Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Eighth Edition PDF by Sareen S. Gropper, Jack L. Smith, Timothy P. Carr

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Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, Eighth Edition

By Sareen S. Gropper, Jack L. Smith, Timothy P. Carr

Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism

CONTENTS

Preface xvii

SECTION I

CELLS AND THEIR NOURISHMENT

CHAPTER 1 The Cell: A Microcosm of Life 1

1.1 Components of Cells 1

Plasma Membrane 1

Cytosol and Cytoskeleton 4

Mitochondrion 5

Nucleus 6

Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus 10

Lysosomes and Peroxisomes 11

1.2 Selected Cellular Proteins 11

Receptors 11

Catalytic Proteins (Enzymes) 13

1.3 Apoptosis 17

1.4 Biological Energy 18

Energy Release and Consumption in Chemical

Reactions 18

Units and Expressions of Energy 19

The Role of High-Energy Phosphate in Energy

Storage 22

Coupled Reactions in the Transfer of Energy 23

Reduction Potentials 24

Summary 25

PERSPECTIVE Nutritional Genomics 26

CHAPTER 2 The Digestive System: Mechanism for

Nourishing The Body 29

2.1 The Structures of the Digestive Tract and the

Digestive and Absorptive Processes 29

The Oral Cavity 33

The Esophagus 34

The Stomach 36

The Small Intestine 41

The Accessory Organs 45

The Absorptive Process 50

The Colon (Large Intestine) 52

2.2 Coordination and Regulation of the

Digestive Process 56

Neural Regulation 56

Regulatory Peptides 57

Summary 59

PERSPECTIVE The Nutritional Impact of Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass,

