Earth Science: An Introduction, 3rd Edition PDF by Marc S. Hendrix, Graham R. Thompson and Jonathan Turk

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Earth Science: An Introduction, Third Edition

By Marc S. Hendrix, Graham R. Thompson and Jonathan Turk

Earth science _ an introduction

CONTENTS

1

EARTH SYSTEMS 1

Introduction 2

The Earth’s Four Spheres 2

The Geosphere 2

The Hydrosphere 5

The Atmosphere 7

The Biosphere 7

Earth Systems 7

Time and Rates of Change in Earth Science 8

Gradual Change in Earth History 10

Catastrophic Change in Earth History 10

Threshold and Feedback Effects 12

Threshold Effects 12

Feedback Mechanisms 13

Humans and Earth Systems 13

2

MINERALS 17

Introduction 18

What Is a Mineral? 18

Naturally Occurring 19

Inorganic 19

Solid 19

The Chemical Composition of Minerals 19

The Crystalline Nature of Minerals 20

Physical Properties of Minerals 20

Crystal Habit 21

Cleavage 21

Fracture 22

Hardness 22

Specific Gravity 23

Color 23

Streak 23

Luster 23

Other Properties 24

Mineral Classes and the Rock-Forming Minerals 24

Silicates 25

Rock-Forming Silicates 25

Carbonates 26

Commercially Important Minerals 27

Harmful and Dangerous Rocks and Minerals 28

Silicosis and Black Lung 28

Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 28

Radon and Cancer 29

Acid Mine Drainage and Heavy Metals

Contamination 29

DIGGING DEEPER Here to Stay: Mercury 30

3

ROCKS 33

Introduction 34

Rocks and the Rock Cycle 34

The Rock Cycle and Earth Systems Interactions 36

Igneous Rocks 36

Magma: The Source of Igneous Rocks 36

Types of Igneous Rocks 36

Naming and Identifying Igneous Rocks 38

Common Igneous Rocks 39

Granite and Rhyolite 39

Basalt and Gabbro 39

Andesite and Diorite 41

Peridotite and Komatiite 41

Sedimentary Rocks 42

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks 43

Organic Sedimentary Rocks 45

Chemical Sedimentary Rocks 45

Bioclastic Sedimentary Rocks 46

Carbonate Rocks and Global Climate 48

Physical Sedimentary Structures 48

DIGGING DEEPER Gravel Mining and Sustainability 52

Metamorphic Rocks 54

Metamorphic Grade 54

Metamorphic Changes 54

Textural Changes 54

Mineralogical Changes 55

Types of Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks 56

4

GEOLOGIC TIME 60

Earth Rocks, Earth History, and Mass Extinctions 61

Extraterrestrial Impacts 63

Volcanic Eruptions 64

Supercontinents and Earth’s

Carbon Dioxide Budget 64

Geologic Time 66

Relative Geologic Time 66

Interpreting Geologic History from Fossils 69

Unconformities and Correlation 69

Unconformities 70

Correlation 73

Absolute Geologic Time 76

Radioactivity and Half-Life 77

Radiometric Dating 77

Sequence Stratigraphy—Interpreting

the Rock Record through Time 78

The Geologic Time Scale 82

The Earliest Eons of Geologic Time:

Precambrian Time 82

The Phanerozoic Eon 84

5

GEOLOGIC RESOURCES 87

Introduction 88

Mineral Resources 88

Ore and Ore Deposits 89

Magmatic Processes 90

Hydrothermal Processes 91

Sedimentary Processes 93

DIGGING DEEPER Manganese Nodules 94

Weathering Processes 94

Mineral Reserves vs. Mineral Resources 95

The Geopolitics of Metal Resources 96

Mines and Mining 98

Energy Resources: Coal, Petroleum, and Natural

Gas 99

Coal 99

Petroleum 100

Natural Gas 102

Unconventional Petroleum and Gas Reservoirs 103

Coal Bed Methane 106

Tar Sands 106

Energy Resources: Nuclear Fuels and Reactors 107

Energy Resources: Renewable Energy 109

Solar Energy 110

Wind Energy 110

Geothermal Energy 111

Hydroelectric Energy 111

Biomass Energy 111

Transmission of Electricity—

The Hidden Costs 111

The Future of Renewable Energy Resources 112

Conservation as an Alternative Energy Resource 113

Technical Solutions 114

Social Solutions 115

Energy for the 21st Century 116

6

THE ACTIVE EARTH 119

The Origins of Continents and Oceans 120

Alfred Wegener and the Origin of an Idea:

