Living in the Environment, 19th Edition PDF by G. Tyler Miller and Scott E. Spoolman


Living in the Environment, Nineteenth Edition

By G. Tyler Miller and Scott E. Spoolman

Living in the Environment 19th Edition


Preface for Instructors xix

Learning Skills xxvii

Humans and Sustainability: An Overview

1 The Environment and Sustainability 2

Key Questions 3


Learning from the Earth 4

1.1 What Are Some Key Principles of Sustainability? 5

Individuals Matter Janine Benyus: Using Nature to Inspire Sustainable Design and Living 10

1.2 How Are Our Ecological Footprints Affecting the Earth? 10

1.3 What Causes Environmental Problems and Why Do They Persist? 15


The Rise of Environmental Conservation and Protection in the United States 20

Science Focus

Some Biomimicry Principles 21

1.4 What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society? 23

Individuals Matter Tuy Sereivathana: Elephant Protector 24


Learning from the Earth and

Sustainability 25

Chapter Review 25

Critical Thinking 26

Doing Environmental Science 27

Global Environment Watch Exercise 27

Ecological Footprint Analysis 27

Science, Ecological Principles, and Sustainability 2 Science, Matter, Energy, and Systems 28

Key Questions 29


How Do Scientists Learn about Nature?

Experimenting with a Forest 30

2.1 What Do Scientists Do? 31

Individuals Matter Jane Goodall: Chimpanzee Researcher and Protector 32

Science Focus

Revisions in a Popular Scientific

Hypothesis 33

2.2 What Is Matter and What Happens When It Undergoes Change? 34

2.3 What Is Energy and What Happens When It Undergoes Change? 39

2.4 What Are Systems and How Do They Respond to Change? 43


The Hubbard Brook Forest Experiment and Sustainability 45

Chapter Review 45

Critical Thinking 46

Doing Environmental Science 47

Global Environment Watch Exercise 47

Data Analysis 47

3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work? 48

Key Questions 49


Tropical Rain Forests Are Disappearing 50

3.1 How Does the Earth’s Life-Support System Work? 51

3.2 What Are the Major Components of an Ecosystem? 52

Science Focus

Many of the World’s Most Important Organisms Are Invisible to Us 55

3.3 What Happens to Energy in an Ecosystem? 59

3.4 What Happens to Matter in an Ecosystem? 62

Science Focus

Water’s Unique Properties 64

3.5 How Do Scientists Study Ecosystems? 68

Science Focus

Planetary Boundaries 69

Individuals Matter Thomas E. Lovejoy—Forest Researcher and Biodiversity Educator 70


