Database Systems: Design, Implementation and Management, 12th Edition PDF by Carlos Coronel and Steven Morris

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Database Systems: Design, Implementation and Management, Twelve Edition

By Carlos Coronel and Steven Morris

Database Systems Design Implementation and Management 12th Edition

Contents:

Part 1: Database Concepts 1

Chapter 1: Database Systems 2

1-1 Why Databases? 3

1-2 Data versus Information 4

1-3 Introducing the Database 6

1-3a Role and Advantages of the DBMS 6

1-3b Types of Databases 8

1-4 Why Database Design is Important 11

1-5 Evolution of File System Data Processing 14

1-5a Manual File Systems 14

1-5b Computerized File Systems 15

1-5c File System Redux: Modern End-User Productivity

Tools 17

1-6 Problems with File System Data Processing 18

1-6a Structural and Data Dependence 19

1-6b Data Redundancy 20

1-6c Data Anomalies 21

1-7 Database Systems 21

1-7a The Database System Environment 22

1-7b DBMS Functions 24

1-7c Managing the Database System: A Shift in Focus 28

1-8 Preparing for Your Database Professional Career 28

Summary 30 • Key Terms 31 • Review Questions 32 • Problems 32

Chapter 2: Data Models 35

2-1 Data Modeling and Data Models 36

2-2 The Importance of Data Models 37

2-3 Data Model Basic Building Blocks 37

2-4 Business Rules 39

2-4a Discovering Business Rules 39

2-4b Translating Business Rules into Data Model Components 40

2-4c Naming Conventions 41

2-5 The Evolution of Data Models 41

2-5a Hierarchical and Network Models 41

2-5b The Relational Model 43

2-5c The Entity Relationship Model 45

2-5d The Object-Oriented (OO) Model 48

2-5e Object/Relational and XML 49

2-5f Emerging Data Models: Big Data and NoSQL 50

2-5g Data Models: A Summary 56

2-6 Degrees of Data Abstraction 57

2-6a The External Model 60

2-6b The Conceptual Model 61

2-6c The Internal Model 62

2-6d The Physical Model 63

Summary 64 • Key Terms 65 • Review Questions 65 • Problems 66

Part 2: Design Concepts 71

Chapter 3: The Relational Database Model 72

3-1 A Logical View of Data 73

3-1a Tables and Their Characteristics 73

3-2 Keys 76

3-2a Dependencies 76

3-2b Types of Keys 77

3-3 Integrity Rules 80

3-4 Relational Algebra 82

3-4a Formal Definitions and Terminology 82

3-4b Relational Set Operators 83

3-5 The Data Dictionary and the System Catalog 91

3-6 Relationships within the Relational Database 93

3-6a The 1:M Relationship 93

3-6b The 1:1 Relationship 95

3-6c The M:N Relationship 97

3-7 Data Redundancy Revisited 101

3-8 Indexes 103

3-9 Codd’s Relational Database Rules 104

Summary 106 • Key Terms 107 • Review Questions 107 • Problems 110

Chapter 4: Entity Relationship (ER) Modeling 117

4-1 The Entity Relationship Model (ERM) 118

4-1a Entities 118

4-1b Attributes 118

4-1c Relationships 124

4-1d Connectivity and Cardinality 125

4-1e Existence Dependence 126

4-1f Relationship Strength 126

4-1g Weak Entities 129

4-1h Relationship Participation 131

4-1i Relationship Degree 134

4-1j Recursive Relationships 136

4-1k Associative (Composite) Entities 138

4-2 Developing an ER Diagram 140

4-3 Database Design Challenges: Conflicting Goals 147

Summary 152 • Key Terms 153 • Review Questions 153 • Problems 156 • Cases 161

Chapter 5: Advanced Data Modeling 169

5-1 The Extended Entity Relationship Model 170

5-1a Entity Supertypes and Subtypes 170

5-1b Specialization Hierarchy 171

5-1c Inheritance 172

5-1d Subtype Discriminator 174

5-1e Disjoint and Overlapping Constraints 174

5-1f Completeness Constraint 175

5-1g Specialization and Generalization 176

5-2 Entity Clustering 176

5-3 Entity Integrity: Selecting Primary Keys 177

5-3a Natural Keys and Primary Keys 178

5-3b Primary Key Guidelines 178

5-3c When To Use Composite Primary Keys 178

5-3d When To Use Surrogate Primary Keys 180

5-4 Design Cases: Learning Flexible Database Design 182

5-4a Design Case 1: Implementing 1:1 Relationships 182

5-4b Design Case 2: Maintaining History of Time-Variant Data 183

5-4c Design Case 3: Fan Traps 186

5-4d Design Case 4: Redundant Relationships 187