The Continental Drift Hypothesis 120

The Earth’s Layers 123

The Crust 125

The Mantle 125

The Lithosphere 125

The Asthenosphere 126

The Mantle below the Asthenosphere 126

The Core 126

The Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis 126

The Theory of Plate Tectonics 130

Divergent Plate Boundaries 131

The Mid-Oceanic Ridge: Rifting in the Oceans 133

Splitting Continents: Rifting in Continental Crust 133

Convergent Plate Boundaries 135

Transform Plate Boundaries 136

The Anatomy of a Tectonic Plate 136

Why Plates Move: The Earth as a Heat Engine 136

Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots 138

Supercontinents 138

Isostasy: Vertical Movement of the Lithosphere 139

How Plate Tectonics Affect Earth’s Surface 140

Volcanoes 140

Earthquakes 140

Mountain Building 142

How Plate Tectonics Affect Earth’s Climate 142

7

EARTHQUAKES AND THE EARTH’S

STRUCTURE 145

Introduction 146

Anatomy of an Earthquake 146

Earthquake Waves 149

Body Waves 150

Surface Waves 150

Measurement of Seismic Waves 151

Measurement of Earthquake Strength 151

Locating the Source of an Earthquake 154

Earthquakes and Tectonic Plate Boundaries 155

Earthquakes at a Transform Plate Boundary: The San

Andreas Fault Zone 155

Earthquakes at Convergent Plate Boundaries 157

Earthquakes at Divergent Plate Boundaries 157

Earthquakes in Plate Interiors 157

Earthquake Damage and Hazard Mitigation 158

How Rock and Soil Influence Earthquake

Damage 158

Construction Design and Earthquake Damage 159

Tsunamis 159

Earthquake Prediction 161

Long-Term Prediction 161

DIGGING DEEPER Earthquakes in Cascadia 162

Short-Term Prediction 164

Studying the Earth’s Interior 164

Discovery of the Crust–Mantle Boundary 164

The Structure of the Mantle 164

Discovery of the Core 165

Density Measurements 165

Earth’s Magnetism 166

8

VOLCANOES AND PLUTONS 170

Magma 171

Processes That Form Magma 171

Environments of Magma Formation 171

Basalt and Granite 175

Granite and Granitic Magma 175

Andesite and Intermediate Magma 175

Partial Melting and the Origin of Continents 175

When Did Continents Form? 175

Partial Melting and the Origin of Granitic

Continents 176

Tectonic Accretion 176

Vertical Mantle Plume Tectonics 176

Magma Behavior 176

Effects of Silica on Magma Behavior 177

Effects of Water on Magma Behavior 177

Plutons 178

Volcanoes 180

Lava and Pyroclastic Rocks 180

Fissure Eruptions and Lava Plateaus 182

Volcano Types 183

Volcanic Explosions:

