# An Introduction to Physical Science, 15th Edition PDF by James T. Shipman, Jerry D. Wilson, Charles A. Higgins, Bo Lou

An Introduction to Physical Science, 15th Edition
By James T. Shipman, Jerry D. Wilson, Charles A. Higgins, Bo Lou

Contents

Preface x
Chapter 1 Measurement 1
1.1 The Physical Sciences 2
1.2 Scientific Investigation 3
1.3 The Senses 4
HIGHLIGHT 1.1 The “Face” on Mars 5
1.4 Standard Units and Systems of Units 6
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 1.1 Time and Time Again 10
1.5 More on the Metric System 12
1.6 Derived Units and Conversion Factors 14
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 1.1 What’s Your Body Density?
Try BMI 17
HIGHLIGHT 1.2 Is Unit Conversion Important? It Sure Is 20
1.7 Significant Figures 21
Key Terms 23, Matching 23, Multiple Choice 23,
Fill in the Blank 24, Short Answer 24,
Visual Connection 25, Applying Your Knowledge 25,
Important Equation 25, E xercises 26
Chapter 2 Motion 28
2.1 Defining Motion 29
2.2 Speed and Velocity 30
2.3 Acceleration 34
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 2.1 Putting the Pedal to the Metal 37
HIGHLIGHT 2.1 Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa 38
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 2.1 Rotating Tablet Screens 41
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 2.2 And the Winner Is … 41
2.4 Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion 42
2.5 Projectile Motion 44
Key Terms 47, Matching 47, Multiple Choice 47,
Fill in the Blank 48, Short Answer 48, Visual Connection 49,
Applying Your Knowledge 49, Important Equations 50,
Exercises 50
Chapter 3 Force and Motion 52
3.1 Force and Net Force 53
3.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 54
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 3.1 Y ou Go Your Way, I’ll Go Mine 56
3.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 57
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 3.2 Fundamental Is Fundamental 60
3.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 62
HIGHLIGHT 3.1 The Automobile Air Bag 64
3.5 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 65
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 3.3 A Lot of Mass 66
3.6 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy 68
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 3.4 Float the Boat 69
3.7 Momentum 69
Key Terms 75, Matching 75, Multiple Choice 76,
Fill in the Blank 76, Short Answer 77, Visual Connection 78,
Applying Your Knowledge 78, Important Equations 79,
Exercises 79
Chapter 4 Work and Energy 81
4.1 Work 82
4.2 Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy 84
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 4.1 Double Zero 89
4.3 Conservation of Energy 89
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 4.2 The Race Is On 91
4.4 Power 92
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 4.3 Payment for Power 95
4.5 Forms of Energy and Consumption 95
4.6 Alternative and Renewable Energy Sources 97
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 4.1 Light Bulbs That Last
50,000 Hours? 101
Key Terms 102, Matching 102, Multiple Choice 102,
Fill in the Blank 103, Short Answer 103,
Visual Connection 105, Applying Your Knowledge 105,
Important Equations 105, E xercises 105
Chapter 5 Temperature and Hea t 107
5.1 Temperature 108
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 5.1 The Easy Approximation 111
5.2 Heat 111
HIGHLIGHT 5.1 Human Body Temperature 112
HIGHLIGHT 5.2 Freezing from the Top Down 114
5.3 Specific Heat and Latent Heat 115
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 5.2 Under Pressure 121
5.4 Heat Transfer 121
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 5.3 Hug the Rug 122
5.5 Phases of Matter 124
5.6 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 126
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 5.1 Boyle’s Law: Breathing and
the Heimlich Maneuver 128
HIGHLIGHT 5.3 Hot Gases: Aerosol Cans and Popcorn 131
5.7 Thermodynamics 131
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 5.4 Common Descriptions 134
Key Terms 136, Matching 136, Multiple Choice 136,
Fill in the Blank 137, Short Answer 137,
Visual Connection 139, Applying Your Knowledge 139,
Important Equations 140, E xercises 140
Chapter 6 Waves and S ound 141
6.1 Waves and Energy Propagation 141
6.2 Wave Properties 143
6.3 Light Waves 146
6.4 Sound Waves 148
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 6.1 A Tree Fell 152
HIGHLIGHT 6.1 Noise Exposure Limits 152
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 6.1 Deaf and Can Still Hear?