Summary 188 • Key Terms 189 • Review Questions 189 • Problems 190 • Cases 192

Chapter 6: Normalization of Database Tables 201

6-1 Database Tables and Normalization 202

6-2 The Need For Normalization 202

6-3 The Normalization Process 206

6-3a Conversion To First Normal Form 208

6-3b Conversion To Second Normal Form 211

6-3c Conversion To Third Normal Form 213

6-4 Improving the Design 215

6-5 Surrogate Key Considerations 219

6-6 Higher-Level Normal Forms 220

6-6a The Boyce-Codd Normal Form 221

6-6b Fourth Normal Form (4NF) 224

6-7 Normalization and Database Design 226

6-8 Denormalization 229

6-9 Data-Modeling Checklist 232

Summary 234 • Key Terms 235 • Review Questions 235 • Problems 237

Part 3: Advanced Design and Implementation 245

Chapter 7: Introduction to Structured Query Language (SQL) 246

7-1 Introduction to SQL 247

7-2 Data Definition Commands 249

7-2a The Database Model 249

7-2b Creating The Database 251

7-2c The Database Schema 251

7-2d Data Types 252

7-2e Creating Table Structures 255

7-2f SQL Constraints 259

7-2g SQL Indexes 263

7-3 Data Manipulation Commands 264

7-3a Adding Table Rows 264

7-3b Saving Table Changes 266

7-3c Listing Table Rows 266

7-3d Updating Table Rows 268

7-3e Restoring Table Contents 269

7-3f Deleting Table Rows 269

7-3g Inserting Table Rows with a Select Subquery 270

7.4 SELECT Queries 271

7-4a Selecting Rows with Conditional Restrictions 271

7-4b Arithmetic Operators: The Rule of Precedence 276

7-4c Logical Operators: AND, OR, and NOT 277

7-4d Special Operators 279

7-5 Additional Data Definition Commands 283

7-5a Changing a Column’s Data Type 284

7-5b Changing a Column’s Data Characteristics 284

7-5c Adding a Column 284

7-5d Dropping a Column 285

7-5e Advanced Data Updates 285

7-5f Copying Parts of Tables 287

7-5g Adding Primary and Foreign Key Designations 289

7-5h Deleting a Table from the Database 290

7-6 Additional SELECT Query Keywords 290

7-6a Ordering a Listing 290

7-6b Listing Unique Values 292

7-6c Aggregate Functions 292

7-6d Grouping Data 297

7-7 Joining Database Tables 300

7-7a Joining Tables with an Alias 303

7-7b Recursive Joins 303

Summary 305 • Key Terms 306 • Review Questions 306 • Problems 307 • Cases 331

Chapter 8: Advanced SQL 340

8-1 SQL Join Operators 341

8-1a Cross Join 342

8-1b Natural Join 343

8-1c JOIN USING Clause 344

8-1d JOIN ON Clause 345

8-1e Outer Joins 347

8-2 Subqueries and Correlated Queries 349

8-2a WHERE Subqueries 351

8-2b IN Subqueries 352

8-2c HAVING Subqueries 353

8-2d Multirow Subquery Operators: ANY and ALL 353

8-2e FROM Subqueries 355

8-2f Attribute List Subqueries 356

8-2g Correlated Subqueries 358

8-3 SQL Functions 361

8-3a Date and Time Functions 361

8-3b Numeric Functions 366

8-3c String Functions 366

8-3d Conversion Functions 368

8-4 Relational Set Operators 371

8-4a UNION 371

8-4b UNION ALL 373

8-4c INTERSECT 373

8-4d EXCEPT (MINUS) 375

8-4e Syntax Alternatives 377

8-5 Virtual Tables: Creating a View 377

8-5a Updatable Views 379

8-6 Sequences 382

8-7 Procedural SQL 387

8-7a Triggers 392

8-7b Stored Procedures 401

8-7c PL/SQL Processing with Cursors 407

8-7d PL/SQL Stored Functions 409

8-8 Embedded SQL 410

Summary 415 • Key Terms 416 • Review Questions 417 • Problems 418 • Cases 435

Chapter 9: Database Design 439

9-1 The Information System 440

9-2 The Systems Development Life Cycle 442

9-2a Planning 442

9-2b Analysis 443

9-2c Detailed Systems Design 444

9-2d Implementation 444

9-2e Maintenance 445

9-3 The Database Life Cycle 445

9-3a The Database Initial Study 445

9-3b Database Design 450

9-3c Implementation and Loading 451

9-3d Testing and Evaluation 454

9-3e Operation 456

9-3f Maintenance and Evolution 457

9-4 Conceptual Design 457

9-4a Data Analysis and Requirements 459

9-4b Entity Relationship Modeling and Normalization 461

9-4c Data Model Verification 464

9-4d Distributed Database Design 467

9-5 DBMS Software Selection 467

9-6 Logical Design 468

9-6a Map the Conceptual Model to the Logical Model 468

9-6b Validate the Logical Model Using Normalization 470

