General Chemistry, 11th Edition PDF by Darrell D. Ebbing and Steven D. Gammon

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General Chemistry, Eleventh Edition

By Darrell D. Ebbing and Steven D. Gammon

General Chemistry 11th Edition

Contents:

Essays xv

Preface xvi

A Note to Students xx

About the Authors xxi

1 Chemistry and Measurement 1

An Introduction to Chemistry 2

1.1 Modern Chemistry: A Brief Glimpse 3

1.2 Experiment and Explanation 4

A Chemist Looks at The Birth of the Post-it Note® 5

1.3 Law of Conservation of Mass 6

1.4 Matter: Physical State and Chemical Composition 8

Instrumental Methods Separation of Mixtures by

Chromatography 13

Physical Measurements 15

1.5 Measurement and Significant Figures 15

1.6 SI Units 18

1.7 Derived Units 21

1.8 Units and Dimensional Analysis (Factor-Label Method) 25

2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 31

Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure 32

2.1 Atomic Theory of Matter 33

2.2 The Structure of the Atom 35

2.3 Nuclear Structure; Isotopes 38

2.4 Atomic Weights 40

2.5 Periodic Table of the Elements 43

A Chemist Looks at The Discovery of New Elements 45

Chemical Substances: Formulas and Names 46

2.6 Chemical Formulas; Molecular and Ionic Substances 46

2.7 Organic Compounds 51

2.8 Naming Simple Compounds 52

Chemical Reactions: Equations 63

2.9 Writing Chemical Equations 63

2.10 Balancing Chemical Equations 64

3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas

and Equations 70

Mass and Moles of Substance 71

3.1 Molecular Weight and Formula Weight 71

3.2 The Mole Concept 73

Determining Chemical Formulas 78

3.3 Mass Percentages from the Formula 78

3.4 Elemental Analysis: Percentages of Carbon,

Hydrogen, and Oxygen 80

3.5 Determining Formulas 82

Instrumental Methods Mass Spectrometry and Molecular Formula 83

Stoichiometry: Quantitative Relations in Chemical Reactions 88

3.6 Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation 88

3.7 Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction 89

3.8 Limiting Reactant; Theoretical and Percentage Yields 93

4 Chemical Reactions 102

Ions in Aqueous Solution 103

4.1 Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules 103

4.2 Molecular and Ionic Equations 108

Types of Chemical Reactions 111

4.3 Precipitation Reactions 111

4.4 Acid–Base Reactions 114

4.5 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions 122

4.6 Balancing Simple Oxidation–Reduction Equations 129

Working with Solutions 131

4.7 Molar Concentration 131

4.8 Diluting Solutions 133

Quantitative Analysis 135

4.9 Gravimetric Analysis 135

4.10 Volumetric Analysis 137

5 The Gaseous State 143

Gas Laws 144

5.1 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement 144

5.2 Empirical Gas Laws 146

A Chemist Looks at Nitrogen Monoxide Gas and Biological Signaling 154

5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 155

5.4 Stoichiometry Problems Involving Gas Volumes 160

5.5 Gas Mixtures; Law of Partial Pressures 162

Kinetic-Molecular Theory 166

5.6 Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas 167

5.7 Molecular Speeds; Diffusion and Effusion 170

5.8 Real Gases 175

A Chemist Looks at Carbon Dioxide Gas and the Greenhouse Effect 178

6 Thermochemistry 182

Understanding Heats of Reaction 183

6.1 Energy and Its Units 184

6.2 First Law of Thermodynamics; Work and Heat 186

6.3 Heat of Reaction; Enthalpy of Reaction 190

6.4 Thermochemical Equations 194

6.5 Applying Stoichiometry to Heats of Reaction 196

A Chemist Looks at Lucifers and Other Matches 197

6.6 Measuring Heats of Reaction 198

Using Heats of Reaction 202

6.7 Hess’s Law 202

6.8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 206

6.9 Fuels—Foods, Commercial Fuels, and Rocket Fuels 210

7 Quantum Theory of the Atom 215

Light Waves, Photons, and the Bohr Theory 217

7.1 The Wave Nature of Light 217

7.2 Quantum Effects and Photons 219

7.3 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 222

A Chemist Looks at Lasers and CD and DVD Players 226

Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Numbers 228

7.4 Quantum Mechanics 228

7.5 Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals 231

Instrumental Methods Scanning Tunneling Microscopy 232

8 Electron Configurations and Periodicity 239

Electronic Structure of Atoms 240

8.1 Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle 240

Instrumental Methods Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) 242

8.2 Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table 245

8.3 Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table 249

Instrumental Methods X Rays, Atomic Numbers, and Orbital Structure (Photoelectron

