World History, 9th Edition PDF by William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel


World History, Ninth Edition

By William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel

World History 9th Edition


Maps xvii

Chronologies xix

Features xx

Documents xxii

Preface xxiv

Acknowledgments xxix

A Note to Students About Language and the Dating of Time xxxii

Theme for Understanding World History xxxiii

Part I

The First Civilizations and the Rise of

Empires (Prehistory to 500 CE) 2

1 Early Humans and the First

Civilizations 4

1–1 The First Humans 5

1–1a The Emergence of Homo sapiens 5

1–1b The Hunter-Gatherers of the Paleolithic Age 6

1–1c The Neolithic Revolution, c. 10,000–4000 BCE 7

Compa rative Essay

From Hunter-Gatherers and Herders to Farmers 9

1–2 The Emergence of Civilization 10

1–2a Early Civilizations Around the World 10

1–2b Why Did Early Civilizations Develop? 11

1–3 Civilization in Mesopotamia 11

1–3a The City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia 11

1–3b Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia 13

1–3c The Culture of Mesopotamia 15

1–4 Egyptian Civilization: “The Gift of the Nile” 17

1–4a The Impact of Geography 17

Opposing Viewpoints

The Great Flood: Two Versions 18

1–4b The Old and Middle Kingdoms 19

1–4c Society and Economy in Ancient Egypt 21

1–4d The Culture of Egypt 21

1–4e Disorder and a New Order: The New Kingdom 23

1–4f Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Family and Marriage 24

1–4g The Spread of Egyptian Influence: Nubia 24

1–5 New Centers of Civilization 25

1–5a Nomadic Peoples: Impact of the Indo-Europeans 26

1–5b Territorial States in Western Asia: The Phoenicians 27

1–5c The Hebrews: The “Children of Israel” 27

1–6 The Rise of New Empires 30

1–6a The Assyrian Empire 30

Opposing Viewpoints

The Governing of Empires: Two Approaches 32

1–6b The Persian Empire 34

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 36

2 Ancient India 39

2–1 The Emergence of Civilization in India: The Indus

Valley Society 40

2–1a A Land of Diversity 40

2–1b The Indus Valley Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma 40

Compa rative Essay

Writing and Civilization 43

2–2 The Aryans in India 44

2–2a From Chieftains to Kings 44

2–2b The Mauryan Empire 45

2–2c Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India 46

2–2d Daily Life in Ancient India 48

2–2e The Economy 49

2–3 Escaping the Wheel of Life: The Religious World

of Ancient India 51

2–3a Brahmanism 51

2–3b Buddhism: The Middle Path 53


The Search for Truth 54

2–4 The Exuberant World of Indian Culture 59

2–4a Literature 59

2–4b Architecture and Sculpture 59

2–4c Science 62



3 China in Antiquity 65

3–1 The Dawn of Chinese Civilization 66

3–1a The Land and People of China 66

3–1b The Shang Dynasty 67

Compa rative Essay

The Use of Metals 70

3–2 The Zhou Dynasty 71

3–2a Political Structures 71

3–2b Economy and Society 71

3–2c The Hundred Schools of Ancient Philosophy 74

Opposing Viewpoints

A Debate over Good and Evil 77

3–3 The First Chinese Empire: The Qin Dynasty 79

3–3a The Qin Dynasty (221–206 BCE) 80

3–4 The Glorious Han Dynasty (202 BCE–221 CE) 83

3–4a Confucianism and the State 83

3–4b The Economy 84

3–4c Imperial Expansion and the Origins of the Silk Road 84

3–4d The Decline and Fall of the Han 86

3–5 Daily Life in Ancient China 87

3–5a The Role of the Family 87

3–5b Lifestyles 88

3–5c Cities 88

3–5d The Humble Estate: Women in Ancient China 89

3–6 Chinese Culture 89

3–6a Metalwork and Sculpture 90

3–6b Language and Literature 91

3–6c Music 92

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 94

4 T he Civilization of the Greeks 96

4–1 Early Greece 97

4–1a Minoan Crete 97

4–1b The First Greek State: Mycenae 99

4–1c The Greeks in a “Dark Age” (c. 1100–c. 750 BCE) 99

4–2 The World of the Greek City-States

(c. 750–c. 500 BCE) 101

4–2a The Polis 101

4–2b Greek Expansion and the Growth of Trade 102

4–2c Tyranny in the Greek Polis 103

4–2d Sparta 104

4–2e Athens 105

4–2f Foreign Influence on Early Greek Culture 106

4–3 The High Point of Greek Civilization:

Classical Greece 106

4–3a The Challenge of Persia 106

4–3b The Growth of an Athenian Empire

in the Age of Pericles 108

4–3c The Great Peloponnesian War and the Decline

of the Greek States 108

4–3d The Culture of Classical Greece 109

Comparative Essay

The Axial Age 114

4–3e Greek Religion 115

Opposing Viewpoints

Women in Athens and Sparta 116

4–3f Life in Classical Athens 116

4–4 The Rise of Macedonia and the Conquests

of Alexander 118

4–4a Alexander the Great 118

Film & HIstory 120

4–5 The World of the Hellenistic Kingdoms 121

4–5a Hellenistic Monarchies 121

4–5b Political Institutions 122

4–5c Hellenistic Cities 122

4–5d The Importance of Trade 123

4–5e Social Life: New Opportunities for Women 124

4–5f Culture in the Hellenistic World 124

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 127

5 T he Roman World Empire 130

5–1 Early Rome and the Republic 131

5–1a Early Rome 132

5–1b The Roman Republic 132

5–1c The Roman Conquest of the Mediterranean

(264–133 bce) 135

5–1d The Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic

(133–31 bce) 137

5–2 The Roman Empire at Its Height 139

5–2a The Age of Augustus (31 bce–14 ce) 139

5–2b The Early Empire (14–180) 141

5–2c Culture and Society in the Roman World 145

Film & HIstory 150

5–3 Crisis and the Late Empire 150

5–3a Crises in the Third Century 150

5–3b The Late Roman Empire 151

5–4 Transformation of the Roman World: The Development

of Christianity 152

5–4a The Religious World of the Roman Empire 152

5–4b The Jewish Background 152

5–4c The Rise of Christianity 152


Rulers and Gods 153

5–4d The Spread of Christianity 153


Roman Authorities and a Christian on Christianity 155

5–5 A Comparison of the Roman and Han Empires 156

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


Part II

New Patterns of Civilization

(500–1500 CE) 160

6 T he Americas 162

6–1 The Peopling of the Americas 163

6–1a The First Americans 163

6–2 Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica 164

6–2a The Olmecs: In the Land of Rubber 164

6–2b The Zapotecs 164

6–2c Teotihuacán: America’s First Metropolis 164

6–2d The Olmecs: Mother Culture or First Among

Equals? 166

6–2e The Maya 166

6–2f The Aztecs 170

6–3 Peoples and Societies in Early North America 175

6–3a The Eastern Woodlands 176

6–3b Cahokia 176

6–3c The Ancient Pueblo Peoples 176

6–4 The First Civilizations in South America 177

6–4a Caral 177

6–4b Moche 178

Compa rative Essay

History and the Environment 179

6–4c The Inka 181

6–4d Stateless Societies in South America 183

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 184

7 Fe rment in the Middle East: The Rise

of Islam 187

7–1 The Rise of Islam 188

7–1a The Role of Muhammad 189

7–1b The Teachings of Muhammad 190

Film & HIstory 190

7–2 The Arab Empire and Its Successors 190

7–2a Creation of an Empire 191

7–2b The Rise of the Umayyads 193

7–2c The Abbasids 194

7–2d The Crusades 197

7–2e The Mongols 198

7–2f Andalusia: A Muslim Outpost

in Europe 198

7–3 Islamic Civilization 200

7–3a Political Structures 201

7–3b The Wealth of Araby: Trade and Cities

in the Middle East 201

Compa rative Essay

Trade and Civilization 203

7–3c Islamic Society 204

7–3d The Culture of Islam 204

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 212

8 Early Civilizations in Africa 215

8–1 The Emergence of Civilization 216

8–1a The Land 216

8–1b The First Farmers 217

8–1c Axum and Meroë 217

8–1d The Sahara and Its Environs 219

8–1e East Africa 220

Compa rative Essay

The Migration of Peoples 222

8–2 The Coming of Islam 223

8–2a African Religious Beliefs and the Advent

of Islam 223

8–2b The Arabs in North Africa 223

8–2c The Kingdom of Ethiopia: A Christian

Island in a Muslim Sea 224

8–2d East Africa: The Land of the Zanj 225

8–2e The States of West Africa 227

8–3 States and Noncentralized Societies in Central

and Southern Africa 231

8–3a The Congo River Valley 231

8–3b Zimbabwe 231

8–3c Southern Africa 231

8–3d Africa: A Continent Without History? 232

8–4 African Society 232

8–4a Urban Life 232