A Surgical Approach for the Treatment of Obesity 60

SECTION II

MACRONUTRIENTS AND THEIR

METABOLISM

CHAPTER 3 Carbohydrates 63

3.1 Simple Carbohydrates 63

Monosaccharides 63

Disaccharides 66

SYRUPS – LIQUID SUGAR 67

3.2 Complex Carbohydrates 68

Oligosaccharides 68

Polysaccharides 69

3.3 Digestion 69

Digestion of Polysaccharides 70

Digestion of Disaccharides 70

3.4 Absorption and Transport 72

Membrane Transport 72

Intestinal Absorption of Glucose and Galactose 75

Intestinal Absorption of Fructose 75

Hepatic Metabolism of Dietary Monosaccharides 76

3.5 Maintenance of Blood Glucose Concentration 76

Role of Insulin 76

Blood–Tissue Barriers 78

Glycemic Response to Carbohydrates 78

3.6 Integrated Metabolism in Tissues 80

Glycogenesis 80

Glycogenolysis 83

Glycolysis 85

The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle 88

Formation of ATP 92

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Hexose

Monophosphate Shunt) 98

UNCOUPLING ELECTRON TRANSPORT AND ATP SYNTHESIS 98

Gluconeogenesis 100

3.7 Regulation of Metabolism 103

Allosteric Enzyme Modulation 103

Covalent Regulation 104

Directional Shifts in Reversible Reactions 104

Enzyme Translocation 104

Genetic Regulation 105

Metabolic Control of Glycolysis and

Gluconeogenesis 105

Summary 106

PERSPECTIVE What Carbohydrates Do Americans Eat? 109

CHAPTER 4 Fiber 113

4.1 Definitions 113

4.2 Fiber and Plants 114

4.3 Chemistry and Characteristics of Fiber 114

Cellulose 114

Hemicellulose 117

Pectins 117

Lignin 117

Gums 117

β-Glucans 118

Fructans 118

Galactans 118

Resistant Starch 118

Mucilages (Psyllium) 119

Polydextrose and Polyols 119

Chitin and Chitosan 119

4.4 Selected Properties of Fiber and Their

Physiological Impact 120

Solubility in Water 120

Viscosity and Gel Formation 121

Fermentability 121

4.5 Health Benefits of Fiber 122

Cardiovascular Disease 122

Diabetes Mellitus 123

Appetite and/or Satiety and Weight Control 123

Gastrointestinal Disorders 123

4.6 Food Labels and Health Claims 124

4.7 Recommended Fiber Intake 125

Summary 126

PERSPECTIVE The Flavonoids: Roles in Health and Disease

Prevention 127

CHAPTER 5 Lipids 131

5.1 Structure and Biological Importance 132

Fatty Acids 132

Triacylglycerols (Triglycerides) 135

Phospholipids 137

Sphingolipids 139

Sterols 140

5.2 Dietary Sources 142

Recommended Intakes 145

5.3 Digestion 145

Triacylglycerol Digestion 145

THE GALLBLADDER 146

Phospholipid Digestion 148

Cholesterol Ester Digestion 148

5.4 Absorption 148

Fatty Acid, Monoacylglycerol, and Lysophospholipid

Absorption 148

Cholesterol Absorption 149

Lipid Release into Circulation 150

5.5 Transport and Storage 151

Lipoprotein Structure 151

Lipoprotein Metabolism 153

5.6 Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Cardiovascular

Disease Risk 159

The Lipid Hypothesis 160

Lipoprotein(a) 160

Apolipoprotein E 160

Dietary Cholesterol 161

Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids 161

COCONUT OIL: HERO OR VILLAIN? 162

Trans Fatty Acids 162

5.7 Integrated Metabolism in Tissues 163

Catabolism of Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acids 163

Formation of Ketone Bodies 167

Synthesis of Fatty Acids 169

Synthesis of Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids 174

Synthesis, Catabolism, and Whole-Body Balance

of Cholesterol 174

5.8 Regulation of Lipid Metabolism 176

Fatty Acids 176

Cholesterol 176

5.9 Brown Fat Thermogenesis 177

5.10 Ethyl Alcohol: Metabolism and

Biochemical Impact 178

The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Pathway 179

The Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System 179

The Catalase System 179

Alcoholism: Biochemical and Metabolic

Alterations 180

Alcohol in Moderation: The Brighter Side 181

Summary 181

PERSPECTIVE The Role of Lipoproteins and Inflammation in

Atherosclerosis 184

CHAPTER 6 Protein 187

6.1 Amino Acid Classification 187

Structure 188

Net Electrical Charge 188

Polarity 188

Essentiality 190

6.2 Sources of Amino Acids 191

6.3 Digestion 191

Stomach 191

Small Intestine 193

6.4 Absorption 193

Intestinal Cell Absorption 194

Extraintestinal Cell Absorption 197

6.5 Amino Acid Catabolism 197

Transamination of Amino Acids 198

Deamination of Amino Acids 199

Disposal of Ammonia 200

Carbon Skeleton/α-Keto Acid Uses 201

Hepatic Catabolism and Uses of Aromatic

Amino Acids 202

Hepatic Catabolism and Uses of Sulfur-Containing

Amino Acids 205

Hepatic Catabolism and Uses of Branched-Chain

Amino Acids 209

Hepatic Catabolism and Uses of Basic

Amino Acids 209

SOME ROLES OF NITRIC OXIDE 211

Hepatic Catabolism and Uses of Other Selected

Amino Acids 212

6.6 Protein Synthesis 214

Slow versus Fast Proteins 214

Plant versus Animal Proteins 214

Hormonal Effects 214

mTOR, Intracellular Signaling, and Amino Acids 215

Protein Intake, Distribution, and Quantity at Meals 216