9-6c Validate Logical Model Integrity Constraints 470

9-6d Validate the Logical Model Against User Requirements 471

9-7 Physical Design 471

9-7a Define Data Storage Organization 472

9-7b Define Integrity and Security Measures 472

9-7c Determine Performance Measures 473

9-8 Database Design Strategies 473

9-9 Centralized Versus Decentralized Design 474

Summary 477 • Key Terms 477 • Review Questions 477 • Problems 478

Part 4: Advanced Database Concepts 481

Chapter 10: Transaction Management and Concurrency Control 482

10-1 What Is a Transaction? 483

10-1a Evaluating Transaction Results 484

10-1b Transaction Properties 487

10-1c Transaction Management with SQL 488

10-1d The Transaction Log 489

10-2 Concurrency Control 490

10-2a Lost Updates 490

10-2b Uncommitted Data 491

10-2c Inconsistent Retrievals 492

10-2d The Scheduler 493

10-3 Concurrency Control with Locking Methods 495

10-3a Lock Granularity 496

10-3b Lock Types 498

10-3c Two-Phase Locking to Ensure Serializability 500

10-3d Deadlocks 500

10-4 Concurrency Control with Time Stamping Methods 502

10-4a Wait/Die and Wound/Wait Schemes 502

10-5 Concurrency Control with Optimistic Methods 503

10-6 ANSI Levels of Transaction Isolation 504

10-7 Database Recovery Management 506

10-7a Transaction Recovery 506

Summary 510 • Key Terms 511 • Review Questions 511 • Problems 512

Chapter 11: Database Performance Tuning

and Query Optimization 515

11-1 Database Performance-Tuning Concepts 516

11-1a Performance Tuning: Client and Server 517

11-1b DBMS Architecture 518

11-1c Database Query Optimization Modes 520

11-1d Database Statistics 521

11-2 Query Processing 522

11-2a SQL Parsing Phase 523

11-2b SQL Execution Phase 524

11-2c SQL Fetching Phase 525

11-2d Query Processing Bottlenecks 525

11-3 Indexes and Query Optimization 526

11-4 Optimizer Choices 528

11-4a Using Hints to Affect Optimizer Choices 530

11-5 SQL Performance Tuning 531

11-5a Index Selectivity 531

11-5b Conditional Expressions 533

11-6 Query Formulation 534

11-7 DBMS Performance Tuning 536

11-8 Query Optimization Example 538

Summary 546 • Key Terms 547 • Review Questions 547 • Problems 548

Chapter 12: Distributed Database Management Systems 553

12-1 The Evolution of Distributed Database Management Systems 554

12-2 DDBMS Advantages and Disadvantages 556

12-3 Distributed Processing and Distributed Databases 556

12-4 Characteristics of Distributed Database Management Systems 559

12-5 DDBMS Components 560

12-6 Levels of Data and Process Distribution 561

12-6a Single-Site Processing, Single-Site Data 561

12-6b Multiple-Site Processing, Single-Site Data 562

12-6c Multiple-Site Processing, Multiple-Site Data 563

12-7 Distributed Database Transparency Features 564

12-8 Distribution Transparency 565

12-9 Transaction Transparency 568

12-9a Distributed Requests and Distributed Transactions 568

12-9b Distributed Concurrency Control 571

12-9c Two-Phase Commit Protocol 571

12-10 Performance and Failure Transparency 573

12-11 Distributed Database Design 575

12-11a Data Fragmentation 575

12-11b Data Replication 578

12-11c Data Allocation 580

12-12 The CAP Theorem 581

12-13 C. J. Date’s 12 Commandments for Distributed Databases 583

Summary 584 • Key Terms 585 • Review Questions 585 • Problems 586

Chapter 13: Business Intelligence and Data Warehouses 589

13-1 The Need for Data Analysis 590

13-2 Business Intelligence 590

13-2a Business Intelligence Architecture 592

13-2b Business Intelligence Benefits 598

13-2c Business Intelligence Evolution 598

13-2d Business Intelligence Technology Trends 601

13-3 Decision Support Data 602

13-3a Operational Data Versus Decision Support Data 602

13-3b Decision Support Database Requirements 605

13-4 The Data Warehouse 607

13-4a Data Marts 610

13-4b Twelve Rules That Define a Data Warehouse 610

13-5 Star Schemas 610

13-5a Facts 611

13-5b Dimensions 611

13-5c Attributes 612

13-5d Attribute Hierarchies 614

13-5e Star Schema Representation 616

13-5f Performance-Improving Techniques for the Star Schema 617

13-6 Online Analytical Processing 621

13-6a Multidimensional Data Analysis Techniques 621

