: Impulsive and Dangerous 583
Borderline Personality Disorder: Living on Your Fault Line 584
13.8 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 586
Studying the Chapter 587
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Mental Health Disorders 590
14 Mental Health Therapies 592
14.1 Providing Psychological Assistance 594
Psychotherapy versus Biomedical Therapy 594
Who Is Qualified to Give Therapy? 594
Ethical Standards for Psychotherapists 595
Psychology Applies to Your World When Does One Need to Consider Therapy? 597
Seeking Therapy 598
14.2 Psychoanalytic Therapies: Uncovering Unconscious Conflicts 598
Traditional Psychoanalysis 599
Modern Psychoanalysis 600
14.3 Humanistic Therapy: Facilitating Self-Actualization 600
The Aim of Humanistic Therapy Approaches 601
Client-Centered Therapy: Three Key Ingredients 601
14.4 Behavior Therapies: Learning Healthier Behaviors 603
Applying Classical Conditioning Techniques in Therapy 603
Applying Operant Conditioning Techniques in Therapy 607
14.5 Cognitive Therapies: Changing Thoughts 609
Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy: Reinterpret One’s Viewpoint 609
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy: Replace Negative Thoughts 610
14.6 Group Therapy Approaches: Strength in Numbers 613
The Benefits of Group Therapy 613
The Nature and Types of Group Therapy 613
14.7 Effective Psychotherapy: Do Treatments Work? 616
Conducting Research on Therapy’s Effectiveness 616
Factors That Contribute to Effective Psychotherapy 618
The Effectiveness and Ethics of Technology in the Delivery of Psychotherapy 619
14.8 Biomedical Therapies: Applying Neuroscience 620
Drug Therapies: Chemically Altering the Brain 620
Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Procedures: TMS and ECT 626
Psychosurgery: Deep Brain Stimulators and Targeted Brain Lesions 627
14.9 Integrating Psychology: The Big Picture 628
Studying the Chapter 629
Are You Getting the Big Picture? Mental Health Therapies 632
A Statistics in Psychology 635
A.1 Using Statistics to Describe Data 635
Graphs: Depicting Data Visually 636
Measures of Central Tendency: Means, Medians, and Modes 638
Measures of Variability: Analyzing the Distribution of Data 640
Normal and Standard Normal Distributions 641
The Correlation Coefficient: Measuring Relationships 642
A.2 Using Statistics to Draw Conclusions 645
A.3 Summary 646
Studying the Appendix 647
B Applying Psychology in the Workplace 649
B.1 Industrial and Organizational Psychology 649
Work in Our Lives 650
Types of Jobs 651
B.2 Selecting Employees: The Hiring Process 652
Job Analysis 652
Testing 653
Legal Issues 653
Recruitment 655
Making the Decision 656
B.3 Socializing Employees: Culture, Groups, Leadership, and Performance Appraisal 657
Organizational Culture and Climate 657
Groups and Teams 658
Leadership 658
Performance Appraisal 659
B.4 Employee Satisfaction: Attitudes and Behaviors at Work 661
Attitudes at Work 661
Behaviors at Work 663
Relation Between Attitude and Behavior 664
B.5 Summary 665
Studying the Appendix 665
Glossary 667
References 689
Name Index 775
Subject Index 807
 
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