6.7 Protein Structure and Organization 216

6.8 Functional Roles of Proteins 219

Catalysts 219

Messengers 219

Structural Elements 219

Buffers 220

Fluid Balancers 220

Immunoprotectors 220

Transporters 221

Acute-Phase Responders 222

Other Roles 222

6.9 Functional Roles of Nitrogen-Containing

Nonprotein Compounds 223

Glutathione 223

Carnitine 223

Creatine 225

Carnosine 226

Choline 226

Purine and Pyrimidine Bases 227

6.10 Interorgan “Flow” of Amino Acids and

Organ-Specific Metabolism 232

Intestinal Cell Amino Acid Metabolism 232

Amino Acids in the Plasma 233

Glutamine and the Muscle, Intestine, Liver,

and Kidneys 234

Alanine and the Liver and Muscle 235

Skeletal Muscle Use of Amino Acids 235

Amino Acid Metabolism in the Kidneys 239

Brain and Accessory Tissues and Amino Acids 241

6.11 Catabolism of Tissue/Cell Proteins and

Protein Turnover 243

Autophagy-Lysosome Systems 243

Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway 244

Calpains 245

6.12 Changes in Body Mass with Age 246

Loss of Muscle Mass and Disease 246

6.13 Protein Quality and Protein and Amino

Acid Needs 248

Evaluation of Protein Quality 248

Protein Information on Food Labels 251

Assessing Protein and Amino Acid Needs 251

Recommended Protein and Amino Acid Intakes 252

Protein Deficiency/Malnutrition 254

Summary 255

PERSPECTIVE Stress and Inflammation: Impact on Protein 257

CHAPTER 7 Integration and Regulation of

Metabolism and the Impact of Exercise 261

7.1 Energy Homeostasis in the Cell 262

Regulatory Enzymes 262

7.2 Integration of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and

Protein Metabolism 266

Interconversion of Fuel Molecules 266

Energy Distribution among Tissues 267

7.3 The Fed-Fast Cycle 271

The Fed State 271

The Postabsorptive State 273

The Fasting State 274

The Starvation State 274

7.4 Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism 278

Insulin 278

HOW IS TYPE 1 DIABETES SIMILAR TO STARVATION? 279

Glucagon 280

Epinephrine 280

Cortisol 280

Growth Hormone 280

Adiponectin 281

7.5 Exercise and Nutrition 281

Muscle Function 281

Energy Sources in Resting Muscle 282

Muscle ATP Production during Exercise 282

Fuel Sources during Exercise 284

Summary 287

PERSPECTIVE The Role of Dietary Supplements in Sports Nutrition

by Karsten Koehler, PhD 289

CHAPTER 8 Energy Expenditure, Body

Composition, and Healthy Weight 293

8.1 Measuring Energy Expenditure 293

Direct Calorimetry 294

Indirect Calorimetry 294

Doubly Labeled Water 296

HOW TO MEASURE WHAT PEOPLE EAT 297

8.2 Components of Energy Expenditure 298

Basal and Resting Metabolic Rate 298

Energy Expenditure of Physical Activity 299

Thermic Effect of Food 300

Thermoregulation 301

8.3 Body Weight: What Should We Weigh? 301

Ideal Body Weight Formulas 301

Body Mass Index 302

8.4 Measuring Body Composition 303

Field Methods 304

Laboratory Methods 306

8.5 Regulation of Energy Balance and

Body Weight 307

Hormonal Influences 308

Intestinal Microbiota 310

Environmental Chemicals 310

Lifestyle Influences 311

8.6 Health Implications of Altered Body Weight 311

Metabolic Syndrome 311

Insulin Resistance 312

Weight-Loss Methods 313

Summary 313

PERSPECTIVE Eating Disorders 315

SECTION III

THE REGULATORY NUTRIENTS

CHAPTER 9 Water-Soluble Vitamins 321

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES (DRIs) 325

DAILY VALUES AND PERCENTAGE DAILY VALUES 326

9.1 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) 326

Sources 327

Digestion and Absorption 328

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 329

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 329

Interactions with Other Nutrients 335

Metabolism and Excretion 335

Recommended Dietary Allowance 335

Deficiency: Scurvy 336

Toxicity 337

Assessment of Nutriture 337

9.2 Thiamin (Vitamin B1) 338

Sources 338

Digestion and Absorption 339

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 339

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 340

Metabolism and Excretion 344

Recommended Dietary Allowance 344

Deficiency: Beriberi 344

Toxicity 346

Assessment of Nutriture 346

9.3 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 346

Sources 346

Digestion and Absorption 348

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 348

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 349

Metabolism and Excretion 351

Recommended Dietary Allowance 351

Deficiency: Ariboflavinosis 351

Toxicity 352

Assessment of Nutriture 352

9.4 N iacin (Vitamin B3) 352

Sources 353

Digestion and Absorption 354

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 354

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 355

Metabolism and Excretion 356

Recommended Dietary Allowance 357

Deficiency: Pellagra 357

Toxicity 358

Assessment of Nutriture 358

9.5 Pantothenic Acid 358

Sources 358

Digestion and Absorption 360

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 360