Tropical Rain Forests and Sustainability 71

Chapter Review 71

Critical Thinking 72

Doing Environmental Science 73

Global Environment Watch Exercise 73

Data Analysis 73

4 Biodiversity and Evolution 74

Key Questions 75


Why Are Amphibians Vanishing? 76

4.1 What Are the Major Types of Life on Earth? 77

4.2 What Is Biodiversity and Why Is It Important? 79

Individuals Matter Edward O. Wilson: Champion of Biodiversity 81

4.3 What Roles Do Species Play in Ecosystems? 82


The American Alligator—A Keystone Species

That Almost Went Extinct 83

Science Focus

Causes of Amphibian Declines 84

4.4 How Does the Earth’s Life Change Over Time? 85

4.5 What Factors Affect Biodiversity? 89

Science Focus

Geological Processes Affect

Biodiversity 90

Science Focus

Synthetic Biology 92


The Threatened Monarch Butterfly 93


Amphibians and Sustainability 95

Chapter Review 95

Critical Thinking 96

Doing Environmental Science 97

Global Environment Watch Exercise 97

Data Analysis 97

5 Species Interactions, Ecological Succession, and Population Control 98

Key Questions 99


The Southern Sea Otter: A Species in

Recovery 100

5.1 How Do Species Interact? 101

Science Focus

Threats to Kelp Forests 103

5.2 How Do Communities and Ecosystems Respond to

Changing Environmental Conditions? 106

5.3 What Limits the Growth of Populations? 109


Exploding White-Tailed Deer Populations in the United States 112

Science Focus

The Future of California’s Southern Sea Otters 113


Southern Sea Otters and Sustainability 115

Chapter Review 115

Critical Thinking 116

Doing Environmental Science 116

Global Environment Watch Exercise 117

Data Analysis 117

6 The Human Population 118

Key Questions 119


Planet Earth: Population 7.3 Billion 120

6.1 How Many People Can the Earth Support? 121

Science Focus

How Long Can the Human Population

Keep Growing? 122

6.2 What Factors Influence the Size of the Human Population? 123

Science Focus Projecting Population Change 124


The U.S. Population—Third Largest

and Growing 124

6.3 How Does a Population’s Age Structure Affect Its Growth or Decline? 127

CASE STUDY The American Baby Boom 128

6.4 How Can We Slow Human Population Growth? 130


Population Growth in India 132


Slowing Population Growth in China 133


World Population Growth and Sustainability 135

Chapter Review 135

Critical Thinking 136

Doing Environmental Science 137

Global Environment Watch Exercise 137

Data Analysis 137

7 Climate and Biodiversity 138

Key Questions 139

CORE CASE STUDY African Savanna 140

7.1 What Factors Influence Weather? 141

7.2 What Factors Influence Climate? 144

7.3 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Location of Biomes? 148

Science Focus

Staying Alive in the Desert 152

Science Focus

Revisiting the Savanna: Elephants as a

Keystone Species 155


Tropical African Savanna and Sustainability 163

Chapter Review 163

Critical Thinking 164

Doing Environmental Science 165

Global Environment Watch Exercise 165

Data Analysis 165

8 Aquatic Biodiversity 166

Key Questions 167

CORE CASE STUDY Why Should We Care about

Coral Reefs? 168

8.1 What Is the General Nature of Aquatic Systems? 169

8.2 Why Are Marine Aquatic Systems Important? 170

CASE STUDY Revisiting Coral Reefs—Amazing Centers

of Biodiversity 173

Science Focus

We Are Still Learning about the Ocean’s

Biodiversity 176

8.3 How Have Human Activities Affected Marine

Ecosystems? 176


The Chesapeake Bay—An Estuary in Trouble 177

Individuals Matter Enric Sala: Working to Protect Ocean Ecosystems 178

8.4 Why Are Freshwater Ecosystems Important? 179

8.5 How Have Human Activities Affected Freshwater Ecosystems? 184


River Deltas and Coastal Wetlands—Vital Components of Natural Capital Now in Jeopardy 185

Individuals Matter Alexandra Cousteau: Environmental Advocate, Filmmaker, and National Geographic Explorer 186


Coral Reefs and Sustainability 187

Chapter Review 187

Critical Thinking 188

Doing Environmental Science 189

Global Environment Watch Exercise 189

Data Analysis 189

Sustaining Biodiversity

9 Sustaining Biodiversity: Saving Species and Ecosystem Services 190

Key Questions 191


Where Have All the Honeybees Gone? 192

9.1 What Role Do Humans Play in the Loss of Species and Ecosystem Services? 193

Science Focus Estimating Extinction Rates 194

9.2 Why Should We Try to Sustain Wild Species and the

Ecosystem Services They Provide? 196

9.3 How Do Humans Accelerate Species Extinction and

Degradation of Ecosystem Services? 198


The Kudzu Vine and Kudzu Bugs 200


Wild Boar Invasions 202

Science Focus  Honeybee Losses: A Search for Causes 206


A Disturbing message from the Birds 208

Individuals Matter Juliana Machado Ferreira: Conservation

Biologist and National Geographic Explorer 209

Individuals Matter Çag˘an Hakkı Sekerciog˘lu: Protector of Birds and National Geographic Explorer 210

9.4 How Can We Sustain Wild Species and the Ecosystem Services They Provide? 211


The U.S. Endangered Species Act 211


Honeybees and

Sustainability 217

Chapter Review 217

Critical Thinking 218

Doing Environmental Science 218

Global Environment Watch Exercise 219

Data Analysis 219

10 Sustaining Biodiversity: Saving Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services 220

Key Questions 221


Costa Rica—A Global Conservation

Leader 222

10.1 What Are the Major Threats to Forest

Ecosystems? 223

Science Focus

Putting a Price Tag on Nature’s

Ecosystem Services 224


Many Cleared Forests in the United States

Have Grown Back 228

10.2 How Can We Manage and Sustain Forests? 231

Science Focus

Certifying Sustainably Grown Timber and Products Such as the Paper Used in This Book 232


Deforestation and the Fuelwood Crisis 234

Individuals Matter Florence Reed—Preserving Tropical Forests and Overcoming Poverty 236