Spectroscopy) 250

8.4 Orbital Diagrams of Atoms; Hund’s Rule 253

A Chemist Looks at Levitating Frogs and People 256

Periodicity of the Elements 256

8.5 Mendeleev’s Predictions from the Periodic Table 256

8.6 Some Periodic Properties 258

8.7 Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements 265

9 Ionic and Covalent Bonding 269

Ionic Bonds 270

9.1 Describing Ionic Bonds 270

A Chemist Looks at Ionic Liquids and Green Chemistry 275

9.2 Electron Configurations of Ions 276

9.3 Ionic Radii 279

Covalent Bonds 281

9.4 Describing Covalent Bonds 282

9.5 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity 284

A Chemist Looks at Chemical Bonds in Nitroglycerin 285

9.6 Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas 287

9.7 Delocalized Bonding: Resonance 291

9.8 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 293

9.9 Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas 296

9.10 Bond Length and Bond Order 299

9.11 Bond Enthalpy 301

Instrumental Methods Infrared Spectroscopy and Vibrations of Chemical Bonds 305

10 Molecular Geometry and

Chemical Bonding Theory 309

Molecular Geometry and Directional Bonding 311

10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model 311

A Chemist Looks at Left-Handed and Right-Handed Molecules 320

10.2 Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry 321

10.3 Valence Bond Theory 325

10.4 Description of Multiple Bonding 331

Molecular Orbital Theory 336

10.5 Principles of Molecular Orbital Theory 336

10.6 Electron Configurations of Diatomic Molecules of the

Second-Period Elements 339

10.7 Molecular Orbitals and Delocalized Bonding 342

A Chemist Looks at Human Vision 344

A Chemist Looks at Stratospheric Ozone (An Absorber of Ultraviolet Rays) 345

11 States of Matter; Liquids

and Solids 349

11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 350

Changes of State 351

11.2 Phase Transitions 351

11.3 Phase Diagrams 361

Liquid State 363

11.4 Properties of Liquids; Surface Tension and Viscosity 363

A Chemist Looks at Removing Caffeine from Coffee 364

11.5 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties 367

A Chemist Looks at Gecko Toes, Sticky But Not Tacky 375

Solid State 376

11.6 Classification of Solids by Type of Attraction of Units 376

11.7 Crystalline Solids; Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells 380

A Chemist Looks at Liquid-Crystal Displays 384

11.8 Structures of Some Crystalline Solids 385

11.9 Calculations Involving Unit-Cell Dimensions 390

11.10 Determining Crystal Structure by X-Ray Diffraction 393

Instrumental Methods Automated X-Ray Diffractometry 395

A Chemist Looks at Water (A Special Substance for Planet Earth) 396

12 Solutions 401

Solution Formation 402

12.1 Types of Solutions 402

12.2 Solubility and the Solution Process 404

A Chemist Looks at Hemoglobin Solubility and Sickle-Cell Anemia 409

12.3 Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Solubility 410

Colligative Properties 413

12.4 Ways of Expressing Concentration 413

12.5 Vapor Pressure of a Solution 420

12.6 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 423

12.7 Osmosis 427

12.8 Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutions 431

Colloid Formation 432

12.9 Colloids 432

A Chemist Looks at The World’s Smallest Test Tubes 437

13 Rates of Reaction 441

Reaction Rates 442

13.1 Definition of Reaction Rate 443

