Campbell Biology, 12th Edition PDF by Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Rebecca B. Orr

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Campbell Biology, 12th Edition

By Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky and Rebecca B. Orr

Campbell Biology, 12th Edition

Detailed Contents

1 Evolution, the Themes of Biology,

and Scientific Inquiry 2

CONCEPT 1.1 The study of life reveals unifying themes 3

Theme: New Properties Emerge at Successive Levels of Biological Organization 4

Theme: Life’s Processes Involve the Expression and Transmission of Genetic Information 6

Theme: Life Requires the Transfer and Transformation of Energy and Matter 9

Theme: From Molecules to Ecosystems, Interactions Are Important in Biological Systems 9

CONCEPT 1.2 The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life 11

Classifying the Diversity of Life 12

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Natural Selection 14

The Tree of Life 15

CONCEPT 1.3 In studying nature, scientists form and test hypotheses 16

Exploration and Observation 17

Gathering and Analyzing Data 17

Forming and Testing Hypotheses 17

The Flexibility of the Scientific Process 18

A Case Study in Scientific Inquiry: Investigating Coat Coloration in Mouse Populations 20

Variables and Controls in Experiments 20

Theories in Science 21

CONCEPT 1.4 Science benefits from a cooperative approach and diverse viewpoints 22

Building on the Work of Others 22

Science, Technology, and Society 23

The Value of Diverse Viewpoints in Science 24

Unit 1 The Chemistry of Life 27

2 The Chemical Context of Life 28

CONCEPT 2.1 Matter consists of chemical elements in pure form and in combinations called

compounds 29

Elements and Compounds 29

The Elements of Life 29

Case Study: Evolution of Tolerance to Toxic Elements 30

CONCEPT 2.2 An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms 30

Subatomic Particles 30

Atomic Number and Atomic Mass 31

Isotopes 31

The Energy Levels of Electrons 32

Electron Distribution and Chemical Properties 34

Electron Orbitals 35

CONCEPT 2.3 The formation and function of molecules and ionic compounds depend on chemical

bonding between atoms 36

Covalent Bonds 36

Ionic Bonds 37

Weak Chemical Interactions 38

Molecular Shape and Function 39

CONCEPT 2.4 Chemical reactions make and break chemical bonds 40

3 Water and Life 44

CONCEPT 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding 45

CONCEPT 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life 45

Cohesion of Water Molecules 45

Moderation of Temperature by Water 46

Floating of Ice on Liquid Water 48

Water: The Solvent of Life 49

Possible Evolution of Life on Other Planets 50

CONCEPT 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms 51

Acids and Bases 51

The pH Scale 51

Buffers 52

Acidification: A Threat to Our Oceans 53

4 Carbon and the Molecular

Diversity of Life 56

CONCEPT 4.1 Organic chemistry is key to the origin of life 57

CONCEPT 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms 58

The Formation of Bonds with Carbon 58

Molecular Diversity Arising from Variation in Carbon Skeletons 60

CONCEPT 4.3 A few chemical groups are key to molecular function 62

The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life 62

ATP: An Important Source of Energy for Cellular Processes 64

The Chemical Elements of Life: A Review 64

5 The Structure and Function of

Large Biological Molecules 66

CONCEPT 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 67

The Synthesis and Breakdown of Polymers 67

The Diversity of Polymers 67

CONCEPT 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 68

Sugars 68

Polysaccharides 70

CONCEPT 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules 72

Fats 72

Phospholipids 74

Steroids 75

CONCEPT 5.4 Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions 75

Amino Acids (Monomers) 75

Polypeptides (Amino Acid Polymers) 78

Protein Structure and Function 78

CONCEPT 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information 84

The Roles of Nucleic Acids 84

The Components of Nucleic Acids 84

Nucleotide Polymers 85

The Structures of DNA and RNA Molecules 86

CONCEPT 5.6 Genomics and proteomics have transformed biological inquiry and applications 86

DNA and Proteins as Tape Measures of Evolution 87

Unit 2 The Cell 92

6 A Tour of the Cell 93

CONCEPT 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and biochemistry to study cells 94 Microscopy 94

Cell Fractionation 96

CONCEPT 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 97

Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 97

A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell 99

CONCEPT 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 102

The Nucleus: Information Central 102

Ribosomes: Protein Factories 102

CONCEPT 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions

104

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory 104

The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center 105

Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments 107

Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments 108

The Endomembrane System: A Review 108

CONCEPT 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 109

The Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 109

Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion 110

Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy 110

Peroxisomes: Oxidation 112

CONCEPT 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that

organizes structures and activities in the cell 112

Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support and Motility 112

Components of the Cytoskeleton 113

CONCEPT 6.7 Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular

activities 118

Cell Walls of Plants 118

The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells 118

Cell Junctions 119

CONCEPT 6.8 A cell is greater than the sum of its parts 121

7 Membrane Structure

and Function 126

CONCEPT 7.1 Cellular membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins 127

The Fluidity of Membranes 128

Evolution of Differences in Membrane Lipid Composition 129

Membrane Proteins and Their Functions 129

The Role of Membrane Carbohydrates in Cell-Cell Recognition 130

Synthesis and Sidedness of Membranes 131

CONCEPT 7.2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability 131

The Permeability of the Lipid Bilayer 132

Transport Proteins 132

CONCEPT 7.3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy

investment 132

Effects of Osmosis on Water Balance 133

Facilitated Diffusion: Passive Transport Aided by Proteins 135

CONCEPT 7.4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients 136

The Need for Energy in Active Transport 136

How Ion Pumps Maintain Membrane Potential 137

Cotransport: Coupled Transport by a Membrane Protein 138

CONCEPT 7.5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis 139

Exocytosis 139

Endocytosis 139

8 An Introduction to

Metabolism 143

CONCEPT 8.1 An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy 144

Metabolic Pathways 144

Forms of Energy 144

The Laws of Energy Transformation 145

CONCEPT 8.2 The free-energy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs

spontaneously 147

Free-Energy Change, ΔG 147

Free Energy, Stability, and Equilibrium 147

Free Energy and Metabolism 148

CONCEPT 8.3 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions 150

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP 150

How ATP Provides Energy That Performs Work 151

The Regeneration of ATP 153

CONCEPT 8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 153

The Activation Energy Barrier 153

How Enzymes Speed Up Reactions 154

Substrate Specificity of Enzymes 155

Catalysis in the Enzyme’s Active Site 156

Effects of Local Conditions on Enzyme Activity 157

The Evolution of Enzymes 159

CONCEPT 8.5 Regulation of enzyme activity helps control metabolism 159

Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes 160

Localization of Enzymes Within the Cell 161

9 Cellular Respiration and

Fermentation 164

CONCEPT 9.1 Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels 165

Catabolic Pathways and Production of ATP 165

Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction 165

The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview 168

CONCEPT 9.2 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate 170

CONCEPT 9.3 After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation

of organic molecules 171

Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 171

The Citric Acid Cycle 172

CONCEPT 9.4 During oxidative phosphorylation,

chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis 174

The Pathway of Electron Transport 174

Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism 175

An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration 177

CONCEPT 9.5 Fermentation and anaerobic respiration enable cells to produce ATP without the use of