Bone Conduction 153
6.5 The Doppler Effect 156
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 6.2 Faster Than Sound 157
6.6 Standing Waves and Resonance 158
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 6.3 It Can Be Shattering 160
Key Terms 161, Matching 162, Multiple Choice 162,
Fill in the Blank 163, Short Answer 163,
Visual Connection 164, Applying Your Knowledge 164,
Important Equations 164, E xercises 165
Chapter 7 Optics and Wave Effects 166
7.1 Reflection 167
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 7.1 No Can See 168
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 7.2 Nighttime Mirror 170
7.2 Refraction and Dispersion 170
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 7.3 Twinkle, Twinkle 172
HIGHLIGHT 7.1 The Rainbow: Dispersion and Internal
Reflection 178
7.3 Spherical Mirrors 179
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 7.4 Up and Down 183
7.4 Lenses 183
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 7.5 Right-Side-Up from
Upside-Down 187
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 7.1 Visual Acuity and
20/20 Vision 188
7.5 Polarization 189
HIGHLIGHT 7.2 Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) 191
7.6 Diffraction and Interference 192
Key Terms 196, Matching 196, Multiple Choice 196,
Fill in the Blank 197, Short Answer 197,
Visual Connection 198, Applying Your Knowledge 199,
Important Equations 199, E xercises 199
Chapter 8 E lectricity and M agnetism 200
8.1 E lectric Charge, Electric Force, and Electric Field 201
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 8.1 Defying Gravity 204
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 8.1 Sensitive to the Touch:
Touch Screens 206
8.2 Current, Voltage, and Electrical Power 206
HIGHLIGHT 8.1 United States and Europe:
Different Voltages 211
8.3 Simple Electric Circuits and Electrical Safety 212
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 8.2 Series or Parallel 215
HIGHLIGHT 8.2 E lectrical Effects on Humans 218
8.4 Magnetism 219
HIGHLIGHT 8.3 Magnetic North Pole 225
8.5 E lectromagnetism 225
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 8.3 No Transformation 229
Key Terms 232, Matching 232, Multiple Choice 233,
Fill in the Blank 233, Short Answer 234,
Visual Connection 235, Applying Your Knowledge 235,
Important Equations 235, E xercises 236
Chapter 9 Atomic Physics 237
9.1 E arly Concepts of the Atom 238
9.2 The Dual Nature of Light 239
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 9.1 Step Right Up 241
HIGHLIGHT 9.1 Albert Einstein 243
9.3 Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 244
9.4 Microwave Ovens, X-Rays, and Lasers 251
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 9.2 Can’t Get Through 252
HIGHLIGHT 9.2 X-Ray CAT Scan and MRI 253
9.5 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 256
9.6 Matter Waves 257
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 9.3 A Bit Too Small 258
9.7 The Electron Cloud Model of the Atom 259
HIGHLIGHT 9.3 E lectron Microscopes 260
Key Terms 262, Matching 263, Multiple Choice 263,
Fill in the Blank 264, Short Answer 264,
Visual Connection 265, Applying Your Knowledge 265,
Important Equations 266, E xercises 266

Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics 267
10.1 Symbols of the Elements 267
10.2 The Atomic Nucleus 269
HIGHLIGHT 10.1 The Discovery of Radioactivity 274
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 10.1 A Misprint? 276
10.4 Nuclear Reactions 283
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 10.2 Around the House 284
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 10.1 Zapped with Gamma
10.5 Nuclear Fission 286
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 10.3 Out of Control 291
10.6 Nuclear Fusion 292
10.7 E ffects of Radiation 296
