Financial Markets and Institutions, 9th Edition PDF by Frederic S. Mishkin and Stanley G. Eakins

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Financial Markets and Institutions, Ninth Edition

By Frederic S. Mishkin and Stanley G. Eakins

Financial Markets and Institutions 9th Edition

Contents in Detail:

Contents on the Web 27

Preface 31

About the Authors 39

PART ONE INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1 Why Study Financial Markets and Institutions? 41

PREVIEW 41

Why Study Financial Markets? 42

Debt Markets and Interest Rates 42

The Stock Market 43

The Foreign Exchange Market 44

Why Study Financial Institutions? 46

Structure of the Financial System 46

Financial Crises 46

Central Banks and the Conduct of Monetary Policy 47

The International Financial System 47

Banks and Other Financial Institutions 47

Financial Innovation 47

Managing Risk in Financial Institutions 48

Applied Managerial Perspective 48

How We Will Study Financial Markets and Institutions 49

Exploring the Web 49

Collecting and Graphing Data 50

Web Exercise 50

Concluding Remarks 52

SUMMARY 52

KEY TERMS 53

QUESTIONS 53

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 54

WEB EXERCISES 54

Chapter 2 Overview of the Financial System 55

PREVIEW 55

Function of Financial Markets 56

Structure of Financial Markets 58

Debt and Equity Markets 58

Primary and Secondary Markets 58

Exchanges and Over-the-Counter Markets 59

Money and Capital Markets 60

Internationalization of Financial Markets 60

International Bond Market, Eurobonds, and Eurocurrencies 60

GLOBAL Are U.S. Capital Markets Losing Their Edge? 61

World Stock Markets 62

Function of Financial Intermediaries: Indirect Finance 62

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Foreign Stock Market Indexes 63

GLOBAL The Importance of Financial Intermediaries Relative

to Securities Markets: An International Comparison 63

Transaction Costs 63

Risk Sharing 64

Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard 65

Economies of Scope and Conflicts of Interest 66

Types of Financial Intermediaries 67

Depository Institutions 67

Contractual Savings Institutions 68

Investment Intermediaries 70

Regulation of the Financial System 71

Increasing Information Available to Investors 72

Ensuring the Soundness of Financial Intermediaries 72

Financial Regulation Abroad 73

SUMMARY 74

KEY TERMS 75

QUESTIONS 75

WEB EXERCISES 76

PART TWO FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL MARKETS

Chapter 3 What Do Interest Rates Mean and What Is Their

Role in Valuation? 77

PREVIEW 77

Measuring Interest Rates 78

Present Value 78

Four Types of Credit Market Instruments 80

Yield to Maturity 81

GLOBAL Negative Interest Rates? Japan First, Then the United States, Then Europe 87

The Distinction Between Real and Nominal Interest Rates 88

MINI-CASE With TIPS, Real Interest Rates Have Become

Observable in the United States 91

The Distinction Between Interest Rates and Returns 91

Maturity and the Volatility of Bond Returns: Interest-Rate Risk 94

MINI-CASE Helping Investors Select Desired Interest-Rate Risk 95

Reinvestment Risk 95

Summary 96

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Calculating Duration to Measure Interest-Rate Risk 96

Calculating Duration 97

Duration and Interest-Rate Risk 101

SUMMARY 102

KEY TERMS 103

QUESTIONS 103

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 103

WEB EXERCISES 105

Chapter 4 Why Do Interest Rates Change? 106

PREVIEW 106

Determinants of Asset Demand 107

Wealth 107

Expected Returns 107

Risk 108

Liquidity 110

Theory of Portfolio Choice 110

Supply and Demand in the Bond Market 110

Demand Curve 111

Supply Curve 112

Market Equilibrium 113

Supply-and-Demand Analysis 114

Changes in Equilibrium Interest Rates 114

Shifts in the Demand for Bonds 115

Shifts in the Supply of Bonds 118

CASE Changes in the Interest Rate Due to Expected Inflation: The Fisher Effect 120

CASE Changes in the Interest Rate Due to a Business Cycle Expansion 122

CASE Explaining the Current Low Interest Rates in Europe, Japan,

and the United States 123

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Profiting from Interest-Rate Forecasts 124

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Forecasting Interest Rates 126

