Database Systems: Design, Implementation and Management 13th Edition PDF by Carlos Coronel, Steven Morris

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Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, 13th Edition

by Carlos Coronel, Steven Morris

Database Systems Design, Implementation, & Management

Contents

Preface, xv

Text Features, xx

Additional Features, xxii

Acknowledgments, xxiv

Part 1: Database Concepts 1

Chapter 1: Database Systems 2

1-1 Why Databases? 3

1-2 Data versus Information 4

1-3 Introducing the Database 6

1-3a Role and Advantages of the DBMS 7

1-3b Types of Databases 9

1-4 Why Database Design Is Important 12

1-5 Evolution of File System Data Processing 15

1-5a Manual File Systems 15

1-5b Computerized File Systems 15

1-5c File System Redux: Modern End-User Productivity Tools 18

1-6 Problems with File System Data Processing 18

1-6a Structural and Data Dependence 19

1-6b Data Redundancy 20

1-6c Data Anomalies 21

1-7 Database Systems 21

1-7a The Database System Environment 22

1-7b DBMS Functions 24

1-7c Managing the Database System: A Shift in Focus 27

1-8 Preparing for Your Database Professional Career 28

Summary 30 • Key Terms 31 • Review Questions 31 • Problems 32

Chapter 2: Data Models 34

2-1 Data Modeling and Data Models 35

2-2 The Importance of Data Models 36

2-3 Data Model Basic Building Blocks 36

2-4 Business Rules 38

2-4a Discovering Business Rules 38

2-4b Translating Business Rules into Data Model Components 39

2-4c Naming Conventions 40

2-5 The Evolution of Data Models 40

2-5a Hierarchical and Network Models 40

2-5b The Relational Model 42

2-5c The Entity Relationship Model 44

2-5d The Object-Oriented Model 47

2-5e Object/Relational and XML 48

2-5f Emerging Data Models: Big Data and NoSQL 49

2-5g Data Models: A Summary 53

2-6 Degrees of Data Abstraction 54

2-6a The External Model 57

2-6b The Conceptual Model 58

2-6c The Internal Model 59

2-6d The Physical Model 60

Summary 61 • Key Terms 62 • Review Questions 62 • Problems 63

Part 2: Design Concepts 67

Chapter 3: The Relational Database Model 68

3-1 A Logical View of Data 69

3-1a Tables and Their Characteristics 69

3-2 Keys 72

3-2a Dependencies 72

3-2b Types of Keys 73

3-3 Integrity Rules 76

3-4 Relational Algebra 78

3-4a Formal Definitions and Terminology 78

3-4b Relational Set Operators 79

3-5 The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog 87

3-6 Relationships within the Relational Database 89

3-6a The 1:M Relationship 89

3-6b The 1:1 Relationship 91

3-6c The M:N Relationship 93

3-7 Data Redundancy Revisited 97

3-8 Indexes 99

3-9 Codd’s Relational Database Rules 100

Summary 102 • Key Terms 103 • Review Questions 103 • Problems 106

Chapter 4: Entity Relationship (ER) Modeling 113

4-1 The Entity Relationship Model 114

4-1a Entities 114

4-1b Attributes 114

4-1c Relationships 120

4-1d Connectivity and Cardinality 121

4-1e Existence Dependence 122

4-1f Relationship Strength 123

4-1g Weak Entities 125

4-1h Relationship Participation 127

4-1i Relationship Degree 131

4-1j Recursive Relationships 133

4-1k Associative (Composite) Entities 136

4-2 Developing an ER Diagram 138

4-3 Database Design Challenges: Conflicting Goals 146

Summary 150 • Key Terms 151 • Review Questions 151 • Problems 154 • Cases 159

Chapter 5: Advanced Data Modeling 167

5-1 The Extended Entity Relationship Model 168

5-1a Entity Supertypes and Subtypes 168

5-1b Specialization Hierarchy 169

5-1c Inheritance 170

5-1d Subtype Discriminator 172

5-1e Disjoint and Overlapping Constraints 172

5-1f Completeness Constraint 174

5-1g Specialization and Generalization 175

5-2 Entity Clustering 175

5-3 Entity Integrity: Selecting Primary Keys 176

5-3a Natural Keys and Primary Keys 177

5-3b Primary Key Guidelines 177

5-3c When to Use Composite Primary Keys 177

5-3d When to Use Surrogate Primary Keys 179

5-4 Design Cases: Learning Flexible Database Design 180

5-4a Design Case 1: Implementing 1:1 Relationships 181

5-4b Design Case 2: Maintaining History of Time-Variant Data 182

5-4c Design Case 3: Fan Traps 185

5-4d Design Case 4: Redundant Relationships 186