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 10.2 Smoking and Tobacco
HIGHLIGHT 10.2 Nuclear Power and Waste Disposal 298
10.8 E lementary Particles 300
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 10.4 Star Trek Adventure 302
Key Terms 302, Matching 302, Multiple Choice 303,
Fill in the Blank 304, Short Answer 304,
Visual Connection 305, Applying Your Knowledge 305,
Important Equations 305, E xercises 306
Chapter 11 The Chemical Elements 308
11.1 Classification of Matter 309
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 11.1 A Compound Question 310
11.2 Discovery of the Elements 312
HIGHLIGHT 11.1 What Are the Naturally Occurring
Elements? 314
HIGHLIGHT 11.2 Berzelius and How New Elements
Are Named 315
11.3 Occurrence of the Elements 315
11.4 The Periodic Table 319
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 11.2 An Elemental Rarity 321
11.5 Naming Compounds 325
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 11.3 A Table of Compounds? 326
11.6 Groups of Elements 328
Key Terms 332, Matching 332, Multiple Choice 332,
Fill in the Blank 333, Short Answer 333,
Visual Connection 334, Applying Your Knowledge 335,
Exercises 335
Chapter 12 Chemical B onding 337
12.1 Law of Conservation of Mass 338
HIGHLIGHT 12.1 Lavoisier, “The Father of Chemistry” 339
12.2 Law of Definite Proportions 340
12.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 342
12.4 Ionic Bonding 343
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 12.1 Lithium-Ion Rechargeable
Batteries 350
12.5 Covalent Bonding 352
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 12.1 A Matter of Purity 358
12.6 Hydrogen Bonding 361
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 12.2 Hydrogen Bond Highways 362
Key Terms 363, Matching 363, Multiple Choice 364,
Fill in the Blank 364, Short Answer 365,
Visual Connection 366, Applying Your Knowledge 366,
Important Equations 366, E xercises 366
Chapter 13 Chemical R eactions 368
13.1 Balancing Chemical Equations 369
13.2 E nergy and Rate of Reaction 373
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 13.1 Auto Air Bag Chemistry
and Millions of Recalls 376
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 13.1 Burning Iron! 378
13.3 Acids and Bases 380
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 13.2 Crying Time 383
HIGHLIGHT 13.1 Acids and Bases in Your Stomach 384
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 13.3 Odors, Be Gone! 386
13.4 Single-Replacement Reactions 389
Key Terms 395, Matching 395, Multiple Choice 396,
Fill in the Blank 397, Short Answer 397,
Visual Connection 398, Applying Your Knowledge 399,
Important Equation 399, E xercises 399
Chapter 14 Organic Chemistr y 401
14.1 Bonding in Organic Compounds 402
14.2 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 403
14.3 Aliphatic Hydrocarbons 405
14.4 Derivatives of Hydrocarbons 413
HIGHLIGHT 14.1 Breathalyzers 416
14.5 Synthetic Polymers 418
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 14.1 What Is Hair Spray? 419
14.6 Biochemistry 421
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 14.2 My Twisted Double Helix 422
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 14.3 Should We Eat Too Many
Carbohydrates? 423
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 14.1 DNA Gene Therapy 425
Key Terms 426, Matching 426, Multiple Choice 426,
Fill in the Blank 427, Short Answer 427,
Visual Connection 428, Applying Your Knowledge 429,
Exercises 429
Chapter 15 Place and Time 431
15.1 Cartesian Coordinates 432
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 15.1 3-D Coordinates 433
15.2 Latitude and Longitude 433
15.3 Time 436
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 15.2 Polar Time 439
HIGHLIGHT 15.1 Time Traveler 440
15.4 Determining Latitude and Longitude 442
15.5 The Seasons and the Calendar 445