oxygen 179

Types of Fermentation 180

Comparing Fermentation with Anaerobic and Aerobic Respiration 181

The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis 182

CONCEPT 9.6 Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways 182

The Versatility of Catabolism 182

Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways) 183

Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms 183

10 Photosynthesis 187

CONCEPT 10.1 Photosynthesis feeds the biosphere 188

CONCEPT 10.2 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food 189

Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants 189

Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis 189

The Two Stages of Photosynthesis: A Preview 191

CONCEPT 10.3 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH

192

The Nature of Sunlight 192

Photosynthetic Pigments: The Light Receptors 192

Excitation of Chlorophyll by Light 195

A Photosystem: A Reaction-Center Complex Associated with

Light-Harvesting Complexes 195

Linear Electron Flow 197

Cyclic Electron Flow 198

A Comparison of Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts and

Mitochondria 199

CONCEPT 10.4 The Calvin cycle uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce CO2 to sugar

201

CONCEPT 10.5 Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates 203

Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic? 203

C4 Plants 203

CAM Plants 205

CONCEPT 10.6 Photosynthesis is essential for life on Earth: a review 206

11 Cell Communication 212

CONCEPT 11.1 External signals are converted to responses

within the cell 213

Evolution of Cell Signaling 213

Local and Long-Distance Signaling 215

The Three Stages of Cell Signaling: A Preview 216

CONCEPT 11.2 Signal reception: A signaling molecule binds to

a receptor, causing it to change shape 217

Receptors in the Plasma Membrane 217

Intracellular Receptors 220

CONCEPT 11.3 Signal transduction: Cascades of molecular

interactions transmit signals from receptors to relay molecules

in the cell 221

Signal Transduction Pathways 221

Protein Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation 222

Small Molecules and Ions as Second Messengers 223

CONCEPT 11.4 Cellular response: Cell signaling leads to

regulation of transcription or cytoplasmic activities 226

Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Responses 226

Regulation of the Response 226

CONCEPT 11.5 Apoptosis requires integration of multiple

cell-signaling pathways 229

Apoptosis in the Soil Worm Caenorhabditis elegans 230

Apoptotic Pathways and the Signals That Trigger Them 230

12 The Cell Cycle 234

CONCEPT 12.1 Most cell division results in genetically

identical daughter cells 235

Key Roles of Cell Division 235

Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material 235

Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell

Division 236

CONCEPT 12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in

the cell cycle 237

Phases of the Cell Cycle 237

The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look 240

Cytokinesis: A Closer Look 241

Binary Fission in Bacteria 242

The Evolution of Mitosis 243

CONCEPT 12.3 The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a

molecular control system 244

The Cell Cycle Control System 244

Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells 248

Unit 3 Genetics 253

Interview: Francisco Mojica 253

13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 254

CONCEPT 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by

inheriting chromosomes 255

Inheritance of Genes 255

Comparison of Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 255

CONCEPT 13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life

cycles 256

Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells 256

Behavior of Chromosome Sets in the Human Life Cycle 257

The Variety of Sexual Life Cycles 258

CONCEPT 13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome

sets from diploid to haploid 259

The Stages of Meiosis 259

Crossing Over and Synapsis During Prophase I 262

A Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis 262

CONCEPT 13.4 Genetic variation produced in sexual life cycles

contributes to evolution 265

Origins of Genetic Variation Among Offspring 265

The Evolutionary Significance of Genetic Variation Within

Populations 266

14 Mendel and the Gene Idea 269

CONCEPT 14.1 Mendel used the scientific approach to

identify two laws of inheritance 270

Mendel’s Experimental,

Quantitative Approach 270

The Law of Segregation 271

The Law of Independent

Assortment 274

CONCEPT 14.2 Probability

laws govern Mendelian

inheritance 276

The Multiplication and Addition

Rules Applied to Monohybrid

Crosses 277

Solving Complex Genetics Problems with the Rules

of Probability 277

CONCEPT 14.3 Inheritance patterns are often more

complex than predicted by simple Mendelian

genetics 278

Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene 278

Extending Mendelian Genetics for Two or More Genes 281

Nature and Nurture: The Environmental Impact on

Phenotype 282

A Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation 282

CONCEPT 14.4 Many human traits follow Mendelian

patterns of inheritance 284

Pedigree Analysis 284

Recessively Inherited Disorders 285

Dominantly Inherited Disorders 287

Multifactorial Disorders 287

Genetic Testing and Counseling 287

15 The Chromosomal Basis of

Inheritance 294

CONCEPT 15.1 Mendelian inheritance has its physical basis in

the behavior of chromosomes 295

Morgan’s Choice of Experimental Organism 295

Correlating Behavior of a Gene’s Alleles with Behavior of a

Chromosome Pair: Scientific Inquiry 295

CONCEPT 15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of

inheritance 298

The Chromosomal Basis of Sex 298

Inheritance of X-Linked Genes 299

X Inactivation in Female Mammals 300

CONCEPT 15.3 Linked genes tend to be inherited together

because they are located near each other on the same

chromosome 301

How Linkage Affects Inheritance 301

Genetic Recombination and Linkage 302

Mapping the Distance Between Genes Using Recombination Data:

Scientific Inquiry 305

CONCEPT 15.4 Alterations of chromosome number or

structure cause some genetic disorders 306

Abnormal Chromosome Number 307

Alterations of Chromosome Structure 307

Human Conditions Due to Chromosomal Alterations 308

CONCEPT 15.5 Some inheritance patterns are exceptions to

standard Mendelian inheritance 310

Genomic Imprinting 310

Inheritance of Organelle Genes 311

xxxvi DETAILED CONTENTS

16 The Molecular Basis of

Inheritance 314

CONCEPT 16.1 DNA is the genetic material 315

The Search for the Genetic Material: Scientific Inquiry 315

Building a Structural Model of DNA 317

CONCEPT 16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA

replication and repair 320

The Basic Principle: Base Pairing to a Template Strand 321

DNA Replication: A Closer Look 322

Proofreading and Repairing DNA 327

Evolutionary Significance of Altered DNA Nucleotides 328

Replicating the Ends of DNA Molecules 328

CONCEPT 16.3 A chromosome consists of a DNA molecule

packed together with proteins 330

17 Gene Expression: From Gene to

Protein 335

CONCEPT 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and

translation 336

Evidence from Studying Metabolic Defects 336

Basic Principles of Transcription and Translation 337

The Genetic Code 340

CONCEPT 17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of

RNA: A Closer Look 342

Molecular Components of Transcription 342

Synthesis of an RNA Transcript 342

CONCEPT 17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after

transcription 345

Alteration of mRNA Ends 345

Split Genes and RNA Splicing 345

CONCEPT 17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a

polypeptide: A Closer Look 347

Molecular Components of Translation 348

Building a Polypeptide 350

Completing and Targeting the Functional Protein 352

Making Multiple Polypeptides in Bacteria and Eukaryotes 355

CONCEPT 17.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can

affect protein structure and function 357

Types of Small-Scale Mutations 357

New Mutations and Mutagens 360

Using CRISPR to Edit Genes and Correct Disease-Causing

Mutations 360

What Is a Gene? Revisiting the Question 361

18 Regulation of Gene Expression 365

CONCEPT 18.1 Bacteria often respond to environmental

change by regulating transcription 366

Operons: The Basic Concept 366

Repressible and Inducible Operons: Two Types of Negative Gene

Regulation 368

Positive Gene Regulation 369

CONCEPT 18. 2 Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated at

many stages 370

Differential Gene Expression 370

Regulation of Chromatin Structure 371

Regulation of Transcription Initiation 373

Mechanisms of Post-transcriptional Regulation 377

CONCEPT 18.3 Noncoding RNAs play multiple roles in

controlling gene expression 379

Effects on mRNAs by MicroRNAs and Small Interfering RNAs 379

Chromatin Remodeling and Effects on Transcription by

ncRNAs 380

CONCEPT 18.4 A program of differential gene expression

leads to the different cell types in a multicellular

organism 381

A Genetic Program for Embryonic Development 381

Cytoplasmic Determinants and Inductive Signals 382

Sequential Regulation of Gene Expression During Cellular

Differentiation 383

Pattern Formation: Setting Up the Body Plan 384

CONCEPT 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect

cell cycle control 388

Types of Genes Associated with Cancer 388

Interference with Normal Cell-Signaling Pathways 389

The Multistep Model of Cancer Development 391

Inherited Predisposition and Environmental Factors Contributing

to Cancer 394

The Role of Viruses in Cancer 394

CONCEPT 18.5 Cancer results from genetic changes that affect

cell cycle control 388

Types of Genes Associated with Cancer 388

Interference with Normal Cell-Signaling Pathways 389

The Multistep Model of Cancer Development 391

Inherited Predisposition and Environmental Factors Contributing

to Cancer 394

The Role of Viruses in Cancer 394

CONCEPT 20.3 Cloned organisms and stem cells are useful for

basic research and other applications 428

Cloning Plants: Single-Cell Cultures 428

Cloning Animals: Nuclear Transplantation 428

Stem Cells of Animals 430

CONCEPT 20.4 The practical applications of DNA-based

biotechnology affect our lives in many ways 433

Medical Applications 433

Forensic Evidence and Genetic Profiles 436

Environmental Cleanup 437

Agricultural Applications 437

Safety and Ethical Questions Raised by DNA

Technology 438

21 Genomes and Their

Evolution 442

CONCEPT 21.1 The Human Genome Project fostered

development of faster, less expensive sequencing

techniques 443

CONCEPT 21.2 Scientists use bioinformatics to analyze

genomes and their functions 444

Centralized Resources for Analyzing Genome

Sequences 444

Identifying Protein-Coding Genes and Understanding Their

Functions 445

Understanding Genes and Gene Expression at the Systems

Level 446

CONCEPT 21.3 Genomes vary in size, number of genes,

and gene density 448

Genome Size 448

Number of Genes 449

Gene Density and Noncoding DNA 449

CONCEPT 21.4 Multicellular eukaryotes have a lot of

noncoding DNA and many multigene families 450

Transposable Elements and Related Sequences 451

Other Repetitive DNA, Including Simple Sequence DNA 452

Genes and Multigene Families 452

CONCEPT 21.5 Duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of

DNA contribute to genome evolution 454

Duplication of Entire Chromosome Sets 454

Alterations of Chromosome

Structure 454

Duplication and Divergence of Gene-

Sized Regions

of DNA 455

Rearrangements of Parts of Genes:

Exon Duplication and Exon

Shuffling 456

How Transposable Elements

Contribute to Genome

Evolution 459

CONCEPT 21.6 Comparing genome

sequences provides clues to

evolution and development 459

Comparing Genomes 459

Widespread Conservation

of Developmental

Genes Among Animals 463

Unit 4 Mechanisms of Evolution 467

Interview: Cassandra Extavour 467

22 Descent with Modification:

A Darwinian View of Life 468

CONCEPT 22.1 The Darwinian revolution challenged

traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging

species 469

Endless Forms Most Beautiful 469

Scala Naturae and Classification of Species 470

Ideas About Change over Time 470

Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution 471

CONCEPT 22.2 Descent with modification by natural selection

explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and

diversity of life 471

Darwin’s Research 471

Ideas from The Origin of Species 473

Key Features of Natural Selection 476

CONCEPT 22.3 Evolution is supported by an overwhelming

amount of scientific evidence 476

Direct Observations of Evolutionary Change 477

Homology 479

The Fossil Record 481

Biogeography 482

What Is Theoretical About Darwin’s View of Life? 483

Unit 4 Mechanisms of Evolution 467

23 The Evolution of Populations 486

CONCEPT 23.1 Genetic variation makes evolution

possible 487

Genetic Variation 487

Sources of Genetic Variation 488

CONCEPT 23.2 The Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to

test whether a population is evolving 489

Gene Pools and Allele Frequencies 490

The Hardy-Weinberg Equation 490

CONCEPT 23.3 Natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow

can alter allele frequencies in a population 493

Natural Selection 494

Genetic Drift 494

Gene Flow 496

CONCEPT 23.4 Natural selection is the only mechanism that

consistently causes adaptive evolution 497

Natural Selection: A Closer Look 497

The Key Role of Natural Selection in Adaptive Evolution 498

Sexual Selection 499

Balancing Selection 500

Why Natural Selection Cannot Fashion Perfect Organisms 501

24 The Origin of Species 506

CONCEPT 24.1 The biological species concept emphasizes

reproductive isolation 507

The Biological Species Concept 507

Other Definitions of Species 510

CONCEPT 24.2 Speciation can take place with or without

geographic separation 511

Allopatric (“Other Country”) Speciation 511

Sympatric (“Same Country”) Speciation 513

Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation: A Review 516

CONCEPT 24.3 Hybrid zones reveal factors that cause

reproductive isolation 516

Patterns Within Hybrid Zones 516

Hybrid Zones and Environmental Change 517

Hybrid Zones over Time 518

CONCEPT 24.4 Speciation can occur rapidly or slowly and can

result from changes in few or many genes 520

The Time Course of Speciation 520

Studying the Genetics of Speciation 522

From Speciation to Macroevolution 523

25 The History of Life on Earth 525

CONCEPT 25.1 Conditions on early Earth made the origin of

life possible 526

Synthesis of Organic Compounds on Early Earth 526

Abiotic Synthesis of Macromolecules 527

Protocells 527

Self-Replicating RNA 528

CONCEPT 25.2 The fossil record

documents the history of life 528

The Fossil Record 529

How Rocks and Fossils Are

Dated 529

The Origin of New Groups of

Organisms 530

CONCEPT 25.3 Key events in life’s

history include the origins of

unicellular and multicellular organisms and the colonization

of land 532

The First Single-Celled Organisms 533

The Origin of Multicellularity 535

The Colonization of Land 536

CONCEPT 25.4 The rise and fall of groups of organisms reflect

differences in speciation and extinction rates 537

Plate Tectonics 538

Mass Extinctions 540

Adaptive Radiations 542

CONCEPT 25.5 Major changes in body form can result from

changes in the sequences and regulation of developmental

genes 544

Effects of Developmental Genes 544

The Evolution of Development 545

CONCEPT 25.6 Evolution is not goal oriented 547

Evolutionary Novelties 547

Evolutionary Trends 548

Unit 5 The Evolutionary History

of Biological Diversity 552

Interview: Penny Chisholm 552

26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 553

CONCEPT 26.1 Phylogenies show evolutionary

relationships 554

Binomial Nomenclature 554

Hierarchical Classification 554

Linking Classification and Phylogeny 555

What We Can and Cannot Learn from Phylogenetic

Trees 555

Applying Phylogenies 557

CONCEPT 26.2 Phylogenies are inferred from morphological

and molecular data 558

Morphological and Molecular Homologies 558

Sorting Homology from Analogy 558

Evaluating Molecular Homologies 559

CONCEPT 26.3 Shared characters are used to construct

phylogenetic trees 559

Cladistics 559

Phylogenetic Trees with Proportional Branch Lengths 561

Maximum Parsimony and Maximum Likelihood 562

Phylogenetic Trees as Hypotheses 564

CONCEPT 26.4 An organism’s evolutionary history is

documented in its genome 565

Gene Duplications and Gene Families 565

Genome Evolution 566

CONCEPT 26.5 Molecular clocks help track evolutionary

time 566

Molecular Clocks 566

Applying a Molecular Clock: Dating the Origin

of HIV 567

CONCEPT 26.6 Our understanding of the tree of life

continues to change based on new data 568

From Two Kingdoms to Three Domains 568

The Important Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer 568

27 Bacteria and Archaea 573

CONCEPT 27.1 Structural and functional adaptations

contribute to prokaryotic success 574

Cell-Surface Structures 574

Motility 576

Internal Organization and DNA 577

Reproduction 577

CONCEPT 27.2 Rapid reproduction, mutation, and

genetic recombination promote genetic diversity in

prokaryotes 578

Rapid Reproduction and Mutation 578

Genetic Recombination 579

CONCEPT 27.3 Diverse nutritional and metabolic adaptations

have evolved in prokaryotes 581

The Role of Oxygen in Metabolism 582

Nitrogen Metabolism 582

Metabolic Cooperation 582

CONCEPT 27.4 Prokaryotes have radiated into a diverse set

of lineages 583

An Overview of Prokaryotic Diversity 583

Bacteria 583

Archaea 585