13.2 Experimental Determination of Rate 447

13.3 Dependence of Rate on Concentration 448

13.4 Change of Concentration with Time 454

13.5 Temperature and Rate; Collision and Transition-State Theories 462

13.6 Arrhenius Equation 466

Reaction Mechanisms 468

13.7 Elementary Reactions 468

13.8 The Rate Law and the Mechanism 472

13.9 Catalysis 478

A Chemist Looks at Seeing Molecules React 482

14 Chemical Equilibrium 486

Describing Chemical Equilibrium 487

14.1 Chemical Equilibrium—A Dynamic Equilibrium 487

14.2 The Equilibrium Constant 490

14.3 Heterogeneous Equilibria; Solvents in Homogeneous Equilibria 497

A Chemist Looks at Slime Molds and Leopards’ Spots 498

Using the Equilibrium Constant 500

14.4 Qualitatively Interpreting the Equilibrium Constant 500

14.5 Predicting the Direction of Reaction 501

14.6 Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations 503

Changing the Reaction Conditions; Le Châtelier’s Principle 507

14.7 Removing Products or Adding Reactants 508

14.8 Changing the Pressure and Temperature 510

14.9 Effect of a Catalyst 516

15 Acids and Bases 520

Acid–Base Concepts 521

15.1 Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases 521

15.2 Brønsted–Lowry Concept of Acids and Bases 522

15.3 Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases 525

A Chemist Looks at Taking Your Medicine 527

Acid and Base Strengths 528

15.4 Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases 528

15.5 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength 531

Autoionization of Water and pH 533

15.6 Autoionization of Water 534

15.7 Solutions of a Strong Acid or Base 534

15.8 The pH of a Solution 537

A Chemist Looks at Unclogging the Sink and Other Chores 541

16 Acid–Base Equilibria 543

Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base 544

16.1 Acid-Ionization Equilibria 544

16.2 Polyprotic Acids 551

A Chemist Looks at Acid Rain 554

16.3 Base-Ionization Equilibria 555

16.4 Acid–Base Properties of Salt Solutions 558

Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base with Another Solute 563

16.5 Common-Ion Effect 563

16.6 Buffers 566

16.7 Acid–Base Titration Curves 573

17 Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria 582

Solubility Equilibria 583

17.1 The Solubility Product Constant 583

17.2 Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect 588

17.3 Precipitation Calculations 590

17.4 Effect of pH on Solubility 594

A Chemist Looks at Limestone Caves 596

Complex-Ion Equilibria 597

17.5 Complex-Ion Formation 597

17.6 Complex Ions and Solubility 600

An Application of Solubility Equilibria 602

17.7 Qualitative Analysis of Metal Ions 602

18 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium 606

18.1 First Law of Thermodynamics: A Review 607

Spontaneous Processes and Entropy 608

18.2 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 609

18.3 Standard Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics 615

Free-Energy Concept 618

18.4 Free Energy and Spontaneity 619

18.5 Interpretation of Free Energy 623

A Chemist Looks at Coupling of Reactions 624

Free Energy and Equilibrium Constants 626

18.6 Relating ΔG 8 to the Equilibrium Constant 626

18.7 Change of Free Energy with Temperature 630

19 Electrochemistry 636

Half-Reactions 637

19.1 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Reactions in Acidic and Basic Solutions 637