HIGHLIGHT 15.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) 446
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 15.3 E qual Days and Nights 447
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 15.4 Hot and Cold Weather 449
HIGHLIGHT 15.3 A Brief History of the Western
Calendar 451
15.6 Precession of the Earth’s Axis 452
Key Terms 453, Matching 454, Multiple Choice 454,
Fill in the Blank 455, Short Answer 455,
Visual Connection 456, Applying Your Knowledge 457,
Exercises 457
Chapter 16 The S olar System 458
16.1 The Solar System and Planetary Motion 459
16.2 Major Planet Classifications and Orbits 462
16.3 The Planet Earth 465
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 16.1 Another Foucault
Pendulum 467
16.4 The Terrestrial Planets 468
16.5 The Jovian Planets 472
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 16.2 Space Exploration and
Gravity Assist 473
HIGHLIGHT 16.1 Juno Reveals Jupiter 475
16.6 The Dwarf Planets 478
16.7 The Origin of the Solar System 483
16.8 Other Planetary Systems 484
HIGHLIGHT 16.2 The Search for Exoplanets 485
Key Terms 486, Matching 486, Multiple Choice 486,
Fill in the Blank 487, Short Answer 487,
Visual Connection 488, Applying Your Knowledge 489,
Important Equation 489, E xercises 489
Chapter 17 Moons and Small S olar
System B odies 490
17.1 Structure, Origin, and Features of the Earth’s Moon 491
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 17.1 No Magnetic Field 492
17.2 Lunar Motion Effects: Phases, Eclipses, and Tides 495
HIGHLIGHT 17.1 Seeing Only One Side of the Moon 496
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 17.2 A Phase for Every Eclipse 499
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 17.1 Total Solar Eclipses 500
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 17.3 Copper Moon 502
17.3 Moons of the Terrestrial Planets 504
17.4 Moons of the Jovian Planets 505
17.5 Moons of the Dwarf Planets 508
17.6 Small Solar System Bodies: Asteroids, Meteoroids, Comets,
and Interplanetary Dust 510
Key Terms 515, Matching 515, Multiple Choice 516,
Fill in the Blank 517, Short Answer 517,
Visual Connection 518, Applying Your Knowledge 519,
Exercises 519
Chapter 18 The Universe 520
18.1 The Celestial Sphere 521
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 18.1 Celestial Coordinates 523
18.2 The Sun: Our Closest Star 524
18.3 Classifying Stars 528
18.4 The Life Cycle of Low-Mass Stars 531
18.5 The Life Cycle of High-Mass Stars 534
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 18.1 Gravity Waves 537
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 18.2 Black Hole Sun 538
18.6 Galaxies 539
HIGHLIGHT 18.1 Determining Astronomical Distances 544
18.7 Cosmology 546
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 18.3 The Expanding Universe 548
HIGHLIGHT 18.2 Age of the Universe 550
Key Terms 552, Matching 552, Multiple Choice 553,
Fill in the Blank 554, Short Answer 554,
Visual Connection 555, Applying Your Knowledge 556,
Important Equations 556, E xercises 556
Chapter 19 The Atmosphere 557
19.1 Atmospheric Composition and Structure 558
19.2 Atmospheric Energy Content 562
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 19.1 Hot Time 564
HIGHLIGHT 19.1 Blue Skies and Red Sunsets 565
HIGHLIGHT 19.2 The Greenhouse Effect 566
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 19.2 Violet Sky 568
19.3 Atmospheric Measurements and Observations 569
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 19.3 Not Dense Enough 570
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 19.1 Pressures in You:
Blood and Intraocular 572
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 19.4 Slurp It Up 572
19.4 Air Motion 577
19.5 Clouds 582
HIGHLIGHT 19.3 Cloud Families and Types 583
Key Terms 587, Matching 587, Multiple Choice 587,