Ash-Flow Tuffs and Calderas 187

Pyroclastic Flows 187

Calderas 188

DIGGING DEEPER The Destruction of Pompeii 189

DIGGING DEEPER The Yellowstone Volcano 190

Risk Assessment: Predicting Volcanic Eruptions 191

Regional Prediction 191

Short-Term Prediction 191

Volcanic Eruptions and Global Climate 195

9

MOUNTAINS 199

Folds and Faults: Geologic Structures 200

How Rocks Respond to Tectonic Stress 200

Geologic Structures 200

Folds, Faults, and Plate Boundaries 208

Mountains and Mountain Ranges 210

Island Arcs: Subduction Where Two Oceanic Plates

Converge 211

The Andes: Subduction at a Continental Margin 212

The Himalayas: A Collision between Continents 215

Formation of an Andean-Type Margin 216

Continent–Continent Collision 218

The Himalayas Today 218

Mountains and Earth Systems 220

10

WEATHERING, SOIL, AND EROSION 223

Introduction 224

Weathering and Erosion 224

Mechanical Weathering 225

Frost Wedging 225

Abrasion 226

Organic Activity 227

Thermal Expansion and Contraction 227

Chemical Weathering 228

Dissolution 228

Hydrolysis 229

Oxidation 230

Chemical and Mechanical

Weathering Acting Together 230

Soil 232

Components of Soil 232

Soil Horizons 232

Soil Classification 233

Soil-Forming Factors 235

Mass Wasting and Landslides 242

DIGGING DEEPER Soil Erosion and Human

Activities 242

Types of Rapid Mass Wasting 243

Slide 246

Fall 247

Predicting and Avoiding the Effects of Mass

Wasting 247

Why Do Slides, Flows, and Falls Occur? 247

11

FRESHWATER 252

Introduction 253

The Water Cycle 253

Streams 254

Stream Flow and Velocity 254

Stream Erosion and Sediment Transport 256

Downcutting and Base Level 256

Sinuosity of a Stream Channel 258

Drainage Basins and Drainage Divides 261

DIGGING DEEPER The Richest Hill on Earth and Location

of the Idaho-Montana State Line 262

Stream Erosion and Mountains:

How Landscapes Evolve 263

Stream Deposition 263

Floods 265

Flood Control 266

Flood Control, the Mississippi River Delta, and

Hurricane Katrina 267

Lakes 270

The Life Cycle of a Lake 270

Nutrient Balance in Lakes 270

Temperature Layering and Turnover in Lakes 271

Wetlands 271

Groundwater 273

Porosity and Permeability 273

The Water Table and Aquifers 274

Groundwater Movement 275

Hot Springs, Geysers, and Geothermal Energy 277

12

WATER RESOURCES 281

Introduction 282

Water Supply and Demand 282

Domestic Water Use 282

Industrial Water Use 286

Agricultural Water Use 286

Dams and Diversion 287

Surface Water Diversion 287

Groundwater Diversion 292

Groundwater Depletion 293

The Great American Desert 296

The Colorado River 297

Water and International Politics 297

DIGGING DEEPER The Los Angeles Water Project 298

Water Pollution 299

DIGGING DEEPER Love Canal 300

Types of Pollutants 300

How Sewage, Detergents, and Fertilizers Pollute

Waterways 302

Toxic Pollutants, Risk Assessment, and Cost–Benefit

Analysis 302

Groundwater Pollution 303

DIGGING DEEPER Yucca Mountain Controversy 304

Treating a Contaminated Aquifer 306

Nuclear Waste Disposal 306

The Clean Water Act: A Modern Perspective 307

13

GLACIERS AND GLACIATIONS 309

Introduction 310

Formation of Glaciers 310

Alpine Glaciers 310

Continental Glaciers 311

Glacial Movement 311

The Mass Balance of a Glacier 313

Glacial Erosion 314

Erosional Landforms Created by Alpine Glaciers 315

Erosional Landforms Created by a Continental

Glacier 318

Glacial Deposits 318

Landforms Composed of Till 318

DIGGING DEEPER Glacial Erratics and

Canadian Diamonds 320

Landforms Consisting of Stratified Drift 323

The Pleistocene Glaciation 325

Causes of the Pleistocene Glacial Cycles 325

Effects of Pleistocene Continental Glaciers 327

Sea Level Changes with Glaciation 327

Snowball Earth: The Greatest Glaciation in Earth’s

History 327

The Earth’s Disappearing Glaciers 327

14

DESERTS AND WIND 332

Introduction 333

Why Do Deserts Exist? 333

Latitude 333

Mountains: Rain-Shadow Deserts 334

Coastal and Interior Deserts 334

Water and Deserts 335

Desert Streams 335

Desert Lakes 335

Flash Floods 337

Pediments and Bajadas 337

Two American Deserts 338

The Colorado Plateau 338

Death Valley and the Great Basin 340

Wind 341

Wind Erosion 341

Transport and Abrasion 341

Dunes 341

Loess 344

DIGGING DEEPER The North American “Dust

Bowl” 346

Desertification 348

15

OCEAN BASINS 351

The Origin of Oceans 352

The Earth’s Oceans 354

Studying the Seafloor 355

Sampling 355

Remote Sensing 355

DIGGING DEEPER Invaluable sediment archives

recently recovered from the

deep ocean floor 356

Features of the Seafloor 360

The Mid-Oceanic Ridge System 360

Global Sea-Level Changes and the Mid-Oceanic

Ridge System 364

Oceanic Trenches and Island Arcs 365

Seamounts, Oceanic Islands, and Atolls 366

Sediment and Rocks of the Seafloor 369

Ocean-Floor Sediment 370

Continental Margins 372

Passive Continental Margins 372

The Continental Shelf 372

Active Continental Margins 376

16

OCEANS AND COASTLINES 379

Introduction 380

Geography of the Oceans 380

Seawater 381

Salts and Trace Elements 381

Dissolved Gases 382

Temperature 383

Tides 384

Sea Waves 386

Ocean Currents 386

Surface Currents 386

Why Surface Currents Flow in the Oceans 389

Deep-Sea Currents 391

Upwelling 392

The Seacoast 393

Weathering and Erosion on the Seacoast 393

Sediment Transport along Coastlines 393

Tidal Currents 396

Emergent and Submergent Coastlines 396

Factors That Cause Coastal Emergence and

Submergence 396

Beaches 397

Sandy Coastlines 398

Rocky Coastlines 400

Life in the Sea 403

World Fisheries 403

Reefs 405

Global Warming and Rising Sea Level 407

17

THE ATMOSPHERE 410

Introduction 411

Earth’s Early Atmospheres 411

The First Atmospheres: 4.6 to 4.0 Billion Years

Ago 411

When Life Began: 4.0 to 2.6 Billion Years Ago 412

Life, Iron, and the Evolution of the Modern

Atmosphere 413

Systems Interactions That Affected Oxygen Concentration

in Earth’s Early Atmosphere 414

Evolution of the Modern Atmosphere 415

The Modern Atmosphere 416

Atmospheric Pressure 417

Atmospheric Temperature 418

Air Pollution 420

Gases Released When Fossil Fuels Are Burned 421

Acid Rain 422

Consequences of Acid Rain 422

Smog and Ozone in the Troposphere 422

Toxic Volatiles 424

Particulates and Aerosols 425

Depletion of the Ozone Layer 425

18

ENERGY BALANCE IN THE

ATMOSPHERE 430

Introduction 431

Incoming Solar Radiation 431

Absorption and Emission 432

Reflection 433

Scattering 434

The Radiation Balance 434

Energy Storage and Transfer: The Driving

Mechanisms for Weather and Climate 437

Heat and Temperature 437

Heat Transport by Conduction and Convection 438

Changes of State 439

Heat Storage 439

Temperature Changes with

Latitude and Season 440

