Communication in Our Lives, 8th Edition PDF by Julia T. Wood

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Communication in Our Lives, Eighth Edition

Julia T. Wood

Communication in Our Lives 8th Edition

Contents

Preface xviii

About the Author xxiv

Introduction xxv

PART I: FOUNDATIONS OF COMMUNICATION

1. The World of Communication 1

Why Study Communication? 2

Defining Communication 3

Values of Communication 4

Personal Identity and Health 4

Relationship Values 5

Professional Values 5

Cultural Values 6

Models of Communication 8

Linear Models 8

Interactive Models 8

Transactional Models 10

The Breadth of the Communication Field 11

Interpersonal Communication 11

Group Communication 12

Organizational Communication 12

Health Communication 12

Mass Communication and Digital Media 12

Public Communication 13

Intercultural Communication 14

Unifying Themes in the Field 15

Symbols 15

Meaning 15

Critical Thinking 15

Ethics and Communication 16

Careers in Communication 17

Research 17

Education 18

Media Production, Analysis, and Criticism 18

Training and Consulting 18

Human Relations and Management 19

Digital Media and Communication 20

Chapter Summary 21

Case Study: A Model Speech of Self-Introduction 21

2. Perception and Communication 25

Human Perception 26

Selection 26

Organization 28

Interpretation 31

Influences on Perception 33

Physiology 33

Culture 34

Social and Professional Roles 36

Cognitive Abilities 36

Digital Media and Perception 38

Guidelines for Effective Perception 39

Perceptions, Communication, and Abstraction 39

Chapter Summary 43

Case Study: College Success 43

3. Communication and Personal Identity 46

What Is the Self? 47

The Self Arises in Communication with Others 47

The Self Is Multidimensional 53

The Self Is a Process 53

We Internalize and Act from Social Perspectives 54

Social Perspectives on the Self Are Changeable 58

Digital Media and Personal Identity 59

Guidelines for Enhancing the Self 60

Make a Strong Commitment to Improve Yourself 60

Gain Knowledge as a Basis for Personal Change 60

Set Realistic Goals 61

Self-Disclose When Appropriate 62

Accept That You Are in Process 62

Create a Supportive Context for Change 63

Chapter Summary 64

Case Study: Parental Teachings 64

4. Listening Effectively 67

The Listening Process 69

Being Mindful 69

Physically Receiving Messages 70

Selecting and Organizing Material 71

Interpreting Communication 71

Responding 72

Remembering 72

Obstacles to Effective Listening 72

External Obstacles 72

Internal Obstacles 74

Forms of Nonlistening 76

Pseudolistening 76

Monopolizing 76

Selective Listening 77

Defensive Listening 77

Ambushing 77

Literal Listening 78

Digital Media and Listening 78

Guidelines for Effective Listening 78

Informational and Critical Listening 79

Relational Listening 80

Other Purposes of Listening 83

Chapter Summary 84

Case Study: Family Hour 84

5. The Verbal Dimension of Communication 89

Features of Symbols 90

Symbols Are Arbitrary 90

Symbols Are Ambiguous 91

Symbols Are Abstract 91

Principles of Verbal Communication 92

Interpretation Creates Meaning 92

Communication Is Rule Guided 93

Punctuation Affects Meaning 94

Symbolic Abilities 95

Symbols Define 95

Symbols Evaluate 97

Symbols Organize Perceptions 97

Symbols Allow Hypothetical Thought 98

Symbols Allow Self-Reflection 99

Digital Media and Verbal Communication 100

Guidelines for Effective Verbal Communication 100

Engage in Dual Perspective 100

Own Your Feelings and Thoughts 101

Respect What Others Say About Their Feelings and Ideas 102

Strive for Accuracy and Clarity 103

Chapter Summary 105

Case Study: The Roommates 105

PART II: CONTEXTS OF INTERACTION

6. The Nonverbal Dimension of

Communication 109

Principles of Nonverbal Communication 110

Similar to and Different from Verbal Communication 110

Supplements or Replaces Verbal Communication 112

Regulates Interaction 112

Establishes Relationship-Level Meanings 113

Reflects Cultural Values 114

Types of Nonverbal Communication 115

Kinesics 115

Haptics 116

Physical Appearance 117

Artifacts 118

Proxemics 119

Environmental Factors 120

Chronemics 120

Paralanguage 121

Silence 122

Digital Media and Nonverbal Communication 122

Guidelines for Improving Nonverbal Communication 124

Monitor Your Nonverbal Communication 124

Interpret Others’ Nonverbal Communication Tentatively 124

Chapter Summary 126

Case Study: Nonverbal Cues 126

7. Communication in Personal Relationships 131

Defining Personal Relationships 132

Uniqueness 132

Commitment 132

Relationship Rules 133

Affected by Contexts 133

Relational Dialectics 134

The Evolutionary Course of Personal Relationships 135

Friendships 136

Romantic Relationships 137

Digital Media and Personal Relationships 141

Guidelines for Maintaining Healthy Personal Relationships 141

Manage Distance 142

Create Equitable Romantic Relationships 142

Resist Violence and Abuse Between Intimates 144

Negotiate Safer Sex 145

Chapter Summary 146

Case Study: Growing Together 146

8. Communication in Groups and Teams 149

Understanding Groups and Teams 150

Potential Limitations and Strengths of Groups 152

Potential Limitations of Groups 152

Potential Strengths of Groups 153

Features of Small Groups 155

Cohesion 155

Group Size 155

Power Structure 156

Interaction Patterns 157

Group Norms 157

Digital Media and Group Communication 158

Guidelines for Communicating in Groups and Teams 159