Summary 187 • Key Terms 187 • Review Questions 188 • Problems 189 • Cases 190

Chapter 6: Normalization of Database Tables 199

6-1 Database Tables and Normalization 200

6-2 The Need for Normalization 200

6-3 The Normalization Process 203

6-3a Conversion to First Normal Form (1NF) 205

6-3b Conversion to Second Normal Form (2NF) 209

6-3c Conversion to Third Normal Form (3NF) 211

6-4 Improving the Design 213

6-5 Surrogate Key Considerations 217

6-6 Higher-Level Normal Forms 218

6-6a The Boyce-Codd Normal Form 219

6-6b Fourth Normal Form (4NF) 222

6-7 Normalization and Database Design 224

6-8 Denormalization 227

6-9 Data-Modeling Checklist 230

Summary 232 • Key Terms 233 • Review Questions 233 • Problems 235

Part 3: Advanced Design and Implementation 243

Chapter 7: Introduction to Structured Query Language (SQL) 244

7-1 Introduction to SQL 245

7-1a Data Types 245

7-1b SQL Queries 247

7-1c The Database Model 248

7-2 Basic SELECT Queries 249

7-3 SELECT Statement Options 250

7-3a Using Column Aliases 251

7-3b Using Computed Columns 253

7-3c Arithmetic Operators: The Rule of Precedence 254

7-3d Date Arithmetic 255

7-3e Listing Unique Values 255

7-4 FROM Clause Options 256

7-4a Natural Join 257

7-4b JOIN USING Syntax 259

7-4c JOIN ON Syntax 260

7-4d Common Attribute Names 261

7-4e Outer Joins 261

7-4f Cross Join 264

7-4g Joining Tables with an Alias 264

7-4h Recursive Joins 265

7-5 ORDER BY Clause Options 266

7-6 WHERE Clause Options 269

7-6a Selecting Rows with Conditional Restrictions 269

7-6b Using Comparison Operators on Character Attributes 271

7-6c Using Comparison Operators on Dates 272

7-6d Logical Operators: AND, OR, and NOT 273

7-6e Old-Style Joins 275

7-6f Special Operators 276

7-7 Aggregate Processing 281

7-7a Aggregate Functions 281

7-7b Grouping Data 285

7-7c HAVING Clause 288

7-8 Subqueries 290

7-8a WHERE Subqueries 292

7-8b IN Subqueries 293

7-8c HAVING Subqueries 294

7-8d Multirow Subquery Operators: ALL and ANY 294

7-8e FROM Subqueries 295

7-8f Attribute List Subqueries 296

7-8g Correlated Subqueries 298

7-9 SQL Functions 302

7-9a Date and Time Functions 302

7-9b Numeric Functions 306

7-9c String Functions 307

7-9d Conversion Functions 309

7-10 Relational Set Operators 311

7-10a UNION 311

7-10b UNION ALL 313

7-10c INTERSECT 314

7-10d EXCEPT (MINUS) 315

7-10e Syntax Alternatives 316

7-11 Crafting SELECT Queries 317

7-11a Know Your Data 317

7-11b Know the Problem 317

7-11c Build One Clause at a Time 318

Summary 319 • Key Terms 321 • Review Questions 321 • Problems 323

Chapter 8: Advanced SQL 359

8-1 Data Definition Commands 360

8-1a Starting Database Model 360

8-1b Creating the Database 361

8-1c The Database Schema 362

8-1d Data Types 362

8-2 Creating Table Structures 366

8-2a CREATE TABLE command 366

8-2b SQL Constraints 370

8-2c Create a Table with a SELECT Statement 373

8-2d SQL Indexes 374

8-3 Altering Table Structures 375

8-3a Changing a Column’s Data Type 376

8-3b Changing a Column’s Data Characteristics 376

8-3c Adding a Column 377

8-3d Adding Primary Key, Foreign Key, and Check Constraints 377

8-3e Dropping a Column 378

8-3f Deleting a Table from the Database 378

8-4 Data Manipulation Commands 379

8-4a Adding Table Rows 379

8-4b Inserting Table Rows with a SELECT Subquery 381

8-4c Saving Table Changes 382

8-4d Updating Table Rows 383

8-4e Deleting Table Rows 385

8-4f Restoring Table Contents 386

8-5 Virtual Tables: Creating a View 387

8-5a Updatable Views 388

8-6 Sequences 391

8-7 Procedural SQL 396

8-7a Triggers 401

8-7b Stored Procedures 411

8-7c PL/SQL Processing with Cursors 416

8-7d PL/SQL Stored Functions 418

8-8 Embedded SQL 419

Summary 423 • Key Terms 425 • Review Questions 425 • Problems 426 • Cases 433

Chapter 9: Database Design 439

9-1 The Information System 440

9-2 The Systems Development Life Cycle 442

9-2a Planning 442

9-2b Analysis 443

9-2c Detailed Systems Design 444

9-2d Implementation 444

9-2e Maintenance 445

9-3 The Database Life Cycle 445

9-3a The Database Initial Study 445

9-3b Database Design 450

9-3c Implementation and Loading 451