SUMMARY 126

KEY TERMS 126

QUESTIONS 126

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 127

WEB EXERCISES 128

WEB APPENDICES 128

Chapter 5 How Do Risk and Term Structure Affect Interest Rates? 129

PREVIEW 129

Risk Structure of Interest Rates 130

Default Risk 130

Liquidity 133

CASE The Global Financial Crisis and the Baa-Treasury Spread 133

Income Tax Considerations 134

Summary 135

CASE Effects of the Bush Tax Cut and the Obama Tax

Increase on Bond Interest Rates 136

Term Structure of Interest Rates 137

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Yield Curves 138

Expectations Theory 139

Market Segmentation Theory 143

Liquidity Premium Theory 144

Evidence on the Term Structure 147

Summary 148

MINI-CASE The Yield Curve as a Forecasting Tool for Inflation

and the Business Cycle 149

CASE Interpreting Yield Curves, 1980–2016 149

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Using the Term Structure to Forecast Interest Rates 150

SUMMARY 153

KEY TERMS 154

QUESTIONS 154

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 155

WEB EXERCISES 156

Chapter 6 Are Financial Markets Efficient? 157

PREVIEW 157

The Efficient Market Hypothesis 158

Rationale Behind the Hypothesis 160

Evidence on the Efficient Market Hypothesis 161

Evidence in Favor of Market Efficiency 161

MINI-CASE An Exception That Proves the Rule: Raj Rajaratnam and Galleon 162

CASE Should Foreign Exchange Rates Follow a Random Walk? 164

Evidence Against Market Efficiency 165

Overview of the Evidence on the Efficient Market Hypothesis 167

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Practical Guide to Investing in the Stock Market 167

How Valuable Are Published Reports by Investment Advisers? 167

MINI-CASE Should You Hire an Ape as Your Investment Adviser? 168

Should You Be Skeptical of Hot Tips? 168

Do Stock Prices Always Rise When There Is Good News? 169

Efficient Markets Prescription for the Investor 169

Why the Efficient Market Hypothesis Does Not Imply

That Financial Markets Are Efficient 170

CASE What Do Stock Market Crashes Tell Us About the

Efficient Market Hypothesis? 171

Behavioral Finance 171

SUMMARY 172

KEY TERMS 173

QUESTIONS 173

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 174

WEB EXERCISES 174

PART THREE FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Chapter 7 Why Do Financial Institutions Exist? 175

PREVIEW 175

Basic Facts About Financial Structure Throughout The World 176

Transaction Costs 179

How Transaction Costs Influence Financial Structure 179

How Financial Intermediaries Reduce Transaction Costs 179

Asymmetric Information: Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard 180

The Lemons Problem: How Adverse Selection Influences

Financial Structure 181

Lemons in the Stock and Bond Markets 182

Tools to Help Solve Adverse Selection Problems 182

MINI-CASE The Enron Implosion 184

How Moral Hazard Affects the Choice Between Debt and

Equity Contracts 187

Moral Hazard in Equity Contracts: The Principal–Agent Problem 187

Tools to Help Solve the Principal–Agent Problem 188

How Moral Hazard Influences Financial Structure in Debt Markets 190

Tools to Help Solve Moral Hazard in Debt Contracts 190

Summary 192

CASE Financial Development and Economic Growth 194

MINI-CASE The Tyranny of Collateral 195

CASE Is China a Counter-Example to the Importance

of Financial Development? 196

Conflicts of Interest 197

What Are Conflicts of Interest and Why Do We Care? 197

Why Do Conflicts of Interest Arise? 197

MINI-CASE The Demise of Arthur Andersen 199

MINI-CASE Credit-Rating Agencies and the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis 200