13-6b Advanced Database Support 623

13-6c Easy-to-Use End-User Interfaces 623

13-6d OLAP Architecture 623

13-6e Relational OLAP 626

13-6f Multidimensional OLAP 628

13-6g Relational versus Multidimensional OLAP 628

13-7 SQL Extensions for OLAP 629

13-7a The ROLLUP Extension 630

13-7b The CUBE Extension 631

13-7c Materialized Views 633

Summary 636 • Key Terms 637 • Review Questions 637 • Problems 639

Chapter 14: Big Data Analytics and NoSQL 648

14-1 Big Data 649

14-1a Volume 651

14-1b Velocity 652

14-1c Variety 653

14-1d Other Characteristics 654

14-2 Hadoop 655

14-2a HDFS 655

14-2b MapReduce 658

14-2c Hadoop Ecosystem 660

14-3 NoSQL 662

14-3a Key-Value Databases 663

14-3b Document Databases 664

14-3c Column-Oriented Databases 665

14-3d Graph Databases 668

14-3e NewSQL Databases 669

14-4 Data Analytics 670

14-4a Data Mining 671

14-4b Predictive Analytics 673

Summary 675 • Key Terms 676 • Review Questions 677

Part 5: Databases and the Internet 679

Chapter 15: Database Connectivity and Web Technologies 680

15-1 Database Connectivity 681

15-1a Native SQL Connectivity 682

15-1b ODBC, DAO, and RDO 683

15-1c OLE-DB 685

15-1d ADO.NET 687

15-1e Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) 691

15-2 Database Internet Connectivity 692

15-2a Web-to-Database Middleware: Server-Side Extensions 693

15-2b Web Server Interfaces 695

15-2c The Web Browser 696

15-2d Client-Side Extensions 697

15-2e Web Application Servers 698

15-2f Web Database Development 699

15-3 Extensible Markup Language (XML) 702

15-3a Document Type Definitions (DTD) and XML Schemas 704

15-3b XML Presentation 706

15-3c XML Applications 708

15-4 Cloud Computing Services 709

15-4a Cloud Implementation Types 712

15-4b Characteristics of Cloud Services 712

15-4c Types of Cloud Services 713

15-4d Cloud Services: Advantages and Disadvantages 714

15-4e SQL Data Services 716

Summary 717 • Key Terms 718 • Review Questions 718 • Problems 719

Part 6: Database Administration 721

Chapter 16: Database Administration and Security 722

16-1 Data as a Corporate Asset 723

16-2 The Need for a Database and its Role in an Organization 724

16-3 Introduction of a Database: Special Considerations 726

16-4 The Evolution of Database Administration 727

16-5 The Database Environment’s Human Component 731

16-5a The DBA’s Managerial Role 733

16-5b The DBA’s Technical Role 738

16-6 Security 745

16-6a Security Policies 746

16-6b Security Vulnerabilities 746

16-6c Database Security 748

16-7 Database Administration Tools 749

16-7a The Data Dictionary 750

16-7b Case Tools 752

16-8 Developing a Data Administration Strategy 755

16-9 The DBA’s Role in the Cloud 756

16-10 The DBA at Work: Using Oracle for Database Administration 757

16-10a Oracle Database Administration Tools 758

16-10b Ensuring that the RDBMS Starts Automatically 758

16-10c Creating Tablespaces and Datafiles 760

16-10d Managing Users and Establishing Security 762

16-10e Customizing the Database Initialization Parameters 763

Summary 765 • Key Terms 766 • Review Questions 767

Glossary 769

Index 783

The following appendixes are included on the Instructor and Student Companion Sites at www.cengagebrain.com.

Appendix A1: Designing Databases with Visio Professional 2010: A Tutorial

Appendix A2: Designing Databases with Visio 2013: A Tutorial

Appendix B: The University Lab: Conceptual Design

Appendix C: The University Lab: Conceptual Design Verification, Logical Design, and Implementation

Appendix D: Converting an ER Model into a Database Structure

Appendix E: Comparison of ER Model Notations

Appendix F: Client/Server Systems

Appendix G: Object-Oriented Databases

Appendix H: Unified Modeling Language (UML)

Appendix I: Databases in Electronic Commerce

Appendix J: Web Database Development with ColdFusion

Appendix K: The Hierarchical Database Model

Appendix L: The Network Database Model

Appendix M: MS Access Tutorial

Appendix N: Creating a New Database Using Oracle 12c

Appendix O: Data Warehouse Implementation Factors

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