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 360

Metabolism and Excretion 363

Adequate Intake 363

Deficiency: Burning Foot Syndrome 363

Toxicity 363

Assessment of Nutriture 363

9.6 Biotin (Vitamin B7) 364

Sources 364

Digestion, Absorption, Transport, Tissue Uptake,

and Storage 364

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 365

Metabolism and Excretion 368

Adequate Intake 369

Deficiency 369

Toxicity 369

Assessment of Nutriture 370

9.7 Folate (Vitamin B9) 370

Sources 370

Digestion and Absorption 372

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 372

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 373

Interactions with Other Nutrients 379

Association with Diseases 379

Metabolism and Excretion 380

Recommended Dietary Allowance 381

Deficiency: Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemia 381

Toxicity 382

Assessment of Nutriture 382

9.8 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) 383

Sources 384

Digestion and Absorption 384

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 386

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 386

Metabolism and Excretion 387

Recommended Dietary Allowance 387

Deficiency: Megaloblastic Macrocytic Anemia

and Neuropathy 388

Toxicity 389

Assessment of Nutriture 389

9.9 Vitamin B6 390

Sources 391

Digestion and Absorption 391

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 391

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 392

Metabolism and Excretion 395

Recommended Dietary Allowance 395

Deficiency 395

Toxicity 396

Assessment of Nutriture 396

Summary 397

PERSPECTIVE Types of Human Research Studies and

Their Limitations 398

CHAPTER 10 Fat-Soluble Vitamins 401

10.1 Vitamin A and Carotenoids 402

Sources 403

Digestion and Absorption 405

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 408

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 411

Interactions with Other Nutrients 419

Metabolism and Excretion 419

Recommended Dietary Allowance 420

INTERNATIONAL UNITS – VITAMIN A 420

Deficiency 420

Toxicity 421

Assessment of Nutriture 422

10.2 Vitamin D 423

Sources 423

Absorption 425

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 425

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 427

Interactions with Other Nutrients 432

Metabolism and Excretion 432

Recommended Dietary Allowance 432

Deficiency 432

Toxicity 434

Assessment of Nutriture 434

10.3 Vitamin E 435

Sources 435

Digestion and Absorption 437

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 437

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 438

Interactions with Other Nutrients 441

Metabolism and Excretion 441

Recommended Dietary Allowance 442

INTERNATIONAL UNITS – VITAMIN E 442

Deficiency 442

Toxicity 443

Assessment of Nutriture 443

10.4 Vitamin K 443

Sources 443

Absorption 444

Transport, Tissue Uptake, and Storage 445

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 445

Interactions with Other Nutrients 449

Metabolism and Excretion 449

Adequate Intake 449

Deficiency 449

Toxicity 450

Assessment of Nutriture 450

Summary 451

PERSPECTIVE Antioxidant Nutrients, Reactive Species, and

Disease 452

CHAPTER 11 Major Minerals 463

11.1 Calcium 464

Sources 464

Digestion, Absorption, and Transport 465

Regulation and Homeostasis 468

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 470

AN OVERVIEW OF BONE 471

Interactions with Other Nutrients 474

Excretion 475

Recommended Dietary Allowance 476

Deficiency 476

Toxicity 477

Assessment of Nutriture 477

11.2 Phosphorus 478

Sources 478

Digestion, Absorption,

and Transport 479

Regulation and Homeostasis 480

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 481

Excretion 483

Recommended Dietary Allowance 483

Deficiency 484

Toxicity 484

Assessment of Nutriture 485

11.3 Magnesium 485

Sources 485

Digestion, Absorption, and Transport 486

Regulation and Homeostasis 487

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 488

Interactions with Other Nutrients 489

Excretion 489

Recommended Dietary Allowance 489

Deficiency 489

Toxicity 491

Assessment of Nutriture 491

Summary 492

PERSPECTIVE Osteoporosis and Diet 493

CHAPTER 12 Water and Electrolytes 499

12.1 Water Functions 499

12.3 Body Water Content and Distribution 500

12.3 Water Losses, Sources, and Absorption 501

12.4 Recommended Water Intake 501

12.5 Water (Fluid) and Sodium Balance 502

Osmotic Pressure 502

Hydrostatic (Fluid/Capillary) Pressure 503

Colloidal Osmotic Pressure 504

Extracellular Fluid Volume and Osmolarity and

Hormonal Controls 504

THE KIDNEYS: A BRIEF REVIEW 505

12.6 Sodium 508

Sources 508

ELECTROLYTES: CALCULATING MILLIEQUIVALENTS (MEQ) 509

Absorption and Transport 510

Functions and Interactions with Other Nutrients 511

Excretion 511

Recommendations, Deficiency, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 511