What Has Been Done to Remedy Conflicts of Interest? 200

MINI-CASE Has Sarbanes-Oxley Led to a Decline

in U.S. Capital Markets? 202

SUMMARY 202

KEY TERMS 203

QUESTIONS 203

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 204

WEB EXERCISES 205

Chapter 8 Why Do Financial Crises Occur and Why Are

They So Damaging to the Economy? 206

PREVIEW 206

What Is a Financial Crisis? 207

Agency Theory and the Definition of a Financial Crisis 207

Dynamics of Financial Crises 207

Stage One: Initial Phase 207

Stage Two: Banking Crisis 210

Stage Three: Debt Deflation 211

CASE The Mother of All Financial Crises: The Great Depression 211

Stock Market Crash 211

Bank Panics 211

Continuing Decline in Stock Prices 212

Debt Deflation 213

International Dimensions 213

CASE The Global Financial Crisis of 2007–2009 214

Causes of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis 214

MINI-CASE Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs) 215

Effects of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis 216

INSIDE THE FED Was the Fed to Blame for the Housing Price Bubble? 217

GLOBAL The European Sovereign Debt Crisis 220

Height of the 2007–2009 Financial Crisis 221

SUMMARY 222

KEY TERMS 223

QUESTIONS 223

WEB EXERCISES 223

WEB REFERENCES 224

PART FOUR CENTRAL BANKING AND THE CONDUCT OF MONETARY POLICY

Chapter 9 Central Banks 225

PREVIEW 225

Origins of the Central Banking System 226

GLOBAL Who Should Own Central Banks? 226

Variations in the Functions and Structures of Central Banks 227

The European Central Bank, the Euro System,

and the European System of Central Banks 228

Decision-Making Bodies of the ECB 230

How Monetary Policy is Conducted within the ECB 231

GLOBAL The Importance of the Bundesbank within the ECB 232

GLOBAL Are Non-Euro Central Banks Constrained by

Membership of the EU? 233

The Federal Reserve System 234

Difference between the ECB and the Fed 234

The Bank of England 235

GLOBAL Brexit and the BoE 236

Structure of Central Banks of Larger Economies 236

The Bank of Canada 237

The Bank of Japan 238

The People’s Bank of China 238

Structure and Independence of Central Banks of

Emerging Market Economies 239

Central Banks and Independence 240

The Case for Independence 240

The Case Against Independence 240

The Trend Toward Greater Independence 241

SUMMARY 241

KEY TERMS 242

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 242

WEB EXERCISES 243

Chapter 10 Conduct of Monetary Policy 244

PREVIEW 244

How Fed Actions Affect Reserves in the Banking System 245

Open Market Operations 245

Discount Lending 246

The Market for Reserves and the Federal Funds Rate 247

Demand and Supply in the Market for Reserves 247

How Changes in the Tools of Monetary Policy Affect the Federal Funds Rate 249

CASE How the Federal Reserve’s Operating Procedures Limit

Fluctuations in the Federal Funds Rate 253

Conventional Monetary Policy Tools 254

Open Market Operations 254

INSIDE THE FED A Day at the Trading Desk 255

Discount Policy and the Lender of Last Resort 255

Reserve Requirements 258

Interest on Reserves 258

Nonconventional Monetary Policy Tools and Quantitative Easing 258

Liquidity Provision 259

INSIDE THE FED Fed Lending Facilities During the Global Financial Crisis 260

Large-Scale Asset Purchases 261

Quantitative Easing Versus Credit Easing 261

Forward Guidance 263

Negative Interest Rates on Banks’ Deposits 264

Monetary Policy Tools of the European Central Bank 265

Open Market Operations 265

Lending to Banks 265

Interest on Reserves 266

Reserve Requirements 266

The Price Stability Goal and the Nominal Anchor 266

The Role of a Nominal Anchor 267

The Time-Inconsistency Problem 267

Other Goals of Monetary Policy 268

High Employment and Output Stability 268

Economic Growth 269

Stability of Financial Markets 269

Interest-Rate Stability 269

Stability in Foreign Exchange Markets 270

Should Price Stability Be the Primary Goal of Monetary Policy? 270

Hierarchical vs. Dual Mandates 270

Price Stability as the Primary, Long-Run Goal of Monetary Policy 271

GLOBAL The European Central Bank’s Monetary Policy Strategy 272

Inflation Targeting 272

Advantages of Inflation Targeting 272

INSIDE THE FED Ben Bernanke and the Federal Reserve’s

Adoption of Inflation Targeting 273

Disadvantages of Inflation Targeting 274

Should Central Banks Respond to Asset-Price Bubbles?