CONCEPT 27.5 Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the

biosphere 586

Chemical Recycling 586

Ecological Interactions 587

CONCEPT 27.6 Prokaryotes have both beneficial and harmful

impacts on humans 587

Mutualistic Bacteria 587

Pathogenic Bacteria 588

Antibiotic Resistance 588

Prokaryotes in Research and Technology 589

28 Protists 593

CONCEPT 28.1 Most eukaryotes are single-celled

organisms 594

Structural and Functional Diversity in Protists 594

Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution 594

Four Supergroups of Eukaryotes 597

CONCEPT 28.2 Excavates include protists with modified

mitochondria and protists with unique flagella 597

Diplomonads and Parabasalids 600

Euglenozoans 600

CONCEPT 28.3 SAR is a highly diverse group of protists

defined by DNA similarities 601

Stramenopiles 602

Alveolates 604

Rhizarians 606

CONCEPT 28.4 Red algae and green algae are the closest

relatives of plants 609

Red Algae 609

Green Algae 610

CONCEPT 28.5 Unikonts include protists that are closely

related to fungi and animals 611

Amoebozoans 612

Opisthokonts 613

CONCEPT 28.6 Protists play key roles in ecological

communities 614

Symbiotic Protists 614

Photosynthetic Protists 614

29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants

Colonized Land 618

CONCEPT 29.1 Plants evolved from green algae 619

Evidence of Algal Ancestry 619

Adaptations Enabling the Move to Land 619

Derived Traits of Plants 621

The Origin and Diversification of Plants 621

CONCEPT 29.2 Mosses and other nonvascular plants have life

cycles dominated by gametophytes 623

Bryophyte Gametophytes 624

Bryophyte Sporophytes 625

The Ecological and Economic Importance of Mosses 627

CONCEPT 29.3 Ferns and other seedless vascular plants were

the first plants to grow tall 629

Origins and Traits of Vascular Plants 629

Classification of Seedless Vascular Plants 631

The Significance of Seedless Vascular Plants 633

30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of

Seed Plants 636

CONCEPT 30.1 Seeds and pollen grains are key adaptations

for life on land 637

Advantages of Reduced Gametophytes 637

Heterospory: The Rule Among Seed Plants 638

Ovules and Production of Eggs 638

Pollen and Production of Sperm 638

The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds 639

CONCEPT 30.2 Gymnosperms bear “naked” seeds, typically on

cones 640

The Life Cycle of a Pine 640

Early Seed Plants and the Rise of Gymnosperms 641

Gymnosperm Diversity 641

CONCEPT 30.3 The reproductive

adaptations of angiosperms

include flowers and fruits 644

Characteristics of

Angiosperms 644

Angiosperm Evolution 647

Angiosperm Diversity 649

CONCEPT 30.4 Human welfare

depends on seed plants 651

Products from Seed Plants 651

Threats to Plant Diversity 651

31 Fungi 654

CONCEPT 31.1 Fungi are heterotrophs that feed by

absorption 655

Nutrition and Ecology 655

Body Structure 655

Specialized Hyphae in Mycorrhizal Fungi 656

CONCEPT 31.2 Fungi produce spores through sexual or

asexual life cycles 657

Sexual Reproduction 658

Asexual Reproduction 658

CONCEPT 31.3 The ancestor of fungi was an aquatic, singlecelled,

flagellated protist 659

The Origin of Fungi 659

The Move to Land 660

CONCEPT 31.4 Fungi have radiated into a diverse set of

lineages 660

Cryptomycetes and Microsporidians 661

Zoopagomycetes 662

Mucoromycetes 663

Ascomycetes 663

Basidiomycetes 665

CONCEPT 31.5 Fungi play key roles in nutrient cycling,

ecological interactions, and human welfare 667

Fungi as Decomposers 667

Fungi as Mutualists 667

Practical Uses of Fungi 670

32 An Overview of Animal

Diversity 673

CONCEPT 32.1 Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic

eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic

layers 674

Nutritional Mode 674

Cell Structure and Specialization 674

Reproduction and Development 674

CONCEPT 32.2 The history of animals spans more than half a

billion years 675

Steps in the Origin of Multicellular Animals 675

Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–541 Million Years Ago) 676

Paleozoic Era (541–252 Million Years Ago) 677

Mesozoic Era (252–66 Million Years Ago) 679

Cenozoic Era (66 Million Years Ago to the Present) 679

CONCEPT 32.3 Animals can be characterized by body

plans 679

Symmetry 679

Tissues 679

Body Cavities 680

Protostome and Deuterostome Development 681

CONCEPT 32.4 Views of animal phylogeny continue to be

shaped by new molecular and morphological data 682

The Diversification of Animals 682

Future Directions in Animal Systematics 684

33 An Introduction to

Invertebrates 686

CONCEPT 33.1 Sponges are basal animals that lack tissues 690

CONCEPT 33.2 Cnidarians are an ancient phylum of

eumetazoans 691

Medusozoans 692

Anthozoans 693

CONCEPT 33.3 Lophotrochozoans, a clade identified by

molecular data, have the widest range of animal body

forms 694

Flatworms 694

Rotifers and

Acanthocephalans 697

Lophophorates: Ectoprocts

and Brachiopods 698

Molluscs 699

Annelids 703

CONCEPT 33.4 Ecdysozoans

are the most species-rich

animal group 705

Nematodes 705

Arthropods 706

CONCEPT 33.5 Echinoderms and chordates are

deuterostomes 713

Echinoderms 713

Chordates 715

34 The Origin and Evolution of

Vertebrates 718

CONCEPT 34.1 Chordates have a notochord and a dorsal,

hollow nerve cord 719

Derived Characters of Chordates 719

Lancelets 720

Tunicates 721

Early Chordate Evolution 722

CONCEPT 34.2 Vertebrates are chordates that have a

backbone 722

Derived Characters of Vertebrates 722

Hagfishes and Lampreys 723

Early Vertebrate Evolution 724

CONCEPT 34.3 Gnathostomes are vertebrates that have jaws 725

Derived Characters of Gnathostomes 725

Fossil Gnathostomes 726

Chondrichthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their Relatives) 726

Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins 728

CONCEPT 34.4 Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs 730

Derived Characters of Tetrapods 730

The Origin of Tetrapods 731

Amphibians 731

CONCEPT 34.5 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a terrestrially