8–4b Village Life 232

8–4c The Role of Women 233

8–4d Slavery 233

8–5 African Culture 234

8–5a Painting and Sculpture 234

8–5b Music 235

8–5c Architecture 235

8–5d Literature 238

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


9 T he Expan sion of Civilization in South

and Southeast Asia 241

9–1 The Silk Road 242

9–2 India After the Mauryas 244

9–2a The Gupta Dynasty: A New Golden Age? 244

9–2b The Transformation of Buddhism 245

9–2c The Decline of Buddhism in India 246

9–2d When Did the Indians Become Hindus? 246

9–3 The Arrival of Islam 249

9–3a The Empire of Mahmud of Ghazni 249

9–3b The Delhi Sultanate 249

9–3c Tamerlane 251

9–4 Society and Culture 252

9–4a Religion 252

9–4b Economy and Daily Life 254

Compa rative Essay

Caste, Class, and Family 255

9–4c The Wonder of Indian Culture 256

9–5 The Golden Region: Early Southeast Asia 259

9–5a Paddy Fields and Spices: The States

of Southeast Asia 259

9–5b Daily Life 263

9–5c World of the Spirits: Religious Belief 263

9–5d Expansion into the Pacific 267

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


10 T he Flowering of Traditional China 270

10–1 China’s Golden Age: The Sui, the Tang, and

the Song 271

10–1a A Time of Troubles: China After the Han 271

10–1b The Sui Dynasty 271

10–1c The Tang Dynasty 272

10–1d The Song Dynasty 275

10–1e Political Structures: The Triumph

of Confucianism 276

Opposing Viewpoints

Confucianism and Its Enemies: An Ideological Dispute

in Medieval China 278

10–1f The Economy 279

Compa rative Essay

The Spread of Technology 280

10–2 Explosion in Central Asia: The Mongol Empire 282

10–2a Mongol Rule in China 285

Film & HIstory 285

10–2b The Mongols’ Place in History 286

10–3 The Ming Dynasty 286

10–3a The Voyages of Zheng He 287

10–4 In Search of the Way 289

10–4a The Rise and Decline of Buddhism and Daoism 289

10–4b Neo-Confucianism: The Investigation of Things 290

10–5 Changing Social Conditions in Traditional China 291

10–5a The Rise of the Gentry 291

10–5b Village and Family 292

10–5c The Role of Women 293

10–6 The Apogee of Chinese Culture 295

10–6a Literature 295

10–6b Art 297

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 298

11 T he East Asian Rimlands: Early Japan ,

Korea, and Vietnam 301

11–1 Japan: Land of the Rising Sun 302

11–1a A Gift from the Gods: Prehistoric Japan 303

11–1b The Rise of the Japanese State 303

11–1c Economic and Social Structures 307


Feudal Orders Around the World 308

Film & HIstory 311

11–1d In Search of the Pure Land: Religion in Early Japan 311

11–1e Sources of Traditional Japanese Culture 313

11–1f Japan and the Chinese Model 315

11–2 Korea: Bridge to the East 316

11–2a The Three Kingdoms 317

11–2b The Rise of the Koryo Dynasty 317

11–2c Resisting the Mongols 318

11–3 Vietnam: The Smaller Dragon 319

11–3a The Rise of Great Viet 320

11–3b Society and Family Life 322

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


12 T he Making of Europe 325

12–1 The Emergence of Europe in the Early Middle Ages 326

12–1a The New Germanic Kingdoms 326

12–1b The Role of the Christian Church 327

12–1c Charlemagne and the Carolingians 329

12–1d The World of Lords and Vassals 331

12–2 Europe in the High Middle Ages 333

12–2a Land and People 333

12–2b The New World of Trade and Cities 335

Film & HIstory 336

Opposing Viewpoints

Two Views of Trade and Merchants 337

Compa rative Essay

Cities in the Medieval World 339

12–2c Evolution of the European Kingdoms 340

12–2d Christianity and Medieval Civilization 345

12–2e The Culture of the High Middle Ages 348

12–3 Medieval Europe and the World 351

12–3a The Early Crusades 352

12–3b The Later Crusades 353

12–3c What Were the Effects of the Crusades? 354

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 354

13 T he Byzantine Empire and Crisis

and Recovery in the West 357

13–1 From Eastern Roman to Byzantine Empire 358

13–1a The Reign of Justinian (527–565) 358

13–1b A New Kind of Empire 361

13–2 The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization (750–1025) 366