12.7 Potassium 512

Sources 512

Absorption, Secretion, and Transport 512

Functions and Interactions with Other Nutrients 513

Excretion 513

Recommendations, Deficiency, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 513

12.8 Chloride 514

Sources 514

Absorption, Secretion, and Transport 514

Functions 515

Excretion 515

Recommendations, Deficiency, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 516

12.9 Acid–Base Balance: Control of Hydrogen Ion

Concentration 516

Chemical Buffer Systems 517

PRINCIPLES OF BUFFERS 517

Respiratory Regulation 519

Renal Regulation 520

Summary 521

PERSPECTIVE Macrominerals and Hypertension 522

CHAPTER 13 Essential Trace and Ultratrace

Minerals 525

13.1 Iron 525

Sources 526

Digestion, Absorption, Transport,

and Storage 528

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 536

Turnover 540

Interactions with Other Nutrients 541

Excretion 542

Recommended Dietary Allowance 542

Deficiency 542

Toxicity 544

Assessment of Nutriture 544

13.2 Zinc 546

Sources 546

Digestion, Absorption, Transport,

and Storage 547

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 551

Interactions with Other Nutrients 554

Excretion 555

Recommended Dietary Allowance 555

Deficiency 555

Toxicity 556

Assessment of Nutriture 556

13.3 Copper 557

Sources 557

Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Storage 557

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 560

Interactions with Other Nutrients 562

Excretion 563

Recommended Dietary Allowance 564

Deficiency 564

Toxicity 565

Assessment of Nutriture 565

13.4 Selenium 566

Sources 566

THE SHIFTING SANDS OF SELENIUM 567

Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Storage 568

Metabolism 568

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 570

Interactions with Other Nutrients 572

Excretion 573

Recommended Dietary Allowance 573

Deficiency 573

Toxicity 574

Assessment of Nutriture 574

13.5 Chromium 575

Sources 575

Digestion, Absorption, Transport,

and Storage 575

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 576

Excretion 577

Adequate Intake 577

Deficiency 577

Toxicity 577

Assessment of Nutriture 577

13.6 Iodine 578

Sources 578

Digestion, Absorption, Transport, and Storage 579

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 579

Interactions with Other Nutrients 581

Excretion 582

Recommended Dietary Allowance 582

Deficiency 582

Toxicity 583

Assessment of Nutriture 583

13.7 Manganese 584

Sources 584

Digestion, Absorption, Transport,

and Storage 584

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 585

Interactions with Other Nutrients 586

Excretion 586

Adequate Intake 586

Deficiency 586

Toxicity 586

Assessment of Nutriture 586

13.8 Molybdenum 587

Sources 587

Digestion, Absorption, Transport,

and Storage 587

Functions and Mechanisms of Action 587

Interactions with Other Nutrients 589

Excretion 590

Recommended Dietary Allowance 590

Deficiency 590

Toxicity 590

Assessment of Nutriture 590

PERSPECTIVE Nutrient–Drug Interactions 591

CHAPTER 14 Nonessential Trace and Ultratrace

Minerals 595

14.1 Fluoride 595

Sources 595

Absorption, Transport, Tissue Uptake, Storage,

and Excretion 597

Functions and Deficiency 597

Recommended Intake, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 598

14.2 Boron 598

Sources 598

Absorption, Transport, Tissue Uptake, Storage,

and Excretion 599

Functions and Deficiency 599

Recommended Intake, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 600

14.3 Silicon 600

Sources 600

Absorption, Transport, Storage, and Excretion 601

Functions and Deficiency 601

Recommended Intake, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 601

14.4 Vanadium 602

Sources 602

Absorption, Transport, Storage, and Excretion 602

Functions and Deficiency 602

Recommended Intake, Toxicity, and Assessment

of Nutriture 603

14.5 Cobalt 603

Summary 604

PERSPECTIVE No, Silver Is Not Another Essential Ultratrace

Mineral: Tips to Identifying Bogus Claims and Selecting Dietary

Supplements 605

Glossary 609

Index 615

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