adapted egg 734

Derived Characters of Amniotes 734

Early Amniotes 735

Reptiles 735

CONCEPT 34.6 Mammals are amniotes that have hair and

produce milk 741

Derived Characters of Mammals 741

Early Evolution of Mammals 741

Monotremes 742

Marsupials 743

Eutherians (Placental Mammals) 744

CONCEPT 34.7 Humans are mammals that have a large brain

and bipedal locomotion 748

Derived Characters of Humans 748

The Earliest Hominins 748

Australopiths 749

Bipedalism 750

Tool Use 750

Early Homo 750

Neanderthals 752

Homo sapiens 753

Unit 6 Plant Form and Function 757

35 Vascular Plant Structure, Growth,

and Development 758

CONCEPT 35.1 Plants have a hierarchical organization

consisting of organs, tissues, and cells 759

Vascular Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves 759

Dermal, Vascular, and Ground

Tissues 762

Common Types of Plant Cells 763

CONCEPT 35.2 Different meristems

generate new cells for primary and

secondary growth 766

CONCEPT 35.3 Primary growth

lengthens roots and shoots 768

Primary Growth of Roots 768

Primary Growth of Shoots 769

CONCEPT 35.4 Secondary growth increases the diameter of

stems and roots in woody plants 772

The Vascular Cambium and Secondary Vascular Tissue 773

The Cork Cambium and the Production of Periderm 774

Evolution of Secondary Growth 774

CONCEPT 35.5 Growth, morphogenesis, and cell

differentiation produce the plant body 775

Model Organisms: Revolutionizing the Study of Plants 776

Growth: Cell Division and Cell Expansion 776

Morphogenesis and Pattern Formation 777

Gene Expression and the Control of Cell Differentiation 778

Shifts in Development: Phase Changes 778

Genetic Control of Flowering 779

36 Resource Acquisition and

Transport in Vascular Plants 784

CONCEPT 36.1 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key

steps in the evolution of vascular plants 785

Shoot Architecture and Light Capture 785

Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals 787

CONCEPT 36.2 Different mechanisms transport substances

over short or long distances 787

The Apoplast and Symplast: Transport Continuums 787

Short-Distance Transport of Solutes Across Plasma

Membranes 788

Short-Distance Transport of Water Across Plasma Membranes 788

Long-Distance Transport:The Role of Bulk Flow 791

CONCEPT 36.3 Transpiration drives the transport of water and

minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem 792

Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells 792

Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem 792

Bulk Flow Transport via the Xylem 792

Xylem Sap Ascent by Bulk Flow: A Review 796

CONCEPT 36.4 The rate of transpiration is regulated by

stomata 796

Stomata: Major Pathways for Water Loss 796

Mechanisms of Stomatal Opening and Closing 797

Stimuli for Stomatal Opening and Closing 798

Effects of Transpiration on Wilting and Leaf Temperature 798

Adaptations That Reduce Evaporative Water Loss 798

CONCEPT 36.5 Sugars are transported from sources to sinks

via the phloem 799

Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Sinks 799

Bulk Flow by Positive Pressure: The Mechanism of Translocation in

Angiosperms 800

CONCEPT 36.6 The symplast is highly dynamic 801

Changes in Plasmodesmatal Number and Pore Size 802

Phloem: An Information Superhighway 802

Electrical Signaling in the Phloem 802

37 Soil and Plant Nutrition 805

CONCEPT 37.1 Soil contains a living, complex

ecosystem 806

Soil Texture 806

Topsoil Composition 806

Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture 807

CONCEPT 37.2 Plant roots absorb many types of essential

elements from the soil 809

Essential Elements 810

Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency 810

Global Climate Change and Food Quality 812

CONCEPT 37.3 Plant nutrition often involves relationships

with other organisms 812

Bacteria and Plant Nutrition 814

Fungi and Plant Nutrition 817

Epiphytes, Parasitic Plants, and Carnivorous Plants 818

38 Angiosperm Reproduction

and Biotechnology 822

CONCEPT 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization,

and fruits are key features of the angiosperm

life cycle 823

Flower Structure and Function 823

Methods of Pollination 825

The Angiosperm Life Cycle: An Overview 826

Development of Female Gametophytes

(Embryo Sacs) 826

Development of Male Gametophytes in Pollen

Grains 826

Seed Development and Structure 828

Sporophyte Development from Seed to Mature Plant 829

Fruit Structure and Function 830

CONCEPT 38.2 Flowering plants reproduce sexually, asexually,

or both 833

Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 833

Advantages and Disadvantages of Asexual and Sexual

Reproduction 833

Mechanisms That Prevent Self-Fertilization 834

Totipotency, Vegetative Reproduction, and Tissue Culture 835

CONCEPT 38.3 People modify crops by breeding and genetic

engineering 836

Plant Breeding 837

Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering 837

The Debate over Plant Biotechnology 839

39 Plant Responses to Internal

and External Signals 842

CONCEPT 39.1 Signal transduction pathways link signal

reception to response 843

Reception 844

Transduction 844

Response 845

CONCEPT CHECK 39.2 Plants use chemicals to communicate 845

General Characteristics of Plant Hormones 846

A Survey of Plant Hormones 847

CONCEPT 39.3 Responses to light are critical for plant

success 855

Blue-Light Photoreceptors 855

Phytochrome Photoreceptors 856

Biological Clocks and Circadian Rhythms 857

The Effect of Light on the Biological Clock 858

Photoperiodism and Responses to Seasons 859

CONCEPT 39.4 Plants respond to a wide variety of stimuli

other than light 861

Gravity 861

Mechanical Stimuli 861

Environmental Stresses 862

CONCEPT 39.5 Plants respond to attacks by pathogens and

herbivores 866

Defenses Against Pathogens 866

Defenses Against Herbivores 867

Unit 7 Animal Form and Function 872

Interview: Steffanie Strathdee 872

40 Basic Principles of Animal Form

and Function 873

CONCEPT 40.1 Animal form and function are correlated at all

levels of organization 874

Evolution of Animal Size and Shape 874

Exchange with the Environment 874

Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans 876

Coordination and Control 880

CONCEPT 40.2 Feedback control maintains the internal

environment in many animals 881

Regulating and Conforming 881

Homeostasis 881

CONCEPT 40.3 Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation

involve form, function, and behavior 884

Endothermy and Ectothermy 884

Variation in Body Temperature 884

Balancing Heat Loss and Gain 885

Acclimatization in Thermoregulation 888

Physiological Thermostats and Fever 888

CONCEPT 40.4 Energy requirements are related to animal

size, activity, and environment 889

Energy Allocation and Use 889

Quantifying Energy Use 890

Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation 890

Influences on Metabolic Rate 891

Torpor and Energy Conservation 892

41 Animal Nutrition 898

CONCEPT 41.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy,

organic building blocks, and essential nutrients 899

Essential Nutrients 899

Variation in Diet 901

Dietary Deficiencies 901

Assessing Nutritional Needs 902

CONCEPT 41.2 Food processing involves ingestion, digestion,

absorption, and elimination 902

Digestive Compartments 904

CONCEPT 41.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages

of food processing form the mammalian digestive

system 905

The Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus 905

Digestion in the Stomach 907

Digestion in the Small Intestine 908

Absorption in the Small Intestine 909

Processing in the Large Intestine 910

CONCEPT 41.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate

digestive systems correlate with diet 911

Dental Adaptations 911

Stomach and Intestinal Adaptations 912

Mutualistic Adaptations 912

CONCEPT 41.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion,

energy storage, and appetite 915

Regulation of Digestion 915

Regulation of Energy Storage 915

Regulation of Appetite and Consumption 917

42 Circulation and Gas Exchange 921

CONCEPT 42.1 Circulatory systems link exchange surfaces

with cells throughout the body 922

Gastrovascular Cavities 922

Open and Closed Circulatory Systems 923

Organization of Vertebrate Circulatory Systems 924

CONCEPT 42.2 Coordinated cycles of heart contraction drive

double circulation in mammals 926

Mammalian Circulation 926

The Mammalian Heart: A Closer Look 926

Maintaining the Heart’s Rhythmic Beat 928

CONCEPT 42.3 Patterns of blood pressure and flow reflect the

structure and arrangement of blood vessels 929