9-3d Testing and Evaluation 454

9-3e Operation 456

9-3f Maintenance and Evolution 457

9-4 Conceptual Design 457

9-4a Data Analysis and Requirements 459

9-4b Entity Relationship Modeling and Normalization 461

9-4c Data Model Verification 464

9-4d Distributed Database Design 467

9-5 DBMS Software Selection 467

9-6 Logical Design 468

9-6a Map the Conceptual Model to the Logical Model 468

9-6b Validate the Logical Model Using Normalization 470

9-6c Validate Logical Model Integrity Constraints 470

9-6d Validate the Logical Model against User Requirements 471

9-7 Physical Design 471

9-7a Define Data Storage Organization 472

9-7b Define Integrity and Security Measures 472

9-7c Determine Performance Measures 473

9-8 Database Design Strategies 473

9-9 Centralized versus Decentralized Design 474

Summary 477 • Key Terms 477 • Review Questions 477 • Problems 478

Part 4: Advanced Database Concepts 481

Chapter 10: Transaction Management and Concurrency Control 482

10-1 What Is a Transaction? 483

10-1a Evaluating Transaction Results 484

10-1b Transaction Properties 487

10-1c Transaction Management with SQL 488

10-1d The Transaction Log 489

10-2 Concurrency Control 490

10-2a Lost Updates 490

10-2b Uncommitted Data 491

10-2c Inconsistent Retrievals 492

10-2d The Scheduler 493

10-3 Concurrency Control with Locking Methods 495

10-3a Lock Granularity 496

10-3b Lock Types 498

10-3c Two-Phase Locking to Ensure Serializability 500

10-3d Deadlocks 500

10-4 Concurrency Control with Time Stamping Methods 502

10-4a Wait/Die and Wound/Wait Schemes 502

10-5 Concurrency Control with Optimistic Methods 503

10-6 ANSI Levels of Transaction Isolation 504

10-7 Database Recovery Management 506

10-7a Transaction Recovery 506

Summary 510 • Key Terms 511 • Review Questions 511 • Problems 512

Chapter 11: Database Performance Tuning and Query Optimization 515

11-1 Database Performance-Tuning Concepts 516

11-1a Performance Tuning: Client and Server 517

11-1b DBMS Architecture 518

11-1c Database Query Optimization Modes 520

11-1d Database Statistics 521

11-2 Query Processing 522

11-2a SQL Parsing Phase 523

11-2b SQL Execution Phase 524

11-2c SQL Fetching Phase 525

11-2d Query Processing Bottlenecks 525

11-3 Indexes and Query Optimization 526

11-4 Optimizer Choices 528

11-4a Using Hints to Affect Optimizer Choices 530

11-5 SQL Performance Tuning 531

11-5a Index Selectivity 531

11-5b Conditional Expressions 533

11-6 Query Formulation 534

11-7 DBMS Performance Tuning 536

11-8 Query Optimization Example 538

Summary 546 • Key Terms 547 • Review Questions 547 • Problems 548

Chapter 12: Distributed Database Management Systems 553

12-1 The Evolution of Distributed Database Management Systems 554

12-2 DDBMS Advantages and Disadvantages 556

12-3 Distributed Processing and Distributed Databases 556

12-4 Characteristics of Distributed Database Management Systems 559

12-5 DDBMS Components 560

12-6 Levels of Data and Process Distribution 561

12-6a Single-Site Processing, Single-Site Data 561

12-6b Multiple-Site Processing, Single-Site Data 562

12-6c Multiple-Site Processing, Multiple-Site Data 563

12-7 Distributed Database Transparency Features 564

12-8 Distribution Transparency 565

12-9 Transaction Transparency 568

12-9a Distributed Requests and Distributed Transactions 568

12-9b Distributed Concurrency Control 571

12-9c Two-Phase Commit Protocol 571

12-10 Performance and Failure Transparency 573

12-11 Distributed Database Design 575

12-11a Data Fragmentation 575

12-11b Data Replication 578

12-11c Data Allocation 580

12-12 The CAP Theorem 581

12-13 C. J. Date’s 12 Commandments for Distributed Databases 583

Summary 584 • Key Terms 585 • Review Questions 585 • Problems 586

Chapter 13: Business Intelligence and Data Warehouses 589

13-1 The Need for Data Analysis 590

13-2 Business Intelligence 590

13-2a Business Intelligence Architecture 592

13-2b Business Intelligence Benefits 596

13-2c Business Intelligence Evolution 597

13-2d Business Intelligence Technology Trends 600

13-3 Decision Support Data 601

13-3a Operational Data versus Decision Support Data 601

