Critical Thinking: The Art of Argument, 2nd Edition PDF by George W. Rainbolt and Sandra L. Dwyer

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Critical Thinking: The Art of Argument, Second Edition

By George W. Rainbolt and Sandra L. Dwyer

Critical Thinking The Art of Argument 2nd Edition

Contents:

PREFACE xvii

I N T R O D U C T I O N How to Use This Book 1

C H A P T E R 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments 4

What Is Critical Thinking? 5

What Is an Argument? 6

Statements 7

Statements and Sentences 8

Why Think Critically? 12

Identifying Arguments 13

The First Three Steps 13

Look for an Attempt to Convince 13

Find the Conclusion 13

Find the Premises 14

Complicating Factors 16

Indicator Words Are Imperfect Guides 16

Sentence Order 16

Conclusions and Premises Not in Declarative Form 16

Unstated Premises and Unstated Conclusions 20

Things That Are Not Arguments 24

Assertions 24

Descriptions 24

Questions and Instructions 25

Explanations 25

Putting Arguments into Standard Form 31

Main Arguments & Subarguments 32

Diagramming Arguments 41

Chapter Summary 42

Guide: Identifying and Standardizing Arguments 43

C H A P T E R 2 What Makes a Good Argument? 44

The Two Characteristics of a Good Argument 45

True Premises 49

Audience 49

The Problem of Ignorance 51

Proper Form 52

Deductive and Inductive Arguments 57

Deductive Forms 57

Inductive Forms 58

Guide: Terms Used in Logic, Philosophy, and Math to Refer

to Good and Bad Arguments 61

Relevance 64

Dependent and Independent Premises 67

Arguing about Arguments 70

Some Improper Forms: Fallacies of Relevance 72

Fallacy: Red Herring 73

Fallacy: Easy Target 74

Fallacy: Appeal to Fear 76

Fallacy: Appeal to Pity 76

Fallacy: Appeal to Popularity 78

Fallacy: Appeal to Novelty or Tradition 78

Fallacy: Ad Hominem 81

Fallacy: Appeal to Ignorance 84

Chapter Summary 86

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 86

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Arguments 87

C H A P T E R 3 Premises and Conclusions 89

Empirical Premises 90

Testimonal Premises 92

Definitional Premises 96

Statements by Experts 100

Appropriate Credentials 100

Reliability 101

Bias 101

Area of Expertise 102

Fallacy: Inappropriate Expertise 103

Expert Consensus 104

Guide: Assuming the Statement of an Expert 104

Guide: Proper Citation of Experts 105

Premises and the Internet 105

A Common Mistake 107

Conclusions 111

Strength of Conclusions 111

Scope of Conclusions 112

Chapter Summary 118

C H A P T E R 4 Language 119

Identifying Definitions 120

Extension and Intension 120

Genus and Species 122

Dictionary Definitions 123

Guide: Dictionaries 125

Technical Definitions 126

Evaluating Definitions 130

Evaluating Dictionary Definitions 130

Correct Extension 131

Correct Intension 132

Persuasive Definitions 134

Evaluating Technical Definitions 135

Language and Clarity 137

Ambiguity 137

Fallacy: Equivocation 138

Fallacies: Composition and Division 140

Vagueness 142

Language and Emotion 145

Euphemism 146

Rhetorical Devices 147

Chapter Summary 150

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 151

C H A P T E R 5 Propositional Arguments 152

Identifying Propositional Statements 153

Negations 154

Disjunctions 155

Conjunctions 159

Conditionals 160

Conditionals: Some Complications 161

Guide: Negation, Disjunction, Conjunction, and Conditional

Indicator Words 162

Evaluating Propositional Arguments 164

Denying a Disjunct 164

Fallacy: Affirming an Inclusive Disjunct 166

Affirming an Exclusive Disjunct 166

Fallacy: False Dichotomy 168

Affirming the Antecedent 170

Fallacy: Denying the Antecedent 171

Denying the Consequent 172

Fallacy: Affirming the Consequent 173

Tri-Conditional 174

Fallacy: Begging the Question 177

Chapter Summary 180

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 181

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Propositional

Arguments 182

C H A P T E R 6 Categorical Arguments 184

Identifying Categorical Statements 185

The Four Standard Categorical Statement Forms 185

Universal Affirmative: All G1 Are G2 188

Categorical Statements: Important Details 188

Detail 1: Venn Diagrams 188

Detail 2: Empty Groups 190

Detail 3: Group Variables 192

Detail 4: Complex Groups 193

Universal Negative: All G1 Are Not G2 194

Particular Affirmative: Some G1 Are G2 196

Particular Negative: Some G1 Are Not G2 197

Evaluating Categorical Arguments with One Premise 200

Contradiction 200

Fallacy: Confusing a Contrary and a Contradictory 202

Conversion 204

Distribution 206

Complements 207

Contraposition 207

Obversion 209

Evaluating Categorical Arguments with Two Premises 212

Identifying Categorical Syllogisms 212

Evaluating Categorical Syllogisms: The Test Method 217

The Equal Negatives Test 217