Lessons from the Global Financial Crisis 275

Two Types of Asset-Price Bubbles 276

The Debate over Whether Central Banks Should Try to Pop Bubbles 277

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Using a Fed Watcher 279

SUMMARY 280

KEY TERMS 281

QUESTIONS 282

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 283

WEB EXERCISES 283

PART FIVE FINANCIAL MARKETS

Chapter 11 The Money Markets 285

PREVIEW 285

The Money Markets Defined 286

Why Do We Need the Money Markets? 286

Money Market Cost Advantages 287

The Purpose of the Money Markets 288

Who Participates in the Money Markets? 289

U.S. Treasury Department 289

Federal Reserve System 289

Commercial Banks 290

Businesses 290

Investment and Securities Firms 291

Individuals 291

Money Market Instruments 292

Treasury Bills 292

CASE Discounting the Price of Treasury Securities to Pay the Interest 292

MINI-CASE Treasury Bill Auctions Go Haywire 295

Federal Funds 296

Repurchase Agreements 297

Negotiable Certificates of Deposit 298

Commercial Paper 299

Banker’s Acceptances 301

Eurodollars 302

GLOBAL Ironic Birth of the Eurodollar Market 302

Comparing Money Market Securities 303

Interest Rates 303

Liquidity 304

How Money Market Securities Are Valued 305

SUMMARY 306

KEY TERMS 306

QUESTIONS 306

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 307

WEB EXERCISES 307

Chapter 12 The Bond Market 308

PREVIEW 308

Purpose of the Capital Market 309

Capital Market Participants 309

Capital Market Trading 310

Types of Bonds 310

Treasury Notes and Bonds 310

Treasury Bond Interest Rates 311

Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) 313

Treasury STRIPS 313

Agency Bonds 313

CASE The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis and the Bailout of Fannie

Mae and Freddie Mac 314

Municipal Bonds 315

Risk in the Municipal Bond Market 317

Corporate Bonds 317

Characteristics of Corporate Bonds 318

Types of Corporate Bonds 320

Financial Guarantees for Bonds 323

Oversight of the Bond Markets 324

Current Yield Calculation 324

Current Yield 325

Finding the Value of Coupon Bonds 326

Finding the Price of Semiannual Bonds 327

Investing in Bonds 329

SUMMARY 330

KEY TERMS 331

QUESTIONS 331

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 331

WEB EXERCISE 332

Chapter 13 The Stock Market 333

PREVIEW 333

Investing in Stocks 334

Common Stock vs. Preferred Stock 334

How Stocks Are Sold 335

Computing the Price of Common Stock 339

The One-Period Valuation Model 339

The Generalized Dividend Valuation Model 340

The Gordon Growth Model 341

Price Earnings Valuation Method 342

How the Market Sets Security Prices 343

Errors in Valuation 344

Problems with Estimating Growth 344

Problems with Estimating Risk 345

Problems with Forecasting Dividends 345

CASE The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis and the Stock Market 346

CASE The September 11 Terrorist Attack, the Enron Scandal, and the Stock Market 346

Stock Market Indexes 347

MINI-CASE History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average 347