Participate Constructively 159

Provide Leadership 162

Manage Conflict Constructively 163

Chapter Summary 165

Case Study: The Class Gift 165

9. Communication in Organizations 169

Key Features of Organizations 170

Structure 171

Communication Networks 171

Links to External Environments 172

Organizational Culture 172

Vocabularies 173

Stories 175

Rites and Rituals 176

Structures 178

Digital Media and Organizational Communication 180

Guidelines for Effective Communication in Organizations 181

Balance Investments in Work and the Rest of Your Life 181

Manage Personal Relationships on the Job 183

Chapter Summary 185

Case Study: Ed Misses the Banquet 185

10. Communication and Culture 188

Understanding Culture 189

Cultures Are Systems 189

Cultures Vary on Five Dimensions 191

Cultures Are Dynamic 192

Multiple Social Communities Coexist Within a Single Culture 193

Communication’s Relationship to Culture and Social

Communities 197

Communication Expresses and Sustains Cultures 197

We Learn Culture in the Process of Communicating 199

Digital Media, Cultures, and Social Communities 200

Guidelines for Improving Communication Between Cultures

and Social Communities 200

Resist the Ethnocentric Bias 200

Recognize That Interacting with Diverse People Is a Process 201

Chapter Summary 204

Case Study: The Job Interview 204

11. Media and Media Literacy 209

The Nature and Scope of Media 210

Mass Media 210

Social Media 210

Understanding How Media_Work 212

Understanding Mass Media 212

Understanding Social Media 216

Guidelines for Enhancing Your Effectiveness with Mass

and Digital Media 221

Understand the Influence of Media 221

Access to Media 221

Analyze Media 222

Critically Evaluate Media Messages 223

Respond Actively 224

Chapter Summary 226

Case Study: Online Relationships 226

PART III: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION

12. Planning Public Speaking 230

Public Speaking Is Enlarged Conversation 232

Choose and Refine a Topic 233

Choose Your Topic 233

Define Your General and Specific Purposes in Speaking 235

Develop a Thesis Statement 237

Analyze Your Audience 239

Demographic Audience Analysis 239

Situational Audience Analysis 241

Digital Media and Planning Public Speaking 242

Chapter Summary 243

Case Study: A Model Speech of Introduction 244

13. Researching and Developing Support

for Public Speeches 247

Conducting Research 248

Online Research 248

Library Research 248

Interviews 250

Surveys 250

Using Evidence to Support Ideas 252

Statistics 252

Examples 253

Comparisons 255

Quotations 255

Visual Aids 257

Digital Media and Researching and Developing

Speeches 261

Chapter Summary 263

Case Study: Understanding Hurricanes 264

14. Organizing and Presenting Public

Speeches 269

Organizing Speeches 270

Outlining Speeches 271

Organizing the Body of a Speech 272

Designing the Introduction 279

Craft the Conclusion 281

Build in Transitions 282

Presenting Public Speeches 283

Building Speaking Confidence 283

Causes of Communication Apprehension 284

Managing Communication Apprehension 284

Oral Style 285

Styles of Delivery 285

Practice 287

Digital Media and Speech Organization and Delivery 288

Chapter Summary 290

Case Study: Analyzing Delivery: Speech of Self-Introduction 291

15. Informative Speaking 294

The Nature of Informative Speaking 295

Informative Speaking in Everyday Life 295

Comparing Informative and Persuasive Speaking 296

Guidelines for Effective Informative Speaking 298

Provide Listeners with a Clear Thesis Statement 298

Connect with Listeners’ Values and Experiences 298

Motivate Listeners to Want Information 299

Build Credibility with Listeners 299

Adapt to Diverse Listeners 299

Organize So Listeners Can Follow Easily 300

Design Your Speech to Enhance Learning and Retention 301

Involve Listeners 303

Use Effective and Ethical Supporting Materials 304

Digital Media and Informative Speaking 305

Chapter Summary 306

Case Study: Informative Speech: Anytown USA 307

16. Persuasive Speaking 311

Understanding Persuasive Speaking 312

The Three Pillars of Persuasion 314

Ethos 314

Pathos 316

Logos 317

Building Credibility 319

Understanding Credibility 319

Types of Credibility 319

Developing Credibility 320

Enhancing Credibility 321

Organizing Speeches for Persuasive Impact 321

The Motivated Sequence Pattern 321

One-Sided and Two-Sided Presentations 324

Digital Media and Persuasive Speaking 325

Guidelines for Effective Persuasive Speeches 325

Create Common Ground with Listeners 325

Adapt to Listeners 326

Avoid Fallacious Reasoning 327

Chapter Summary 330

Case Study: Persuasive Speech: No Child Left Behind: Addressing the

School Dropout Rate Among Latinos 330

Closing: Pulling Ideas Together 335

Appendix A Annotated Sample Speeches 339

Water 339

Brandon Perry 339

Martin Luther King Jr. Remembrance Speech: Transcript of 2010

Speech 341

Barack Obama 341

“The Dun Dun Drum” 347

Joshua Valentine 347

Appendix B Interviewing 349

Understanding Communication in Interviews 349

Types and Purposes of Interviews 349

The Structure of Interviews 351

Styles of Interviewing 353

Forms of Questions in Interviews 355

Guidelines for Communicating Effectively in Interviews 357

Prepare 357

Managing Illegal Questions in Interviews 358

Chapter Summary 361

Case Study: Tough Questions 361

Glossary 364

References 373

Index 389

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