Blood Vessel Structure and Function 929

Blood Flow Velocity 930

Blood Pressure 930

Capillary Function 932

Fluid Return by the Lymphatic System 933

CONCEPT 42.4 Blood components function in exchange,

transport, and defense 934

Blood Composition and Function 934

Cardiovascular Disease 937

CONCEPT 42.5 Gas exchange occurs across specialized

respiratory surfaces 939

Partial Pressure Gradients in Gas Exchange 939

Respiratory Media 939

Respiratory Surfaces 940

Gills in Aquatic Animals 940

Tracheal Systems in Insects 941

Lungs 942

CONCEPT 42.6 Breathing ventilates the lungs 944

How an Amphibian Breathes 944

How a Bird Breathes 944

How a Mammal Breathes 945

Control of Breathing in Humans 946

CONCEPT 42.7 Adaptations for gas exchange include

pigments that bind and transport gases 947

Coordination of Circulation and Gas Exchange 947

Respiratory Pigments 947

Respiratory Adaptations of Diving Mammals 949

43 The Immune System 952

CONCEPT 43.1 In innate immunity, recognition and response

rely on traits common to groups of pathogens 953

Innate Immunity of Invertebrates 953

Innate Immunity of Vertebrates 954

Evasion of Innate Immunity by Pathogens 957

CONCEPT 43.2 In adaptive immunity, receptors provide

pathogen-specific recognition 957

Antigens as the Trigger for Adaptive Immunity 958

Antigen Recognition by B Cells and Antibodies 958

Antigen Recognition by T Cells 959

B Cell and T Cell Development 960

CONCEPT 43.3 Adaptive immunity defends against infection

of body fluids and body cells 963

Helper T Cells: Activating Adaptive Immunity 963

B Cells and Antibodies: A Response to Extracellular Pathogens 964

Cytotoxic T Cells: A Response to Infected Host Cells 966

Summary of the Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune

Responses 967

Immunization 968

Active and Passive Immunity 968

Antibodies as Tools 969

Immune Rejection 969

CONCEPT 43.4 Disruptions in immune system function can

elicit or exacerbate disease 970

Exaggerated, Self-Directed, and Diminished Immune

Responses 970

Evolutionary Adaptations of Pathogens That Underlie Immune

System Avoidance 971

Cancer and Immunity 974

44 Osmoregulation and

Excretion 977

CONCEPT 44.1 Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss

of water and solutes 978

Osmosis and Osmolarity 978

Osmoregulatory Challenges and Mechanisms 978

Energetics of Osmoregulation 980

Transport Epithelia in Osmoregulation 981

CONCEPT 44.2 An animal’s nitrogenous wastes reflect its

phylogeny and habitat 982

Forms of Nitrogenous Waste 982

The Influence of Evolution and Environment on Nitrogenous

Wastes 983

CONCEPT 44.3 Diverse excretory systems are variations on a

tubular theme 983

Survey of Excretory Systems 984

CONCEPT 44.4 The nephron is organized for stepwise

processing of blood filtrate 987

From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look 987

Solute Gradients and Water Conservation 989

Adaptations of the Vertebrate Kidney to Diverse

Environments 991

CONCEPT 44.5 Hormonal circuits link kidney function, water

balance, and blood pressure 994

Homeostatic Regulation of the Kidney 994

45 Hormones and the Endocrine

System 999

CONCEPT 45.1 Hormones and other signaling molecules

bind to target receptors, triggering specific response

pathways 1000

Intercellular Information Flow 1000

Chemical Classes of Hormones 1001

Cellular Hormone Response Pathways 1002

Endocrine Tissues and Organs 1003

CONCEPT 45.2 Feedback regulation and coordination with the

nervous system are common in hormone pathways 1004

Simple Endocrine Pathways 1004

Simple Neuroendocrine Pathways 1005

Feedback Regulation 1005

Coordination of the Endocrine and Nervous Systems 1006

Thyroid Regulation: A Hormone Cascade Pathway 1008

Hormonal Regulation of Growth 1009

CONCEPT 45.3 Endocrine glands respond to diverse

stimuli in regulating homeostasis, development, and

behavior 1011

Parathyroid Hormone and Vitamin D: Control of Blood

Calcium 1011

Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress 1012

Sex Hormones 1014

Hormones and Biological Rhythms 1015

Evolution of Hormone Function 1015

46 Animal Reproduction 1019

CONCEPT 46.1 Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur in

the animal kingdom 1020

Mechanisms of Asexual Reproduction 1020

Variation in Patterns of Sexual Reproduction 1020

Reproductive Cycles 1021

Sexual Reproduction: An Evolutionary Enigma 1021

CONCEPT 46.2 Fertilization depends on mechanisms that

bring together sperm and eggs of the same species 1022

Ensuring the Survival of Offspring 1023

Gamete Production and Delivery 1023

CONCEPT 46.3 Reproductive organs produce and transport

gametes 1025

Human Male Reproductive Anatomy 1025

Human Female Reproductive Anatomy 1026

Gametogenesis 1027

CONCEPT 46.4 The interplay of tropic and sex hormones

regulates reproduction in mammals 1030

Biological Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation in Human

Sexuality 1031

Hormonal Control of the Male Reproductive System 1031

Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive Cycles 1032

Human Sexual Response 1034

CONCEPT 46.5 In placental mammals, an embryo develops

fully within the mother’s uterus 1034

Conception, Embryonic Development, and Birth 1034

Maternal Immune Tolerance of the Embryo and Fetus 1037

Contraception and Abortion 1037

Modern Reproductive Technologies 1039

47 Animal Development 1043

CONCEPT 47.1 Fertilization and cleavage initiate embryonic

development 1044

Fertilization 1044

Cleavage 1046

CONCEPT 47.2 Morphogenesis in animals involves specific

changes in cell shape, position, and survival 1049

Gastrulation 1049

Developmental Adaptations of Amniotes 1053

Organogenesis 1054

The Cytoskeleton in Morphogenesis 1056

CONCEPT 47.3 Cytoplasmic determinants and inductive

signals regulate cell fate 1057

Fate Mapping 1058

Axis Formation 1059

Restricting Developmental Potential 1060

Cell Fate Determination and Pattern Formation by

Inductive Signals 1061

Cilia and Cell Fate 1064

48 Neurons, Synapses, and

Signaling 1067

CONCEPT 48.1 Neuron structure and organization reflect

function in information transfer 1068

Neuron Structure and Function 1068

Introduction to Information Processing 1068

CONCEPT 48.2 Ion pumps and ion channels establish the

resting potential of a neuron 1069

Formation of the Resting Potential 1070

Modeling the Resting Potential 1071

CONCEPT 48.3 Action potentials are the signals conducted by

axons 1072

Hyperpolarization and Depolarization 1072

Graded Potentials and Action Potentials 1073

Generation of Action Potentials: A Closer Look 1073

Conduction of Action Potentials 1075

CONCEPT 48.4 Neurons communicate with other cells at

synapses 1077

Generation of Postsynaptic Potentials 1078

Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials 1079

Termination of Neurotransmitter Signaling 1079

Modulated Signaling at Synapses 1080

Neurotransmitters 1080

49 Nervous Systems 1085

CONCEPT 49.1 Nervous systems consist of circuits of neurons

and supporting cells 1086

Organization of the Vertebrate Nervous System 1087

The Peripheral Nervous System 1088

Glia 1090

CONCEPT 49.2 The vertebrate brain is regionally

specialized 1091

Arousal and Sleep 1094

Biological Clock Regulation 1094

Emotions 1095

Functional Imaging of the Brain 1096

CONCEPT 49.3 The cerebral cortex controls voluntary

movement and cognitive functions 1096

Information Processing 1097

Language and Speech 1098

Lateralization of Cortical Function 1098

Frontal Lobe Function 1098

Evolution of Cognition in Vertebrates 1098

CONCEPT 49.4 Changes in synaptic connections underlie

memory and learning 1099

Neuronal Plasticity 1100

Memory and Learning 1100

Long-Term Potentiation 1101

CONCEPT 49.5 Many nervous system disorders can now be

explained in molecular terms 1102

Schizophrenia 1102

Depression 1102

The Brain’s Reward System and Drug Addiction 1103

Alzheimer’s Disease 1103

Parkinson’s Disease 1104

Future Directions in Brain Research 1104

50 Sensory and Motor

Mechanisms 1107

CONCEPT 50.1 Sensory receptors transduce stimulus

energy and transmit signals to the central nervous

system 1108

Sensory Reception and Transduction 1108

Transmission 1109

Perception 1109

Amplification and Adaptation 1109

Types of Sensory Receptors 1110

CONCEPT 50.2 In hearing and equilibrium, mechanoreceptors detect moving fluid or settling

particles 1112

Sensing of Gravity and Sound in Invertebrates 1112

Hearing and Equilibrium in Mammals 1112

Hearing and Equilibrium in Other Vertebrates 1116

CONCEPT 50.3 The diverse visual receptors of animals depend on light-absorbing pigments 1117