10.3 How Can We Manage and Sustain Grasslands? 237

10.4 How Can we Sustain Terrestrial Biodiversity and

Ecosystem Services? 238

Science Focus

Holistic Range Management: Learning from Nature 239


Stresses on U.S. Public Parks 241


Identifying and Protecting Biodiversity in Costa Rica 242

Science Focus

Reintroducing the Gray Wolf to Yellowstone National Park 243


Madagascar: An Endangered Biodiversity Hotspot 244

Individuals Matter Gretchen Daily—Shining a Light on Ecosystem Services 247


Ecological Restoration of a Tropical Dry

Forest in Costa Rica 247


Sustaining Costa Rica’s Biodiversity 249

Chapter Review 249

Critical Thinking 250

Doing Environmental Science 251

Global Environment Watch Exercise 251

Ecological Footprint Analysis 251

11 Sustaining Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem

Services 252

Key Questions 253


The Great Jellyfish Invasion 254

11.1 What Are the Major Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services? 255

Science Focus

Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem 257

Science Focus

How Invasive Carp Have Muddied Some Waters 259

CASE STUDY Why Should We Protect Sharks? 263

CASE STUDY Protecting Whales: A Success Story . . . So Far 265

Science Focus

Why Are Jellyfish Populations Increasing? 267

11.2 How Can We Protect and Sustain Marine Biodiversity? 267

Individuals Matter Sylvia Earle—Advocate for the Oceans 270

11.3 How Should We Manage and Sustain Marine Fisheries? 271

11.4 How Should We Protect and Sustain Wetlands? 272


Can We Restore the Florida Everglades? 273

11.5 How Should We Protect and Sustain Freshwater Lakes, Rivers, and Fisheries? 275


Can the Great Lakes Survive Repeated Invasions by Alien Species? 275

11.6 What Should Be Our Priorities for Sustaining

Aquatic Biodiversity? 278


Invading Jellyfish and Aquatic

Sustainability 279

Chapter Review 279

Critical Thinking 280

Doing Environmental Science 280

Global Environment Watch Exercise 281

Ecological Footprint Analysis 281

Sustaining Natural Resources

12 Food Production and the Environment 282

Key Questions 283

CORE CASE STUDY Growing Power—An Urban Food

Oasis 284

12.1 Why Is Good Nutrition Important? 285

12.2 How Is Food Produced? 287

CASE STUDY Industrialized Food Production in the United

States 290

12.3 What Are the Environmental Effects of Industrialized

Food Production? 294

12.4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably? 303

CASE STUDY Ecological Surprises: The Law of Unintended Consequences 306

12.5 How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably? 308

Science Focus

Hydroponics: Growing Crops Without Soil 310

Individuals Matter David Tilman—Polyculture Researcher 314

Science Focus

Perennial Polyculture and the Land Institute 315

12.6 How Can We Improve Food Security? 316


Sustainability 318

Chapter Review 319

Critical Thinking 320

Doing Environmental Science 320

Global Environment Watch Exercise 320

Ecological Footprint Analysis 321

13 Water Resources 322

Key Questions 323


The Colorado River Story 324

13.1 Will We Have Enough Usable Water? 325


Freshwater Resources in the United States 328

Science Focus

Using Satellites to Monitor Groundwater Supplies 331

13.2 Is Groundwater a Sustainable Resource? 331


Overpumping the Ogallala Aquifer 333

13.3 How Can We Increase Freshwater Supplies? 335


How Dams Can Kill an Estuary 337

13.4 Can Water Transfers Expand Water Supplies? 338

Science Focus

The Search for Better Desalination Technology 339


The Aral Sea Disaster: An Example of

Unintended Consequences 341