Fill in the Blank 588, Short Answer 588,
Visual Connection 589, Applying Your Knowledge 589,
Important Equation 590, E xercises 590
Chapter 20 Atmospheric Effects 591
20.1 Condensation and Precipitation 592
20.2 Air Masses 595
HIGHLIGHT 20.1 E l Niño (the Little Boy) and La Niña
(the Little Girl) 599
20.3 Storms 600
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 20.1 Don’t Go Under
That Tree! Lightning Formation and Tree Strikes 601
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 20.1 What a Thundersnow! 602
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 20.2 Black Ice 603
HIGHLIGHT 20.2 Wind Chill Temperature Index 604
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 20.3 Snowy Cold 605
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 20.4 There She Blows 609
HIGHLIGHT 20.3 Naming Hurricanes 612
20.4 Atmospheric Pollution 612
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 20.5 A Laughing Matter 616
20.5 Climate and Pollution 620
PHYSICAL SCIENCE TODAY 20.2 Ruminating Up
Some CH4 622
HIGHLIGHT 20.4 The Ozone Hole and Global
Warming 623
Key Terms 625, Matching 625, Multiple Choice 625,
Fill in the Blank 626, Short Answer 626,
Visual Connection 627, Applying Your Knowledge 627,
Exercises 628
Chapter 21 Structural G eology
and Plate Tectonics 629
21.1 The Earth’s Interior Structure 630
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 21.1 The Earth’s Interior
Boundaries 631
21.2 Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading 632
21.3 Plate Tectonics 637
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 21.2 Continents in Balance 639
HIGHLIGHT 21.1 Tectonic Activity on Mars 640
21.4 Plate Motion and Volcanoes 642
21.5 E arthquakes 644
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 21.3 Los Angeles Meets San
Francisco 645
HIGHLIGHT 21.2 E arthquake Risk in North America 647
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 21.4 The 2010 Big Shake
in Haiti 649
21.6 Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building 651
Key Terms 655, Matching 655, Multiple Choice 656,
Fill in the Blank 657, Short Answer 657,
Visual Connection 658, Applying Your Knowledge 658
Chapter 22 Minerals, R ocks,
and Volcanoes 659
22.1 Minerals 660
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 22.1 Cutting Diamonds 664
22.2 Rocks 666
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 22.2 E nergy for the Rock Cycle 668
22.3 Igneous Rocks 668
22.4 Igneous Activity and Volcanoes 671
HIGHLIGHT 22.1 Kīlauea: The Most Active Volcano in
the World 674
22.5 Sedimentary Rocks 678
22.6 Metamorphic Rocks 683
Key Terms 686, Matching 686, Multiple Choice 687,
Fill in the Blank 688, Short Answer 688,
Visual Connection 689, Applying Your Knowledge 689
Chapter 23 Surface Processes 691
23.1 Weathering 692
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 23.1 Moon Weathering 694
23.2 E rosion 696
23.3 Groundwater 702
HIGHLIGHT 23.1 The Earth’s Largest Crystals 703
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 23.2 Powering the Hydrologic Cycle 704
23.4 Shoreline and Seafloor Topography 707
HIGHLIGHT 23.2 The Highest Tides in the World 708
Key Terms 713, Matching 713, Multiple Choice 714,
Fill in the Blank 714, Short Answer 715,
Visual Connection 715, Applying Your Knowledge 716
Chapter 24 Geologic Time 717
24.1 Fossils 718
HIGHLIGHT 24.1 How Fossils Were Formed 720
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 24.1 Fossilized Jellyfish 721
24.2 Relative Geologic Time 721
CONCEPTUAL Q&A 24.2 Dinosaur Dating 731
24.4 The Age of the Earth 732
24.5 The Geologic Time Scale 733
HIGHLIGHT 24.2 The K-Pg Event: The Disappearance of
the Dinosaurs 737
Key Terms 738, Matching 739, Multiple Choice 739,
Fill in the Blank 740, Short Answer 740,
Visual Connection 741, Applying Your Knowledge 742,
Exercises 742
Appendixes A-1