Buying Foreign Stocks 350

Regulation of the Stock Market 350

The Securities and Exchange Commission 350

SUMMARY 351

KEY TERMS 352

QUESTIONS 352

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 352

WEB EXERCISES 353

Chapter 14 The Mortgage Markets 354

PREVIEW 354

What Are Mortgages? 355

Characteristics of the Residential Mortgage 356

Mortgage Interest Rates 356

CASE The Discount Point Decision 357

Loan Terms 359

Mortgage Loan Amortization 360

Types of Mortgage Loans 361

Insured and Conventional Mortgages 361

Fixed- and Adjustable-Rate Mortgages 362

Other Types of Mortgages 362

Mortgage-Lending Institutions 364

Loan Servicing 365

E-FINANCE Borrowers Shop the Web for Mortgages 366

Secondary Mortgage Market 366

Securitization of Mortgages 367

What Is a Mortgage-Backed Security? 367

Types of Pass-Through Securities 369

Subprime Mortgages and CDOs 370

The Real Estate Bubble 371

SUMMARY 372

KEY TERMS 372

QUESTIONS 372

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 373

WEB EXERCISES 374

Chapter 15 The Foreign Exchange Market 375

PREVIEW 375

Foreign Exchange Market 376

What Are Foreign Exchange Rates? 377

Why Are Exchange Rates Important? 377

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Foreign Exchange Rates 377

How Is Foreign Exchange Traded? 378

Exchange Rates in the Long Run 378

Law of One Price 379

Theory of Purchasing Power Parity 379

Why the Theory of Purchasing Power Parity Cannot

Fully Explain Exchange Rates 381

Factors That Affect Exchange Rates in the Long Run 381

Exchange Rates in the Short Run: A Supply and Demand Analysis 383

Supply Curve for Domestic Assets 383

Demand Curve for Domestic Assets 384

Equilibrium in the Foreign Exchange Market 385

Explaining Changes in Exchange Rates 385

Shifts in the Demand for Domestic Assets 385

Recap: Factors That Change the Exchange Rate 388

CASE Effect of Changes in Interest Rates on

the Equilibrium Exchange Rate 390

CASE Why Are Exchange Rates So Volatile? 392

CASE The Dollar and Interest Rates 392

CASE The Global Financial Crisis and the Dollar 394

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Profiting from Foreign Exchange Forecasts 395

SUMMARY 396

KEY TERMS 396

QUESTIONS 396

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 397

WEB EXERCISES 398

Chapter 15 Appendix The Interest Parity Condition 399

Comparing Expected Returns on Domestic and Foreign Assets 399

Interest Parity Condition 401

Chapter 16 The International Financial System 403

PREVIEW 403

Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market 404

Foreign Exchange Intervention and Reserves in the Banking System 404

INSIDE THE FED A Day at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York’s

Foreign Exchange Desk 405

Unsterilized Intervention 406

Sterilized Intervention 406

Balance of Payments 408

GLOBAL Why the Large U.S. Current Account Deficit Worries Economists 409

Exchange Rate Regimes in the International Financial System 409

Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes 409

How a Fixed Exchange Rate Regime Works 410

The Policy Trilemma 412

Monetary Unions 413

GLOBAL Will the Euro Survive? 414

Currency Boards and Dollarization 414

Speculative Attacks 414

GLOBAL Argentina’s Currency Board 415

Managed Float 415

GLOBAL Dollarization 416

CASE The Foreign Exchange Crisis of September 1992 416

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Profiting from a Foreign Exchange Crisis 418

CASE How Did China Accumulate over $3 Trillion of International Reserves? 419

Capital Controls 420

Controls on Capital Outflows 420

Controls on Capital Inflows 420

The Role of the IMF 421

Should the IMF Be an International Lender of Last Resort? 421

SUMMARY 422

KEY TERMS 422

QUESTIONS 423

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 424

WEB EXERCISE 424

PART SIX THE FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS INDUSTRY

Chapter 17 Banking and the Management of Financial

Institutions 425

PREVIEW 425

The Bank Balance Sheet 426

Liabilities 426

Assets 428

Basic Banking 429

General Principles of Bank Management 432

Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves 432

Asset Management 435

Liability Management 436

Capital Adequacy Management 437

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Strategies for Managing Bank Capital 439

CASE How a Capital Crunch Caused a Credit Crunch During the

Global Financial Crisis 440

Off-Balance-Sheet Activities 440

Loan Sales 441

Generation of Fee Income 441

Trading Activities and Risk Management Techniques 441

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Barings, Daiwa, Sumitomo, Société Générale, and