13.5 How Can We Use Freshwater More Sustainably? 342

Individuals Matter Jennifer Burney: Environmental Scientist

and National Geographic Explorer 344


How Californians Are Dealing with Water Woes 346

13.6 How Can We Reduce the Threat of Flooding? 348


Living Dangerously on Floodplains in Bangladesh 349


The Colorado River and Sustainability 351

Chapter Review 352

Critical Thinking 353

Doing Environmental Science 354

Global Environment Watch Exercise 354

Ecological Footprint Analysis 354

14 Geology and Mineral Resources 356

Key Questions 357


The Real Cost of Gold 358

14.1 What Are the Earth’s Major Geological Processes

and What Are Mineral Resources? 359

14.2 How Long Might Supplies of Nonrenewable Mineral

Resources Last? 361


The Crucial Importance of Rare Earth Metals 362

14.3 What Are the Environmental Effects of Using

Nonrenewable Mineral Resources? 365

14.4 How Can We Use Mineral Resources More

Sustainably? 369


Graphene and Phosphorene: New Revolutionary Materials 369

Science Focus The Nanotechnology Revolution 370

Individuals Matter Yu-Guo Guo: Designer of Nanotechnology

Batteries and National Geographic Explorer 371

14.5 What Are the Earth’s Major Geological Hazards? 372

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER The Real Cost of Gold and Sustainability 377

Chapter Review 378

Critical Thinking 378

Doing Environmental Science 379

Global Environment Watch Exercise 379

Data Analysis 379

15 Nonrenewable Energy 380

Key Questions 381

CORE CASE STUDY Using Hydrofracking to Produce Oil

and Natural Gas 382

15.1 What Types of Energy Resources Do We Use? 383

15.2 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Oil? 385

CASE STUDY Oil Production and Consumption in the

United States 387

15.3 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Natural Gas? 389

Science Focus

Environmental Effects of Natural Gas

Production and Fracking in the United States 390

15.4 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Coal? 391

Individuals Matter Maria Gunnoe: Fighting to Save

Mountains 393

15.5 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Nuclear Power? 395

CASE STUDY The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

Accident in Japan 401

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Fracking, Nonrenewable Energy,

and Sustainability 403

Chapter Review 403

Critical Thinking 404

Doing Environmental Science 405

Global Environment Watch Exercise 405

Data Analysis 405

16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 406

Key Questions 407

CORE CASE STUDY Saving Energy and Money and

Reducing Our Environmental Impact 408

16.1 Why Do We Need a New Energy Transition? 409

CASE STUDY Germany Is a Renewable Energy

Superpower 410

16.2 Why Is Improving Energy Efficiency and Reducing

Energy Waste an Important Energy Resource? 410

Science Focus

The Search for Better Batteries 414

16.3 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Solar Energy? 418

16.4 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Wind Power? 423

Science Focus

Making Wind Turbines Safer for Birds and Bats 426

16.5 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Geothermal Energy? 426

Individuals Matter Andrés Ruzo—Geothermal Energy Sleuth

and National Geographic Explorer 429

16.6 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Biomass as an Energy Source? 429

16.7 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Hydropower? 431

16.8 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Using Hydrogen as an Energy Source? 433