The Quantity Test 218

The Distributed Conclusion Test 219

Guide: Doing the Distributed Conclusion Test 219

The Distributed Middle Group Test 219

Guide: Validity of Categorical Syllogisms: The Test Method 220

Evaluating Categorical Syllogisms: The Venn Method 220

Guide: Validity of Categorical Syllogisms: Venn Method 234

Chapter Summary 235

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 236

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Categorical

Arguments 237

C H A P T E R 7 Analogical Arguments 239

Identifying Analogical Arguments 240

The Form of Analogies 241

Illustrative Analogies 243

Uses of Analogies 248

Logical Analogies 250

Refutation by Logical Analogy 251

Evaluating Analogical Arguments 254

The True Premises Test 254

The Proper Form Test 257

Analogies, Consistency, and False Beliefs 260

Chapter Summary 265

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 266

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Analogical

Arguments 267

C H A P T E R 8 Statistical Arguments 269

Descriptive Statistics 270

The Many Meanings of “Average” 271

The Mean 272

The Weighted Mean 272

The Mode 273

The Midrange 273

The Median 273

Outliers and Resistance 274

Guide 275

Standard Deviation 280

Distributions 280

Regressions 285

Identifying Statistical Arguments 289

Parts of a Statistical Argument 290

Statistical Arguments and Analogical Arguments 292

Evaluating Statistical Arguments 295

The True Premises Test 295

The Proper Form Test 296

Guideline 1: Size 297

Guideline 2: Variety 297

Sampling Techniques 298

Statistical Fallacies 301

Fallacy: Hasty Generalization 301

Fallacy: Biased Sample 301

Fallacy: Biased Questions 302

Fallacy: False Precision 302

Chapter Summary 307

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 308

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Statistical

Arguments 309

C H A P T E R 9 Causal Arguments 311

The Many Meanings of “Cause” 312

Cause as Necessary Condition 313

Cause as Sufficient Condition 315

Cause as Necessary and Sufficient Condition 315

Contributory Cause 315

Primary Cause 316

Identifying Causal Arguments 319

The Form of a Causal Argument 319

Evaluating Causal Arguments 324

The True Premises Test and the Proper Form Test 324

Premise (1): Correlation 324

Binary and Scalar Features 324

Binary Correlation 325

Scalar Correlation 325

Premise (1) and the True Premises Test: Mill’s Methods 328

The Method of Agreement 328

The Method of Difference 329

The Joint Method of Agreement and Difference 329

The Method of Scalar Variation 330

The Limits of Mill’s Methods 330

Premise (1) and the Proper Form Test: Correlation Is Not Causation 331

Fallacy: Hasty Cause 332

Fallacy: Causal Slippery Slope 332

Premise (2) and the True Premises Test: Causes and Time 335

Premise (2) and the Proper Form Test: The Post Hoc Fallacy and

The Hasty Cause Fallacy 336

Premise (3) and the True Premises Test: Third-Party Causes 337

Premise (3) and the Proper Form Test: The Common Cause Fallacy 339

Premise (4) and the True Premises Test: Coincidental Correlation 339

Premise (4) and the Proper Form Test: The Return

of the Hasty Cause Fallacy 340

The Scientific Method 347

Step 1: Identify the Question to Be Answered 347

Step 2: Formulate a Hypothesis 348

Step 3: Check for Correlations 349

Back to Step 2: Formulate a Hypothesis 350

Step 4: Check for Reverse Causes, Third-Party Causes,

and Coincidental Correlation 351

Back to Step 1: Identify New Questions 351

An Example of the Scientific Method 351

Chapter Summary 362

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 363

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Causal Arguments 364

C H A P T E R 10 Moral Arguments 366

Identifying Moral Arguments 367

Values: Often Overlooked Premises 368

The Nature of Moral Arguments 372

Moral Arguments and Truth 372

Moral Arguments, Emotion, and Self-Interest 373

Evaluating Moral Arguments 374

Consequentialist Moral Arguments 376

What Sorts of Consequences Are Morally Important? 377

Who Is Morally Important? 380

What’s the Correct Amount of the Morally Important Consequences? 382

Deontic Moral Arguments 383

Universalizability 385

Cooperation 385

Aretaic Moral Arguments 390

Moral Conflict 391

A Final Thought 394

Chapter Summary 395

Argument Forms Studied in the Chapter 395

Guide: Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Moral Arguments 396

Answers to Selected Exercises 398

Reference Guide 433

Summary Guide for Identifying, Standardizing, and Evaluating Arguments 433

Argument Forms Studied in the chapters 436

Alphabetical List of Fallacies 443

Alphabetical List of Guides 443

Alphabetical List of Habits of a Critical Thinker 444

List of Citations 445

Index 461

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