13–2a The Beginning of a Revival 366

13–2b The Macedonian Dynasty 366

13–2c Women in the Byzantine Empire 368

13–3 The Decline and Fall of the Byzantine Empire

(1025–1453) 369

13–3a New Challenges and New Responses 369

13–3b Impact of the Crusades 370

13–3c The Ottoman Turks and the Fall of

Constantinople 371

13–3d Why Did the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine

Empire) Last a Thousand Years Longer Than the

Western Roman Empire? 373

13–4 The Crises of the Fourteenth Century in the West 373

13–4a The Black Death: From Asia to Europe 373

Compa rative Essay

The Role of Disease in History 374

Opposing Viewpoints

Causes of the Black Death: Contemporary Views 376

13–4b Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval 377

13–4c Political Instability 377

13–4d The Decline of the Church 378

13–5 Recovery: The Renaissance 379

13–5a The Intellectual Renaissance 379

13–5b The Artistic Renaissance 380

13–5c The State in the Renaissance 383

Opposing Viewpoints

The Renaissance Prince: The Views of Machiavelli

and Erasmus 385

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


Part III

The Emergence of New World Patterns

(1500–1800) 388

14 New Encounters: The Creation

of a World Market 390

14–1 An Age of Exploration and Expansion 391

14–1a Islam and the Spice Trade 391

14–1b The Spread of Islam in West Africa 392

14–1c A New Player: Europe 394

14–2 The Portuguese Maritime Empire 397

14–2a En Route to India 397

14–2b The Search for the Source of Spices 398

14–2c New Rivals Enter the Scene 398

14–3 The Conquest of the “New World” 400

14–3a The Voyages 400

14–3b The Conquests 401

14–3c Governing the Empires 403

Opposing Viewpoints

The March of Civilization 404

Film & HIstory 405

14–3d The Competition Intensifies 405

14–3e Christopher Columbus: Hero or Villain? 405

14–4 Africa in Transition 406

14–4a The Portuguese in Africa 406

Comparative Essay

The Columbian Exchange 407

14–4b The Dutch in South Africa 408

14–4c The Slave Trade 408

14–4d Political and Social Structures in a Changing

Continent 413

14–5 Southeast Asia in the Era of the Spice Trade 414

14–5a The Arrival of the West 414

14–5b State and Society in Precolonial Southeast Asia 415



15 Europe Transformed: Reform and State

Building 420

15–1 The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century 421

15–1a Background to the Reformation 421

15–1b Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany 423

Film & HIstory 425

15–1c The Spread of the Protestant Reformation 426

Opposing Viewpoints

A Reformation Debate: Conflict at Marburg 427

Compa rative Essay

Marriage in the Early Modern World 428

15–1d The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation 429

15–1e The Catholic Reformation 429

15–2 Europe in Crisis, 1560–1650 432

15–2a Politics and the Wars of Religion in the

Sixteenth Century 432

15–2b Economic and Social Crises 434

15–2c Seventeenth-Century Crises: Revolution and War 436

15–3 Response to Crisis: The Practice of Absolutism 438

15–3a France Under Louis XIV 439

15–3b Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe 441

15– 4 England and Limited Monarchy 442

15–4a Conflict Between King and Parliament 442

15–4b Civil War and Commonwealth 442

15–4c Restoration and a Glorious Revolution 442

15–5 The Flourishing of European Culture 443

15–5a Art: The Baroque 443

15–5b Art: Dutch Realism 445

15–5c A Golden Age of Literature in England 445

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 446

16 T he Muslim Empires 449

16–1 The Ottoman Empire 450

16–1a The Rise of the Ottoman Turks 450

16–1b Expansion of the Empire 451

Compa rative Essay

The Changing Face of War 452

16–1c The Nature of Turkish Rule 454

16–1d Religion and Society in the Ottoman World 456

16–1e The Ottoman Empire: A Civilization

in Decline? 457

16–1f Ottoman Art 458

16–2 The Safavids 460

16–2a The Rise of the Safavids 460

16–2b Decline and Collapse of the Dynasty 460

16–2c Safavid Politics and Society 461

16–2d Safavid Art and Literature 462

16–3 The Grandeur of the Mughals 463

16–3a Babur: Founder of the Mughal Dynasty 463

16–3b Akbar and Indo-Muslim Civilization 464

16–3c Akbar’s Successors 466

Opposing Viewpoints

The Capture of Port Hoogly 469

16–3d The Impact of European Power in India 469

16–3e The Mughal Dynasty: A “Gunpowder Empire”? 471