J.P. Morgan Chase: Rogue Traders and the Principal–Agent Problem 442

Measuring Bank Performance 443

Bank’s Income Statement 444

Measures of Bank Performance 446

Recent Trends in Bank Performance Measures 446

SUMMARY 448

KEY TERMS 449

QUESTIONS 449

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 449

WEB EXERCISES 450

Chapter 18 Financial Regulation 451

PREVIEW 451

Asymmetric Information as a Rationale for Financial Regulation 452

Government Safety Net 452

GLOBAL The Spread of Government Deposit Insurance

Throughout the World: Is This a Good Thing? 454

Types of Financial Regulation 457

Restrictions on Asset Holdings 457

Capital Requirements 458

Prompt Corrective Action 459

Financial Supervision: Chartering and Examination 459

GLOBAL Where Is the Basel Accord Heading After the Global Financial Crisis? 460

Assessment of Risk Management 461

Disclosure Requirements 462

Consumer Protection 463

MINI-CASE Mark-to-Market Accounting and the Global Financial Crisis 464

Restrictions on Competition 464

MINI-CASE The Global Financial Crisis and Consumer

Protection Regulation 465

Macroprudential Versus Microprudential Supervision 466

E-FINANCE Electronic Banking: New Challenges for Bank Regulation 466

Summary 467

GLOBAL International Financial Regulation 468

Banking Crises Throughout the World in Recent Years 471

“Déjà Vu All Over Again” 471

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer

Protection Act of 2010 473

Dodd-Frank 473

Too-Big-to-Fail and Future Regulation 474

What Can Be Done About the Too-Big-to-Fail Problem? 474

Other Issues for Future Regulation 475

SUMMARY 476

KEY TERMS 477

QUESTIONS 477

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 477

WEB EXERCISES 478

WEB APPENDIX 478

Chapter 19 Banking Industry: Structure and Competition 479

PREVIEW 479

Historical Development of the Banking System 480

Multiple Regulatory Agencies 482

Financial Innovation and the Growth of the Shadow Banking System 482

Responses to Changes in Demand Conditions: Interest Rate Volatility 483

Responses to Changes in Supply Conditions: Information Technology 484

E-FINANCE Will “Clicks” Dominate “Bricks” in the Banking Industry? 486

E-FINANCE Why Are Scandinavians So Far Ahead of Americans

in Using Electronic Payments and Online Banking? 487

E-FINANCE Are We Headed for a Cashless Society? 488

Securitization and the Shadow Banking System 489

Avoidance of Existing Regulations 491

MINI-CASE Bruce Bent and the Money Market Mutual Fund Panic of 2008 493

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Profiting from a New Financial Product:

A Case Study of Treasury Strips 493

Financial Innovation and the Decline of Traditional Banking 495

Structure of the U.S. Banking Industry 498

Restrictions on Branching 499

Response to Branching Restrictions 500

Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking 501

E-FINANCE Information Technology and Bank Consolidation 503

The Riegle-Neal Interstate Banking and Branching Efficiency Act of 1994 503

What Will the Structure of the U.S. Banking Industry Look Like in the Future? 504

Are Bank Consolidation and Nationwide Banking Good Things? 504

Separation of the Banking and Other Financial Service Industries 505

Erosion of Glass-Steagall 505

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999:

Repeal of Glass-Steagall 506

Implications for Financial Consolidation 506

MINI-CASE The Global Financial Crisis and the Demise of Large, Free-Standing

Investment Banks 507

Separation of Banking and Other Financial Services Industries

Throughout the World 507

Thrift Industry 508

Savings and Loan Associations 508

Mutual Savings Banks 508

Credit Unions 509

International Banking 509

Eurodollar Market 510

Structure of U.S. Banking Overseas 510

Foreign Banks in the United States 511

SUMMARY 512

KEY TERMS 513

QUESTIONS 513

WEB EXERCISES 514

Chapter 20 The Mutual Fund Industry 515

PREVIEW 515

The Growth of Mutual Funds 516

The First Mutual Funds 516

Benefits of Mutual Funds 516

Ownership of Mutual Funds 517

Mutual Fund Structure 520

Open- Versus Closed-End Funds 520

CASE Calculating a Mutual Fund’s Net Asset Value 521

Organizational Structure 522

Investment Objective Classes 522

Equity Funds 522

Bond Funds 524

Hybrid Funds 525

Money Market Funds 525

Index Funds 527

Fee Structure of Investment Funds 528

Regulation of Mutual Funds 529

Hedge Funds 530

MINI-CASE The Long Term Capital Debacle 532

Conflicts of Interest in the Mutual Fund Industry 533

Sources of Conflicts of Interest 533

Mutual Fund Abuses 533

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Many Mutual Funds Are Caught Ignoring

Ethical Standards 534

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST SEC Survey Reports Mutual Fund Abuses Widespread 535