Voltaic Cells 642

19.2 Construction of Voltaic Cells 642

19.3 Notation for Voltaic Cells 645

19.4 Cell Potential 647

19.5 Standard Cell Potentials and Standard Electrode Potentials 649

19.6 Equilibrium Constants from Cell Potentials 657

19.7 Dependence of Cell Potential on Concentration 660

19.8 Some Commercial Voltaic Cells 663

A Chemist Looks at Lithium-Ion Batteries 666

Electrolytic Cells 668

19.9 Electrolysis of Molten Salts 668

19.10 Aqueous Electrolysis 670

19.11 Stoichiometry of Electrolysis 675

20 Nuclear Chemistry 680

Radioactivity and Nuclear Bombardment Reactions 681

20.1 Radioactivity 681

A Chemist Looks at Magic Numbers 687

20.2 Nuclear Bombardment Reactions 692

20.3 Radiations and Matter: Detection and Biological Effects 696

20.4 Rate of Radioactive Decay 698

20.5 Applications of Radioactive Isotopes 705

A Chemist Looks at Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 709

Energy of Nuclear Reactions 710

20.6 Mass–Energy Calculations 710

20.7 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 714

21 Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements 720

21.1 General Observations About the Main-Group Elements 721

Chemistry of the Main-Group Metals 723

21.2 Metals: Characteristics and Production 724

21.3 Bonding in Metals 728

21.4 Group 1A: The Alkali Metals 730

A Chemist Looks at Superconductivity 731

21.5 Group 2A: The Alkaline Earth Metals 737

21.6 Group 3A and Group 4A Metals 742

Chemistry of the Nonmetals 747

21.7 Hydrogen 747

21.8 Group 4A: The Carbon Family 750

21.9 Group 5A: Nitrogen and the Phosphorus Family 755

A Chemist Looks at Buckminsterfullerene—

A Molecular Form of Carbon 756

21.10 Group 6A: Oxygen and the Sulfur Family 763

21.11 Group 7A: The Halogens 768

21.12 Group 8A: The Noble Gases 771

22 The Transition Elements and

Coordination Compounds 777

Properties of the Transition Elements 778

22.1 Periodic Trends in the Transition Elements 778

22.2 The Chemistry of Two Transition Elements 782

Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds 785

22.3 Formation and Structure of Complexes 785

22.4 Naming Coordination Compounds 789

A Chemist Looks at Salad Dressing and

Chelate Stability 790

22.5 Structure and Isomerism in Coordination Compounds 793

22.6 Valence Bond Theory of Complexes 800

22.7 Crystal Field Theory 801

A Chemist Looks at The Cooperative Release of Oxygen

from Oxyhemoglobin 808

23 Organic Chemistry 811

23.1 The Bonding of Carbon 812

Hydrocarbons 813

23.2 Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 813

23.3 Alkenes and Alkynes 820

23.4 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 824

23.5 Naming Hydrocarbons 827

Derivatives of Hydrocarbons 834

23.6 Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen 834

23.7 Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen 838

24 Polymer Materials: Synthetic and

Biological 841

Synthetic Polymers 842

24.1 Synthesis of Organic Polymers 843

A Chemist Looks at The Discovery of Nylon 845

24.2 Electrically Conducting Polymers 847

Biological Polymers 849

24.3 Proteins 849

24.4 Nucleic Acids 854

A Chemist Looks at Tobacco Mosaic Virus and Atomic Force Microscopy 862

Appendixes A-1

  1. Mathematical Skills A-1
  2. Vapor Pressure of Water at Various Temperatures A-7
  3. Thermodynamic Quantities for Substances and Ions at 25°C A-7
  4. Electron Configurations of Atoms in the Ground State A-12
  5. Acid-Ionization Constants at 25°C A-13
  6. Base-Ionization Constants at 25°C A-14
  7. Solubility Product Constants at 25°C A-15
  8. Formation Constants of Complex Ions at 25°C A-16
  9. Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials in Aqueous Solution at 25°C A-16

Answers to Exercises A-18

Answers to Concept Checks A-22

Answer Section Selected Odd Problems A-25

Glossary A-41

Index A-53

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