16–3f Society Under the Mughals: A Synthesis of

Cultures 472

16–3g Mughal Culture 473



17 T he East Asian World 478

17–1 China at Its Apex 479

17–1a The Later Ming 479

17–1b The Greatness of the Qing 481

Opposing Viewpoints

The Debate over Christianity 483

17–2 Changing China 486

17–2a The Population Explosion 486

17–2b Seeds of Industrialization 487

Compa rative Essay

Population Explosion 488

17–2c Daily Life in Qing China 490

17–2d Cultural Developments 491

17–3 Tokugawa Japan 494

17–3a The Three Great Unifiers 494

17–3b Opening to the West 494

17–3c The Tokugawa “Great Peace” 497

17–3d Life in the Village 499

Opposing Viewpoints

Some Confucian Commandments 500

17–3e Tokugawa Culture 501

17–4 Korea and Vietnam 504

17–4a Korea: In a Dangerous Neighborhood 504

17–4b Vietnam: The Perils of Empire 505



18 T he West on the Eve of a New World

Order 508

18–1 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: An Intellectual

Revolution in the West 509

18–1a The Scientific Revolution 509

18–1b Background to the Enlightenment 511

18–1c The Philosophes and Their Ideas 511


The Scientific Revolution 512

18–1d Culture in an Enlightened Age 516

18–2 Economic Changes and the Social Order 519

18–2a New Economic Patterns 519

18–2b European Society in the Eighteenth Century 520

18–3 Colonial Empires and Revolution in the

Americas 521

18–3a The West Indies 521

18–3b British North America 521

18–3c French North America 522

18–3d The Seven Years’ War: Global War 523

18–3e The American Revolution 523

18–4 Toward a New Political Order 524

18–4a Prussia: The Army and the Bureaucracy 524

18–4b The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs 525

18–4c Russia Under Catherine the Great 526

18–4d Enlightened Absolutism Reconsidered 527

18–5 The French Revolution 527

18–5a Background to the French Revolution 527

Film & HIstory 528

18–5b From Estates-General to National Assembly 528

18–5c Destruction of the Old Regime 529

Opposing Viewpoints

The Natural Rights of the French People: Two Views 531

18–5d The Radical Revolution 532

18–5e Reaction and the Directory 534

18–6 The Age of Napoleon 534

18–6a The Rise of Napoleon 534

18–6b Domestic Policies 535

18–6c Napoleon’s Empire 536

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 538

Part IV

Modern Patterns of World History

(1800–1945) 540

19 T he Beginnings of Modernization:

Industrialization and Nationalism

in the Nineteenth Century 542

19–1 The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact 543

19–1a The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain 543

19–1b The Spread of Industrialization 546

Compa rative Essay

The Industrial Revolution 549

19–1c Limiting the Spread of Industrialization in the Rest

of the World 549

19–1d Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution 550

19–2 The Growth of Industrial Prosperity 553

19–2a New Products 553

19–2b New Patterns 553

19–2c Emergence of a World Economy 554

19–2d The Spread of Industrialization 554

19–2e Women and Work: New Job

Opportunities 554

19–2f Organizing the Working Classes 556

19–3 Reaction and Revolution: The Growth

of Nationalism 557

19–3a The Conservative Order 558

19–3b Forces for Change 559

19–3c Revolution and Reform, 1830–1832 560

19–3d The Revolutions of 1848 560

Opposing Viewpoints

Response to Revolution: Two Perspectives 561

19–3e Nationalism in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire

and the Eastern Question 562

19–4 National Unification and the National State,

1848–1871 564

19–4a The Unification of Italy 564

19–4b The Unification of Germany 564

19–4c Nationalism and Reform: The European

National State at Mid-Century 566

Film & HIstory 567

19–5 The European State, 1871–1914 568

19–5a Western Europe: The Growth

of Political Democracy 569

19–5b Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the Old

Order 569

19–5c International Rivalries and the Winds of War 570

19–5d The Ottoman Empire and Nationalism

in the Balkans 571

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 572

20 T he Americas and Society and Culture

in the West 575

20–1 Latin America in the Nineteenth and Early

Twentieth Centuries 576

20–1a The Wars for Independence 576

20–1b The Difficulties of Nation Building 580

20–1c Tradition and Change in the Latin American Economy