Government Response to Abuses 536

SUMMARY 537

KEY TERMS 537

QUESTIONS 537

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 538

WEB EXERCISES 539

Chapter 21 Insurance Companies and Pension Funds 540

PREVIEW 540

Insurance Companies 541

Fundamentals of Insurance 541

Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard in Insurance 542

Selling Insurance 543

MINI-CASE Insurance Agent: The Customer’s Ally 543

Growth and Organization of Insurance Companies 544

Types of Insurance 544

Life Insurance 545

Health Insurance 549

Property and Casualty Insurance 551

Insurance Regulation 552

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Insurance Management 553

Screening 553

Risk-Based Premium 554

Restrictive Provisions 554

Prevention of Fraud 554

Cancellation of Insurance 555

Deductibles 555

Coinsurance 555

Limits on the Amount of Insurance 555

Summary 556

Credit Default Swaps 556

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The AIG Blowup 557

Pensions 557

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The Subprime Financial Crisis and

the Monoline Insurers 558

Types of Pensions 558

Defined-Benefit Pension Plans 558

Defined-Contribution Pension Plans 559

Private and Public Pension Plans 560

MINI-CASE Power to the Pensions 560

Regulation of Pension Plans 564

Employee Retirement Income Security Act 564

Individual Retirement Plans 566

The Future of Pension Funds 566

SUMMARY 567

KEY TERMS 567

QUESTIONS 567

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 568

WEB EXERCISES 569

Chapter 22 Investment Banks, Security Brokers and

Dealers, and Venture Capital Firms 570

PREVIEW 570

Investment Banks 571

Background 571

Underwriting Stocks and Bonds 572

Equity Sales 576

Mergers and Acquisitions 577

Securities Brokers and Dealers 578

Brokerage Services 579

Securities Dealers 581

MINI-CASE Example of Using the Limit-Order Book 582

Regulation of Securities Firms 582

Relationship Between Securities Firms and Commercial Banks 584

Private Equity Investment 584

Venture Capital Firms 584

E-FINANCE Venture Capitalists Lose Focus with Internet Companies 589

Private Equity Buyouts 589

Advantages to Private Equity Buyouts 589

Life Cycle of the Private Equity Buyout 590

SUMMARY 590

KEY TERMS 591

QUESTIONS 591

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 592

WEB EXERCISES 593

PART SEVEN THE MANAGEMENT OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

Chapter 23 Risk Management in Financial Institutions 594

PREVIEW 594

Managing Credit Risk 595

Screening and Monitoring 595

Long-Term Customer Relationships 596

Loan Commitments 597

Collateral 597

Compensating Balances 598

Credit Rationing 598

Managing Interest-Rate Risk 599

Income Gap Analysis 600

Duration Gap Analysis 602

Example of a Nonbanking Financial Institution 607

Some Problems with Income Gap and Duration Gap Analyses 609

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Strategies for Managing Interest-Rate Risk 610

SUMMARY 611

KEY TERMS 611

QUESTIONS 611

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 612

WEB EXERCISES 614

Chapter 24 Hedging with Financial Derivatives 615

PREVIEW 615

Hedging 616

Forward Markets 616

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging Interest-Rate Risk

with Forward Contracts 616

Interest-Rate Forward Contracts 616

Pros and Cons of Forward Contracts 617

Financial Futures Markets 618

Financial Futures Contracts 618

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Financial Futures 619

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging with Financial Futures 620

Organization of Trading in Financial Futures Markets 622

Globalization of Financial Futures Markets 622

Explaining the Success of Futures Markets 623

MINI-CASE The Hunt Brothers and the Silver Crash 625

Detail

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk with

Forward and Futures Contracts 626

Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk with Forward Contracts 626

Hedging Foreign Exchange Risk with Futures Contracts 627

Stock Index Futures 627

Stock Index Futures Contracts 628

FOLLOWING THE FINANCIAL NEWS Stock Index Futures 628

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging with Stock Index Futures 629

Options 630

Option Contracts 630

Profits and Losses on Option and Futures Contracts 631

Factors Affecting the Prices of Option Premiums 634

Summary 635

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging with Futures Options 635

Interest-Rate Swaps 637

Interest-Rate Swap Contracts 637

THE PRACTICING MANAGER Hedging with Interest-Rate Swaps 638

Advantages of Interest-Rate Swaps 639

Disadvantages of Interest-Rate Swaps 639

Financial Intermediaries in Interest-Rate Swaps 640

Credit Derivatives 640

Credit Options 641

Credit Swaps 641

Credit-Linked Notes 642

CASE Lessons from the Global Financial Crisis: When Are Financial

Derivatives Likely to Be a Worldwide Time Bomb? 642

SUMMARY 644

KEY TERMS 644

QUESTIONS 645

QUANTITATIVE PROBLEMS 645

WEB EXERCISE 647

WEB APPENDICES 647

Glossary 649

Index 667

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