16.9 How Can We Make the Transition To a More

Sustainable Energy Future? 434

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Saving Energy and Money and

Reducing Our Environmental Impact 436

Chapter Review 436

Critical Thinking 437

Doing Environmental Science 438

Global Environment Watch Exercise 438

Data Analysis 439

Sustaining Environmental Quality

17 Environmental Hazards and Human Health 440

Key Questions 441

CORE CASE STUDY Mercury’s Toxic Effects 442

17.1 What Major Health Hazards Do We Face? 443

17.2 How Do Biological Hazards Threaten Human

Health? 443


The Global Threat from Tuberculosis 444

Science Focus

Genetic Resistance to Antibiotics 445

Individuals Matter Hayat Sindi: Health Science

Entrepreneur 446


The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic 448

Science Focus

Ecological Medicine: Tracking Infectious Diseases from Animals to Humans 449

CASE STUDY Malaria—The Spread of a Deadly

Parasite 449

17.3 How Do Chemical Hazards Threaten Human Health? 45


PCBs Are Everywhere—A Legacy from the Past 452

Science Focus

The Controversy Over BPA 456

17.4 How Can We Evaluate Risks from Chemical

Hazards? 456

CASE STUDY Protecting Children from Toxic

Chemicals 457

CASE STUDY Pollution Prevention Pays 461

17.5 How Do We Perceive and Avoid Risks? 462

CASE STUDY Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes 463

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Mercury’s Toxic Effects and

Sustainability 467

Chapter Review 467

Critical Thinking 468

Doing Environmental Science 469

Global Environment Watch Exercise 469

Data Analysis 469

18 Air Pollution and Ozone Depletion 470

Key Questions 471

CORE CASE STUDY Los Angeles Air Pollution 472

18.1 What Is the Nature of the Atmosphere? 473

18.2 What Are the Major Outdoor Air Pollution

Problems? 474

Science Focus

The Atmospheric Brown Clouds 475

CASE STUDY Lead Is a Highly Toxic Pollutant 478

Science Focus

Detecting Air Pollutants and Monitoring

Air Quality 479

18.3 What Is Acid Deposition and Why Is It a

Problem? 482

18.4 What Are the Major Indoor Air Pollution

Problems? 486

CASE STUDY Radioactive Radon Gas 488

18.5 What Are the Health Effects of Air Pollution? 489

18.6 How Should We Deal with Air Pollution? 490

CASE STUDY Revisiting Air Pollution in Los Angeles 494

18.7 How Have We Depleted Ozone in the Stratosphere

and What Can We Do About It? 496

Individuals Matter Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina—A

Scientific Story of Expertise, Courage, and Persistence 498

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Los Angeles Air Pollution and

Sustainability 499

Chapter Review 500

Critical Thinking 500

Doing Environmental Science 501

Global Environment Watch Exercise 501

Data Analysis 501

19 Climate Change 502

Key Questions 503

CORE CASE STUDY Melting Ice in Greenland 504

19.1 How Is the Earth’s Climate Changing? 505

Science Focus

The Study of Climate Change in the

Distant Past 506

19.2 Why Is the Earth’s Climate Changing? 508

Science Focus

Using Models to Project Future Changes

in Atmospheric Temperatures 512

19.3 What Are the Likely Effects of a Warmer

Atmosphere? 515

Individuals Matter James Balog: Watching Glaciers Melt 517

CASE STUDY Alaska—Bellwether of Climate Change 522

19.4 How Can We Slow Climate Change? 524

Science Focus

Is Capturing and Storing CO2 a Viable Solution? 526

19.5 How Can We Adapt to Climate Change? 533

CASE STUDY The Netherlands—Living with the Water 534

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Melting Ice in Greenland and

Sustainability 536

Chapter Review 537

Critical Thinking 538

Doing Environmental Science 538

Global Environment Watch Exercise 538

Ecological Footprint Analysis 538

20 Water Pollution 540

Key Questions 541

CORE CASE STUDY The Gulf of Mexico’s Annual Dead

Zone 542

20.1 What Are the Causes and Effects of Water

Pollution? 543

Science Focus

Testing Water for Pollutants 546

20.2 What Are the Major Water Pollution Problems in

Streams and Lakes? 546

CASE STUDY Pollution in the Great Lakes 549

20.3 What Are the Major Groundwater Pollution

Problems? 551

CASE STUDY Arsenic in Drinking Water 553

CASE STUDY Is Bottled Water a Good Option? 554

SCIeNCe FoCuS Converting Dirty Water to Drinking

Water 555

CASE STUDY Lead in Drinking Water 556

20.4 What Are the Major Ocean Pollution Problems? 557

CASE STUDY Ocean Garbage Patches: There Is No Away 559

CASE STUDY The BP Deepwater Horizon Oil-Rig Spill 560

20.5 How Can We Deal with Water Pollution? 562

CASE STUDY Reducing Water Pollution in the United

States 563

Science Focus

Treating Sewage by Learning from

Nature 567


Sustainability 569

Chapter Review 569

Critical Thinking 570

Doing Environmental Science 570

Global Environment Watch Exercise 571

Data Analysis 571

21 Solid and Hazardous Waste 572

Key Questions 573

CORE CASE STUDY Cradle-to-Cradle Design 574

21.1 What Environmental Problems Are Related to Solid

and Hazardous Wastes? 575

CASE STUDY Solid Waste in the United States 576

Science Focus

Garbology and Tracking Trash 577

CASE STUDY E-Waste—An Exploding Hazardous Waste Problem 578

21.2 How Should We Deal with Solid Waste? 578

21.3 Why Are Refusing, Reducing, Reusing, and

Recycling So Important? 580

Individuals Matter William McDonough 581

Individuals Matter Mike Biddle’s Contribution to Plastics Recycling 585

Science Focus

Bioplastics 586

21.4 What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of

Burning or Burying Solid Waste? 586

21.5 How Should We Deal with Hazardous Waste? 589

CASE STUDY Recycling E-waste 589

CASE STUDY Hazardous Waste Regulation in the

United States 592

21.6 How Can Society Shift to a Low-Waste

Economy? 594

CASE STUDY Industrial Ecosystems: Copying Nature 596

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER The Cradle-to-Cradle Approach