Temperature Changes with Latitude 440

DIGGING DEEPER Latitude and Longitude 440

The Seasons 441

Temperature Changes with Geography 443

Altitude 443

Ocean Effects 444

Wind Direction 445

Cloud Cover and Albedo 446

19

MOISTURE, CLOUDS, AND WEATHER 449

Moisture in Air 450

Humidity 450

Supersaturation and Supercooling 451

Cooling and Condensation 451

Radiation Cooling 451

Contact Cooling: Dew and Frost 451

Cooling of Rising Air 451

Rising Air and Precipitation 453

Orographic Lifting 453

Frontal Wedging 453

Convection–Convergence 453

Convective Processes and Clouds 453

Types of Clouds 455

Fog 457

Pressure and Wind 458

Pressure Gradient 458

Coriolis Effect 458

Friction 459

Cyclones and Anticyclones 460

Pressure Changes and Weather 460

Fronts and Frontal Weather 461

Warm Fronts and Cold Fronts 462

Occluded Front 463

Stationary Front 465

The Life Cycle of a Midlatitude Cyclone 465

How the Earth’s Surface Features Affect

Weather 466

Mountain Ranges and Rain-Shadow Deserts 466

Forests and Weather 466

Sea and Land Breezes 467

Monsoons 467

Thunderstorms 467

Lightning 468

Tornadoes and Tropical Cyclones 469

Tornadoes 469

Tropical Cyclones 469

Hurricane Katrina 472

Scope of the Disaster 472

Brief History of Gulf Hurricanes 472

El Niño 473

20

CLIMATE 477

Introduction 478

Global Winds and Climate 478

Climate Zones of Earth 480

Humid Tropical Climates: No Winter 481

Dry Climates: Evaporation Greater Than

Precipitation 484

Humid Midlatitude Climates with Mild Winters 484

Humid Midlatitude Climate with Severe Winters 487

Polar Climate 487

Urban Climates 488

21

CLIMATE CHANGE 492

Introduction 493

Climate Change in Earth’s History 493

Measuring Climate Change 495

Historical Records 495

Tree Rings 496

Plant Pollen 496

Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Glacial Ice 496

Glacial Evidence 496

Plankton and Isotopes in Ocean Sediment 496

The Rock and Fossil Record 497

Astronomical Causes of Climate Change 497

Changes in Solar Radiation 497

Bolide Impacts 497

Water and Climate 498

The Natural Carbon Cycle and Climate 498

Carbon in the Atmosphere 498

Carbon in the Biosphere 499

Carbon in the Hydrosphere 499

Carbon in the Crust and Upper Mantle 499

Tectonics and Climate Change 501

Positions of the Continents 501

Mountains and Climate 501

Volcanoes and Climate 501

How Tectonics, Sea Level, Volcanoes, and Weathering

Interact to Regulate Climate 502

Greenhouse Effect: The Carbon Cycle and Global

Warming 503

Consequences of Greenhouse Warming 505

Feedback and Threshold Mechanisms in Climate

Change 511

Albedo Effects 511

Imbalances in Rates of Plant Respiration and

Photosynthesis 511

Changes in Ocean Currents 511

Permafrost and Deep-Sea Methane Deposits 512

22

MOTIONS IN THE HEAVENS 515

The Motions of the Heavenly Bodies 516

Aristotle and the Earth-Centered

Universe 516

The Renaissance and the Heliocentric Solar

System 518

Copernicus 519

Brahe and Kepler 519

Galileo 519

Isaac Newton and the Glue of the Universe 520

The Motions of the Earth and the Moon 521

Motion of the Moon 521

Eclipses of the Sun and the Moon 523

Modern Astronomy 525

Optical Telescopes 525

Telescopes Using Other Wavelengths 526

Emission and Absorption Spectra 526

Doppler Measurements 527

23

PLANETS AND THEIR MOONS 530

The Solar System: A Brief Overview 531

The Terrestrial Planets 534

Atmospheres and Climates of the Terrestrial

Planets 535

Geology and Tectonics of the Terrestrial Planets 538

The Moon: Our Nearest Neighbor 541

Formation of the Moon 542

History of the Moon 542

The Jovian Planets: Size, Compositions, and

Atmospheres 544

Jupiter 544

Saturn 546

Uranus and Neptune 547

Moons of the Jovian Planets 547

The Moons of Jupiter 547

Saturn’s Moons 549

The Moons of Uranus and Neptune 549

Planetary Rings 550

Pluto and Other Dwarf Planets 551

Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids 551

Asteroids 551

Comets 552

Meteoroids 554

24

STARS, SPACE, AND GALAXIES 557

Introduction 558

In the Beginning: The Big Bang 558

The Nonhomogeneous Universe 560

The Birth of a Star 561

The Sun 563

The Sun’s Inner Structure 563

The Photosphere 564

The Sun’s Outer Layers 564

Stars: The Main Sequence 565

The Life and Death of a Star 566

Stars about the Same Mass as Our Sun 566

Stars with a Large Mass 568

First- and Second-Generation Stars 569

Neutron Stars, Pulsars, and Black Holes 570

Neutron Stars and Pulsars 570

Black Holes 572

Gamma Ray Bursts 573

Galaxies 573

Galactic Motion 574

The Milky Way 575

The Nucleus of the Milky Way 575

Galactic Nebulae 575

Quasars 576

Looking Backward into Time 577

Dark Matter 578

The End of the Universe 578

Why Are We So Lucky? 578

APPENDICES

A: English-Metric Conversion Chart 582

B: Earth Science Mineral Identification 583

Glossary 585

Index 608

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