13-3b Decision Support Database Requirements 604

13-4 The Data Warehouse 606

13-4a Data Marts 609

13-4b Twelve Rules That Define a Data Warehouse 609

13-5 Star Schemas 609

13-5a Facts 610

13-5b Dimensions 610

13-5c Attributes 611

13-5d Attribute Hierarchies 613

13-5e Star Schema Representation 615

13-5f Performance-Improving Techniques for the Star Schema 616

13-6 Online Analytical Processing 620

13-6a Multidimensional Data Analysis Techniques 620

13-6b Advanced Database Support 622

13-6c Easy-to-Use End-User Interfaces 622

13-6d OLAP Architecture 622

13-6e Relational OLAP 625

13-6f Multidimensional OLAP 627

13-6g Relational versus Multidimensional OLAP 627

13-7 Data Analytics 628

13-7a Data Mining 629

13-7b Predictive Analytics 631

13-8 SQL Analytic Functions 632

13-8a The ROLLUP Extension 633

13-8b The CUBE Extension 634

13-8c Materialized Views 636

13-9 Data Visualization 639

13-9a The Need for Data Visualization 640

13-9b The Science of Data Visualization 642

13-9c Understanding the Data 644

Summary 645 • Key Terms 646 • Review Questions 647 • Problems 648

Chapter 14: Big Data and NoSQL 657

14-1 Big Data 658

14-1a Volume 660

14-1b Velocity 661

14-1c Variety 662

14-1d Other Characteristics 663

14-2 Hadoop 664

14-2a HDFS 665

14-2b MapReduce 667

14-2c Hadoop Ecosystem 669

14-3 NoSQL 672

14-3a Key-Value Databases 673

14-3b Document Databases 674

14-3c Column-Oriented Databases 675

14-3d Graph Databases 677

14-3e Aggregate Awareness 679

14-4 NewSQL Databases 680

14-5 Working with Document Databases Using MongoDB 680

14-5a Importing Documents in MongoDB 682

14-5b Example of a MongoDB Query Using find() 683

14-6 Working with Graph Databases Using Neo4j 684

14-6a Creating Nodes in Neo4j 685

14-6b Retrieving Node Data with MATCH and WHERE 686

14-6c Retrieving Relationship Data with MATCH and WHERE 686

Summary 688 • Key Terms 689 • Review Questions 690

Part 5: Databases and the Internet 691

Chapter 15: Database Connectivity and Web Technologies 692

15-1 Database Connectivity 693

15-1a Native SQL Connectivity 694

15-1b ODBC, DAO, and RDO 695

15-1c OLE-DB 697

15-1d ADO.NET 699

15-1e Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 703

15-2 Database Internet Connectivity 704

15-2a Web-to-Database Middleware: Server-Side Extensions 705

15-2b Web Server Interfaces 707

15-2c The Web Browser 708

15-2d Client-Side Extensions 709

15-2e Web Application Servers 710

15-2f Web Database Development 711

15-3 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 715

15-3a Document Type Definitions (DTD) and XML Schemas 717

15-3b XML Presentation 719

15-3c XML Applications 721

15-4 Cloud Computing Services 722

15-4a Cloud Implementation Types 725

15-4b Characteristics of Cloud Services 725

15-4c Types of Cloud Services 726

15-4d Cloud Services: Advantages and Disadvantages 727

15-4e SQL Data Services 729

Summary 730 • Key Terms 731 • Review Questions 731 • Problems 732

Part 6: Database Administration 733

Chapter 16: Database Administration and Security 734

16-1 Data as a Corporate Asset 735

16-2 The Need for a Database and Its Role in an Organization 736

16-3 Introduction of a Database: Special Considerations 738

16-4 The Evolution of Database Administration 739

16-5 The Database Environment’s Human Component 743

16-5a The DBA’s Managerial Role 745

16-5b The DBA’s Technical Role 750

16-6 Security 757

16-6a Security Policies 758

16-6b Security Vulnerabilities 758

16-6c Database Security 760

16-7 Database Administration Tools 761

16-7a The Data Dictionary 762

16-7b Case Tools 764

16-8 Developing a Data Administration Strategy 767

16-9 The DBA’s Role in the Cloud 768

16-10 The DBA at Work: Using Oracle for Database Administration 769

16-10a Oracle Database Administration Tools 770

16-10b Ensuring That the RDBMS Starts Automatically 770

16-10c Creating Tablespaces and Datafiles 772

16-10d Managing Users and Establishing Security 774

16-10e Customizing the Database Initialization Parameters 776

Summary 777 • Key Terms 779 • Review Questions 779

Glossary 782

Index 793

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