and Sustainability 598

Chapter Review 599

Critical Thinking 600

Doing Environmental Science 600

Global Environment Watch Exercise 600

Ecological Footprint Analysis 601

22 Urbanization and Sustainability 602

Key Questions 603

CORE CASE STUDY Portland, Oregon: Urban Sustainability in Action 604

22.1 What Are the Major Population Trends in Urban Areas? 605

CASE STUDY Urbanization in the United States 606

22.2 What Are the Major Urban Resource and

Environmental Problems? 609

CASE STUDY Mexico City 613

22.3 How Does Transportation Affect Urban

Environmental Impacts? 614

22.4 How Important Is Urban Land-Use Planning? 618

22.5 How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and Livable? 620

Science Focus

Sustainable Community Development—A Key to Global Sustainability 621

CASE STUDY The Eco-City Concept in Curitiba, Brazil 622

Individuals Matter Peggy M. Shepherd: Fighting for

Environmental Justice in Urban America 623

TYING IT ALL TOGETHER Portland, Oregon, and

Sustainability 625

Chapter Review 625

Critical Thinking 626

Doing Environmental Science 626

Global Environment Watch Exercise 627

Ecological Footprint Analysis 627

Sustaining Human Societies

23 Economics, Environment, and Sustainability 628

Key Questions 629

CORE CASE STUDY Germany: Using Economics to Spur a

Shift to Renewable Energy 630

23.1 How Are Economic Systems Related to the

Biosphere? 631

23.2 How Can We Estimate the Values of Natural

Capital, Pollution Control, and Resource Use? 634

23.3 How Can We Use Economic Tools to Deal with

Environmental Problems? 637

Individuals Matter Paul Hawken: Businessman and

Environmental Champion 639

23.4 How Can Reducing Poverty Help Us to Deal with

Environmental Problems? 644


Microlending 645

23.5 How Can We Make the Transition to More

Environmentally Sustainable Economies? 646

Individuals Matter Ray Anderson: Sustainable Business

Visionary 649


Germany’s Transition and

Sustainability 650

Chapter Review 651

Critical Thinking 652

Doing Environmental Science 652

Global Environment Watch Exercise 652

Data Analysis 653

24 Politics, Environment, and Sustainability 654

Key Questions 655


The Greening of American Campuses 656

24.1 What Is the Role of Government in Making the

Transition to More Sustainable Societies? 657

24.2 How Is Environmental Policy Made? 660

Science Focus

Science and Politics—Principles and Procedures 662

Individuals Matter Xiuhtezcatl Roske-Martinez 663

24.3 What Is the Role of Environmental Law in Dealing with Environmental Problems? 664


U.S. Environmental Laws 665

24.4 What Are the Major Roles of Environmental

Groups? 667


The Natural Resources Defense Council 668

Individuals Matter Butterfly in a Redwood Tree 669


The Environmental Transformation of

Chattanooga, Tennessee 670

24.5 How Can We Improve Global Environmental Security? 671

24.6 How Can We Implement More Sustainable and Just

Environmental Policies? 674


The Netherlands—A Model for a National Green Plan 674


Greening College Campuses and

Sustainability 676

Chapter Review 677

Critical Thinking 678

Doing Environmental Science 678

Global Environment Watch Exercise 678

Data Analysis 679

25 Environmental Worldviews, Ethics,

and Sustainability 680

Key Questions 681


The United States, China, and Sustainability 682

25.1 What Are Some Major Environmental Worldviews? 683

Science Focus Biosphere 2—A Lesson in Humility 685


Managing Public Lands in the United

States—A Clash of Worldviews 686

25.2 What Is the Role of Education in Living More Sustainably? 688

Individuals Matter Juan Martinez—Reconnecting People with Nature 690

Individuals Matter Aldo Leopold 691

25.3 How Can We Live More Sustainably? 692

Individuals Matter Lester R. Brown: Champion of

Sustainability 695


The United States, China,

and Sustainability 697

Chapter Review 697

Critical Thinking 698

Doing Environmental Science 699

Global Environment Watch Exercise 699

Ecological Footprint Analysis 699


1 Measurement Units and Unit Conversions S1

2 Reading Graphs and Maps S3

3 Some Basic Chemistry S6

4 Maps and Map Analysis S14

5 Environmental Data and Data Analysis S40

6 Geologic and Biological Time Scale S46

Glossary G1

Index I1

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