Evolution of Visual Perception 1117

The Vertebrate Visual System 1119

CONCEPT 50.4 The senses of taste and smell rely on similar

sets of sensory receptors 1123

Taste in Mammals 1123

Smell in Humans 1124

CONCEPT 50.5 The physical interaction of protein filaments is required for muscle function 1125

Vertebrate Skeletal Muscle 1126

Other Types of Muscle 1131

CONCEPT 50.6 Skeletal systems transform muscle contraction into locomotion 1132

Types of Skeletal Systems 1132

Types of Locomotion 1135

51 Animal Behavior 1139

CONCEPT 51.1 Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors 1140

Fixed Action Patterns 1140

Migration 1140

Behavioral Rhythms 1141

Animal Signals and Communication 1141

CONCEPT 51.2 Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior 1143

Experience and Behavior 1143

Learning 1144

CONCEPT 51.3 Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain diverse

behaviors 1148

Evolution of Foraging Behavior 1148

Mating Behavior and Mate Choice 1149

CONCEPT 51.4 Genetic analyses and the concept of inclusive fitness provide a basis for studying the

evolution of behavior 1154

Genetic Basis of Behavior 1155

Genetic Variation and the Evolution of Behavior 1155

Altruism 1156

Inclusive Fitness 1157

Evolution and Human Culture 1159

Unit 8 Ecology 1163

Interview: Chelsea Rochman 1163

52 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1164

CONCEPT 52.1 Earth’s climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly 1167

Global Climate Patterns 1167

Regional and Local Effects on Climate 1167

Effects of Vegetation on Climate 1169

Microclimate 1169

Global Climate Change 1170

CONCEPT 52.2 The distribution of terrestrial biomes is controlled by climate and disturbance 1171

Climate and Terrestrial Biomes 1171

General Features of Terrestrial Biomes 1172

Disturbance and Terrestrial Biomes 1172

CONCEPT 52.3 Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth 1177

Zonation in Aquatic Biomes 1177

CONCEPT 52.4 Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species

1178

Dispersal and Distribution 1183

Biotic Factors 1184

Abiotic Factors 1184

CONCEPT 52.5 Ecological change and evolution affect one another over long and short periods of

time 1187

53 Population Ecology 1190

CONCEPT 53.1 Biotic and abiotic factors affect population density, dispersion, and demographics

1191

Density and Dispersion 1191

Demographics 1193

CONCEPT 53.2 The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited

environment 1196

Changes in Population Size 1196

Exponential Growth 1196

CONCEPT 53.3 The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its

carrying capacity 1197

The Logistic Growth Model 1198

The Logistic Model and Real Populations 1199

CONCEPT 53.4 Life history traits are products of natural selection 1200

Diversity of Life Histories 1200

“Trade-offs” and Life Histories 1201

CONCEPT 53.5 Density-dependent factors regulate population growth 1202

Population Change and Population Density 1202

Mechanisms of Density-Dependent

Population Regulation 1203

Population Dynamics 1205

CONCEPT 53.6 The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing

extremely rapidly 1207

The Global Human Population 1207

Global Carrying Capacity 1209

54 Community Ecology 1214

CONCEPT 54.1 Interactions between species can help, harm, or have no effect on the individuals

involved 1215

Competition 1215

Exploitation 1217

Positive Interactions 1220

CONCEPT 54.2 Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities 1222

Species Diversity 1222

Diversity and Community Stability 1223

Trophic Structure 1223

Species with a Large Impact 1225

Bottom-Up and Top-Down Controls 1226

CONCEPT 54.3 Disturbance influences species diversity and composition 1228

Characterizing Disturbance 1228

Ecological Succession 1229

Human Disturbance 1231

CONCEPT 54.4 Biogeographic factors affect community diversity 1231

Latitudinal Gradients 1232

Area Effects 1232

Island Equilibrium Model 1232

CONCEPT 54.5 Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally 1234

Effects on Community Structure 1234

Community Ecology and Zoonotic Diseases 1234

55 Ecosystems and Restoration

Ecology 1238

CONCEPT 55.1 Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical

cycling in ecosystems 1239

Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling 1239

Conservation of Energy 1239

Conservation of Mass 1239

Energy, Mass, and Trophic Levels 1240

CONCEPT 55.2 Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems 1241

Ecosystem Energy Budgets 1241

Primary Production in Aquatic Ecosystems 1242

Primary Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems 1243

CONCEPT 55.3 Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient 1246

Production Efficiency 1246

Trophic Efficiency and Ecological Pyramids 1246

CONCEPT 55.4 Biological and geochemical processes cycle

nutrients and water in ecosystems 1248

Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling Rates 1248

Biogeochemical Cycles 1249

Case Study: Nutrient Cycling in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest 1252

CONCEPT 55.5 Restoration ecologists return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state 1253

Bioremediation 1253

Biological Augmentation 1255

Ecosystems: A Review 1255

56 Conservation Biology and Global

Change 1260

CONCEPT 56.1 Human activities threaten earth’s biodiversity 1261

Three Levels of Biodiversity 1261

Biodiversity and Human Welfare 1262

Threats to Biodiversity 1263

Can Extinct Species Be Resurrected? 1266

CONCEPT 56.2 Population conservation focuses on population size, genetic diversity, and critical

habitat 1266

Extinction Risks in Small Populations 1266

Critical Habitat 1269

Weighing Conflicting Demands 1270

CONCEPT 56.3 Landscape and regional conservation help sustain biodiversity 1270

Landscape Structure and Biodiversity 1270

Establishing Protected Areas 1272

Urban Ecology 1273

CONCEPT 56.4 Earth is changing rapidly as a result of human

actions 1274

Nutrient Enrichment 1274

Toxins in the Environment 1275

Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change 1278

Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone 1283

CONCEPT 56.5 Sustainable development can improve human

lives while conserving biodiversity 1284

Sustainable Development 1284

The Future of the Biosphere 1285

APPENDIX A Answers A-1

APPENDIX B Classification of Life B-1

APPENDIXC A Comparison of the Light Microscope and the

Electron Microscope C-1

APPENDIXD Scientific Skills Review D-1

CREDITS CR-1

GLOSSARY G-1

INDEX I-1

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