and Society 581

20–1d Political Change in Latin America 583

20–2 North American Neighbors: The United States

and Canada 584

20–2a The Growth of the United States 584

20–2b The Rise of the United States 586

20–2c The Making of Canada 587

20–3 The Emergence of Mass Society in the West 587

20–3a The New Urban Environment 588

20–3b The Social Structure of Mass Society 588

20–3c The Experiences of Women 589


OPPOSING Viewpoints

Advice to Women: Two Views 592

20–3d Education in an Age of Mass Society 593

20–3e Leisure in an Age of Mass Society 594

20–4 Cultural Life: Romanticism and Realism

in the Western World 594

20–4a The Characteristics of Romanticism 594


The Rise of Nationalism 595

20–4b A New Age of Science 596

20–4c Realism in Literature and Art 596

20–5 Toward the Modern Consciousness: Intellectual

and Cultural Developments 598

20–5a A New Physics 598

20–5b Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis 599

20–5c The Impact of Darwin: Social Darwinism

and Racism 599

20–5d The Culture of Modernity 600



21 T he High Tide of Imperialism 607

21–1 The Spread of Colonial Rule 608

21–1a The Motives 608

21–1b The Tactics 608

Compa rative Essay

Imperialisms Old and New 609

21–2 The Colonial System 610

21–2a The Philosophy of Colonialism 611

21–3 India Under the British Raj 611

Opposing Viewpoints

White Man’s Burden, Black Man’s Sorrow 612

21–3a Colonial Reforms 612

21–3b The Cost of Colonialism 613

Film & HIstory 615

21–4 Colonial Regimes in Southeast Asia 615

21–4a “Opportunity in the Orient”: The Colonial Takeover

in Southeast Asia 615

21–4b The Nature of Colonial Rule 617

21–5 Empire Building in Africa 620

21–5a From Slavery to “Legitimate Trade” in Africa 620

21–5b Imperialist Shadow over the Nile 622

21–5c Arab Merchants and European Missionaries

in East Africa 623

21–5d Bantus, Boers, and British in the South 624

21–5e The Scramble for Africa 625

21–5f Colonialism in Africa 627

21–6 The Emergence of Anticolonialism 629

21–6a Stirrings of Nationhood 629

21–6b Traditional Resistance: A Precursor

to Nationalism 630

Opposing Viewpoints

To Resist or Not to Resist 633

21–6c Imperialism: Drawing Up the Balance Sheet 634

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 635

22 S hadows over the Pacific: East Asia

Under Challenge 637

22–1 The Decline of the Manchus 638

22–1a Opium and Rebellion 638

22–1b Efforts at Reform 641

22–1c The Climax of Imperialism 641

Opposing Viewpoints

Practical Learning or Confucian Essence:

The Debate over Reform 644

22–1d The Collapse of the Old Order 644

22–2 Chinese Society in Transition 647

22–2a The Economy: The Drag of Tradition 647

22–2b The Impact of Imperialism 648

Compa rative Essay

Imperialism and the Global Environment 649

22–2c Daily Life in Qing China 650

22–3 A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise

of Modern Japan 651

22–3a Opening to the World 651

22–3b The Meiji Restoration 651

22–3c Joining the Imperialist Club 657

Opposing Viewpoints

Two Views of the World 659

22–3d Japanese Culture in Transition 659

22–3e The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above? 660



23 T he Beginning of the Twentieth-Century

Crisis: War and Revolution 664

23–1 The Road to World War I 665

23–1a Nationalism and Internal Dissent 665

23–1b Militarism 665

23–1c The Outbreak of War: Summer 1914 665

23–2 The Great War 668

23–2a 1914–1915: Illusions and Stalemate 668

23–2b 1916–1917: The Great Slaughter 670

23–2c The Widening of the War 671

Film & HIstory 671

23–2d A New Kind of Warfare 674

23–2e The Home Front: The Impact of Total War 674

23–3 War and Revolution 676

23–3a The Russian Revolution 676

23–3b The Last Year of the War 680

23–3c The Peace Settlement 681

Opposing Viewpoints

Three Voices of Peacemaking 682

23–4 An Uncertain Peace 685

23–4a The Impact of World War I 685

23–4b The Search for Security 686

23–4c The Great Depression 686

23–4d The Democratic States 687

23–4e Socialism in Soviet Russia 688

23–5 In Pursuit of a New Reality: Cultural and Intellectual

Trends 689

23–5a Nightmares and New Visions 689

Comparative Essay

A Revolution in the Arts 690

23–5b Probing the Unconscious 691

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●

Chapter Review 693

24 Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship:

Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America

from 1919 to 1939 695

24–1 The Rise of Nationalism 696

24–1a Modern Nationalism 696

24–1b Gandhi and the Indian National Congress 698

24–1c Revolt in the Middle East 699


Islam in the Modern World: Two Views 701

Film & HIstory 702

24–1d Nationalism and Revolution 705

24–2 Revolution in China 708

24–2a Mr. Science and Mr. Democracy: The New Culture Movement 708

24–2b The Nationalist-Communist Alliance 709

24–2c The Nanjing Republic 710

24–2d “Down with Confucius and Sons”: Economic, Social, and Cultural Change in Republican China 712


Out of the Doll’s House 713

24–3 Japan Between the Wars 715

24–3a Experiment in Democracy 715

24–3b A Zaibatsu Economy 716

24–3c Shidehara Diplomacy 717

24–4 Nationalism and Dictatorship in Latin America 718

24–4a A Changing Economy 718

24–4b The Effects of Dependency 719

24–4c Latin American Culture 721



25 T he Crisis Deepens: World War II 724

25–1 Retreat from Democracy: Dictatorial Regimes 725

25–1a The Retreat from Democracy: Did Europe Have

Totalitarian States? 725

25–1b The Birth of Fascism 726

25–1c Hitler and Nazi Germany 727

25–1d The Stalinist Era in the Soviet Union 730

Film & HIstory 730

25–1e The Rise of Militarism in Japan 732

25–2 The Path to War 733

25–2a The Path to War in Europe 733

25–2b The Path to War in Asia 734

Opposing Viewpoints

The Munich Conference 735

25–3 World War II 737

25–3a Europe at War 737

25–3b Japan at War 739

25–3c The Turning Point of the War, 1942–1943 739

25–3d The Last Years of the War 742

25–4 The New Order 744

25–4a The New Order in Europe 744

25–4b The Holocaust 744

25–4c The New Order in Asia 746

25–5 The Home Front 749

25–5a Mobilizing the People 749


Paths to Modernization 750

25–5b The Bombing of Cities 752

25–6 Aftermath of the War 754

25–6a The Costs of World War II 754

25–6b The Impact of Technology 754

25–6c World War II and the European Colonies:

Decolonization 754

25–6d The Allied War Conferences 755

CHAPTER SUMMARY ● Chapter Timeline ●


Part V

Towa rd a Global Civilization? The World

Since 1945 760

26 East and West in the Grip

of the Cold War 762

26–1 The Collapse of the Grand Alliance 763

26–1a Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe 763

26–1b Descent of the Iron Curtain 764

26–1c The Truman Doctrine 764

26–1d The Marshall Plan 764

26–1e Europe Divided 765

26–2 Cold War in Asia 768

26–2a The Chinese Civil War 769

26–2b Red Star Rising: The New China 771

26–2c The Korean War 771

26–2d Conflict in Indochina 772

26–3 From Confrontation to Coexistence 773

26–3a Ferment in Eastern Europe 774

26–3b Rivalry in the Third World 775

Opposing Viewpoints

Soviet Repression in Eastern Europe: Hungary, 1956 776


26–3c The Cuban Missile Crisis and the Move Toward

Détente 777

26–3d The Sino-Soviet Dispute 777

26–3e The Second Indochina War 778

Opposing Viewpoints

Peaceful Coexistence or People’s War? 779

Opposing Viewpoints

Confrontation in Southeast Asia 780

26–4 An Era of Equivalence 782

26–4a The Brezhnev Doctrine 782

26–4b An Era of Détente 784

26–4c Renewed Tensions in the Third World 784

26–4d Countering the Evil Empire 785

26–4e The End of the Cold War 785

26–4f The Revenge of History 786

Compa rative Essay

Global Village or Clash of Civilizations? 788



27 B rave New World: Communism

on Trial 791

27–1 The Postwar Soviet Union 792

27–1a From Stalin to Khrushchev 792

27–1b The Brezhnev Years (1964–1982) 794

27–1c Cultural Expression in the Soviet Union 798

27–1d Social Changes 800

27–2 The Disintegration of the Soviet Empire 800

27–2a The Gorbachev Era 800

27–2b Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? 801

27–3 The East Is Red: China Under Communism 802

27–3a New Democracy 803

27–3b The Transition to Socialism 804

27–3c The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution 805

27–3d From Mao to Deng 807

27–3e Incident at Tiananmen Square 807

OPPOSING Viewpoints

Students Appeal for Democracy 808

27–3f Riding the Tiger 809

27–3g Back to Confucius? 810

27–4 “Serve the People”: Chinese Society Under

Communism 811

27–4a Economics in Command 811

27–4b Chinese Society in Flux 814


Family and Society in an Era of Change 817

27–4c China’s Changing Culture 818

27–4d Confucius and Marx: The Tenacity of Tradition 819



28 Europe and the Western Hemisphere Since 1945 822

28–1 Recovery and Renewal in Europe 823

28–1a Western Europe: The Revival of Democracy

and the Economy 823

Film & HIstory 827

28–1b Eastern Europe After Communism 827

28–1c The New Russia 829

28–1d The Unification of Europe 830

28–2 Emergence of the Superpower: The United

States 831

28–2a American Politics and Society Through

the Vietnam Era 831

28–2b The Shift Rightward After 1973 833

28–3 The Development of Canada 835

28–4 Latin America Since 1945 835

28–4a The Threat of Marxist Revolutions 837

28–4b Nationalism and the Military: The Examples of Argentina and Brazil 839

28–4c The Mexican Way 840

28–5 Society and Culture in the Western World 842

28–5a The Emergence of a New Society 842

28–5b A Revolt in Sexual Mores 842

28–5c Youth Protest and Student Revolt 843

28–5d Women in the Postwar Western World 844

28–5e The Growth of Terrorism 846

28–5f Guest Workers and Immigrants 849

28–5g The Environment and the Green Movements 850

28–5h Western Culture Since 1945 850

28–5i Trends in Art 852

28–5j The World of Science and Technology 853


From the Industrial Age to the Technological Age 854

28–5k Varieties of Religious Life 855

28–5l The Explosion of Popular Culture 855



29 Challenges of Nation Building in Africa and the Middle East 858

29–1 Uhuru: The Struggle for Independence in Africa 859

29–1a The Colonial Legacy 859

29–1b The Rise of Nationalism 859

29–2 The Era of Independence 861

29–2a The Destiny of Africa: Unity or Diversity? 861

29–2b Dream and Reality: Political and Economic Conditions

in Independent Africa 861

29–2c The Search for Solutions 864

29–2d Africa: A Continent in Flux 867

29–3 Continuity and Change in Modern African

Societies 868

29–3a Education 869

29–3b Urban and Rural Life 869

29–3c African Women 870

29–3d African Culture 871


Africa: Dark Continent or Radiant Land? 872

29–3e What Is the Future of Africa? 873

29–4 Crescent of Conflict 873

29–4a The Question of Palestine 874

29–4b Nasser and Pan-Arabism 876

29–4c The Arab-Israeli Dispute 877

29–4d Revolution in Iran 879

Film & HIstory 879


Religion and Society 880

29–4e Crisis in the Persian Gulf 881

29–4f Turmoil in the Middle East 882

29–5 Society and Culture in the Contemporary Middle East 883

29–5a Varieties of Government: The Politics of Islam 883

29–5b The Economics of the Middle East: Oil and Sand 885

29–5c The Islamic Revival 886

29–5d Women in the Middle East 887

29–5e Literature and Art 888



30 Towa rd the Pacific Century? 892

30–1 South Asia 893

30–1a The End of the British Raj 893

30–1b Independent India 893


Two Visions for India 895

30–1c The Land of the Pure: Pakistan Since Independence 896

30–1d Poverty and Pluralism in South Asia 897

30–1e South Asian Literature Since Independence 902

30–1f What Is the Future of India? 903

30–2 Southeast Asia 903

30–2a The End of the Colonial Era 903

30–2b In the Shadow of the Cold War 904

30–2c On the Road to Political Reform 906

30–2d Regional Conflict and Cooperation:

The Rise of ASEAN 909

30–2e Daily Life: Town and Country in Contemporary

Southeast Asia 909


One World, One Environment 910

30–2f Cultural Trends 912

30–2g A Region in Flux 912

30–3 Japan: Asian Giant 912

30–3a The Transformation of Modern Japan 912

30–3b The Economy 915

30–3c A Society in Transition 917

30–3d Japanese Culture 919

30–3e The Japanese Difference 920

30–4 The Little Tigers 920

30–4a Korea: A Peninsula Divided 920

30–4b Taiwan: The Other China 921

30–4c Singapore and Hong Kong:

The Littlest Tigers 922

30–4d On the Margins of Asia: Postwar Australia and New

Zealand 923

30–4e The East Asian Miracle: Fact or Myth? 923



Epilogue 927

Glossary 934

Index 948

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