Feminist Issues: Race, Class, and Sexuality, 6th Canadian Edition PDF by Nancy Mandell and Jennifer L. Johnson

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Feminist Issues: Race, Class, and Sexuality, Sixth Canadian Edition

By Nancy Mandell and Jennifer L. Johnson

Feminist Issues Race, Class, and Sexuality, 6th Canadian Edition

Contents

Notes on Contributors xi

Preface xv

Acknowledgements xvii

1 Theorizing Women’s Oppression and Social Change: Liberal,

Socialist, Radical, and Postmodern Feminisms 1

Shana L. Calixte, Jennifer L. Johnson, and J. Maki Motapanyane

Introduction 1

Liberal Feminism: Key Historical Points, Principles, and Goals 1

Contemporary and Global Dimensions of Liberal Feminist Thought 5

Critiques of Liberal Feminism 7

Socialist Feminism 8

Defining Socialist Feminism 8

Historical Background: Marxist and Socialist Feminism 9

The Contemporary and Global Landscapes 12

Critiques of Socialist Feminism 13

Radical Feminism 14

Defining Radical Feminism 14

Sites of Oppression: Patriarchy, the State, and the Family 14

Women’s Bodies: Reproduction, Pornography, and Violence 16

Female Separation: Lesbian Feminism and Cultural Feminism 18

Global and Contemporary Dimensions of Radical Feminist Thought 19

Critiques of Radical Feminism 20

Poststructural and Postmodern Feminism 21

Defining Poststructural and Postmodern Feminism 21

Historical Influences 23

Feminist Critiques of Poststructural and Postmodern Feminism 25

Conclusion 26

Endnotes 27

Discussion Questions 28

Bibliography 28

2 Race, Indigeneity, and Feminism 35

Carmela Murdocca

Introduction 35

Race, Colonialism, Modernity 36

Some Definitions: Colonialism, Imperialism, and Race 37

Race and Representation 41

Racialization 43

Race and Culture 44

Tracing Intersectionality 45

The “How” of Intersectionality 49

Some Possibilities and Limitations of Intersectionality 53

Conclusion 57

Endnotes 57

Discussion Questions 58

Bibliography 58

3 Transnational Feminism 62

Corinne L. Mason

Introduction 62

Globalization, Local/Global, and the Transnational 63

Local/Global 65

Transnational 66

Global Feminism and Transnational Feminism: Knowing the Difference 68

Migration 72

Representation 74

Decolonizing Feminist Thought 74

Decolonizing Feminist Research 75

Violence Against Women 77

Globalization and Violence against Women 78

Representing Violence against Women 78

Activism and Solidarity 80

Saving Other Women 80

The United Nations As a Site for Advocacy 83

Worker Solidarity 83

Conclusion 84

Endnotes 85

Discussion Questions 86

Bibliography 86

4 Stitch the Bitch: #girl#socialmedia#body#human 90

Katie Warfield, Fiona Whittington-Walsh

#Introduction 90

#Media#Ideology 93

#Nature#Body versus #Mind#Technology 93

#Social#Media 95

#Plugged-in#Girls 97

#Iam#Amanda 99

#Iam#Malala 104

#Backlash 108

#Cyborg 111

Endnotes 113

Discussion Questions 114

Bibliography 114

5 Constructing Gender, Regulating Sexuality 119

Susanne Luhmann

Introduction 119

Learning about Sex—Constructing Sexuality 119

First Thoughts on Sex and Sexuality (and on Gender Too) 120

Why Have Sex? 121

Sex vs. Gender 122

Gender Differences in Cultural Context 122

Studying Gender Cross-Culturally 123

The Coherence of Sex, Gender, and Sexuality As Heterosexual Matrix 124

Binary Gender Constructions 124

A (Brief) History of Sexuality 126

One-Sex and Two-Sex Model 128

The Perilous Route of Sexual Differentiation 128

Intersex and Human Variation 129

The Invention of Heterosexuality 131

Charting Human Sexual Diversity 132

Constructing Sexuality Cross-culturally 133

The Strong Social Constructionist View 135

Constructing Sexual Normalcy 136

Feminist Challenges to “Sexual Normalcy” 136

The Compulsory Institution of Heterosexuality 137

Heterosexual Privilege 138

Queering Heterosexuality 139

Conclusion: The Antinomies of Young People’s Sexuality 142

Endnotes 143

Discussion Questions 144

Bibliography 144

6 Through the Mirror of Beauty Culture 147

Carla Rice

Introduction 147

The Uneasy Primacy of Images 148

Body Projects Today 151

Weight and Eating 153

Eating Distress 155

Skin 157

Hair 160

Breasts 164

Conclusion: Recovering Beauty? 167

Endnotes 168

Discussion Questions 168

Bibliography 169

7 Men, Masculinities, and Feminism 175

Christopher J. Greig and Barbara A. Pollard

The Early Writings on Men and Masculinity 175

Early Writings on Men and Masculinity: 1970s and 1980s 176

Later Writings on Masculinities: The late 1980s to the Present 180

Understanding Masculinities 181

Hegemonic Masculinity 181

Masculinity As Performance 185

Masculinities and Intersectionality 186

Class and Masculinities 186

Race and Masculinities 187

Masculinities and Disabilities 188

Sport: A Key Social Location for the Making of Masculinities 190

Conclusion 195

Discussion Questions 196

Bibliography 196

8 Violence Against Women in Canada 201

Katherine M. J. McKenna

Introduction 201

Identifying the Problem 202

Types of Violence Against Women 204

Sexual Assault 204

Intimate Partner Violence 207

Sexual Harassment 214

Violence Against Women and Intersectionality 216

Pornography and Prostitution 220

Violence Against Women Internationally 221

Conclusion: Is it Possible to Have a Society Where Women

are Free from Male Violence? 222

Endnotes 223

Discussion Questions 223

Bibliography 223

9 Challenging Old Age: Women’s Next Revolution 229

Nancy Mandell and Ann Duffy

Feminism and Ageism 229

Theorizing Age—Feminist Political Economy Perspectives 230

Aging and Poverty 232

Other Unattached Women 235

Racialized Poverty and Immigrant Women 236

Transnational Seniors 237

The Future: Precarious Pensions and Postponed Retirement 238

Aging and Caring: Giving and Receiving Care 241

Aging: Embodiment 245

Conclusion 247

Discussion Questions 248

Bibliography 249

10 Mothers’ Maintenance of Families Through Market

and Family Care Relations 256

Amber Gazso

Introduction 256

Some Brief Feminist Insights 257

The Contemporary Market and Family Care Relations of Mothers 260

Mothers’ Experiences of Work-Family Conflict 266

Strategies for Managing and Sustaining Market and

Family Care Relations 270

Transnational Management of Paid Work and Family Care 273

The Role of the State: Parental Leave Policy 274

Conclusion 277

Endnotes 278

Discussion Questions 278

Bibliography 278

11 Women and Education 284

Michelle Webber

Introduction 284

Historical Background 284

Lower Education 285

Teachers and Principals 285

Students 286

Contemporary Research 289

Higher Education 293

Students 294

The Professoriate 295

Women’s Studies and Feminism in the Academy 299

Feminist Pedagogies 300

The Rise of the McUniversity 301

Conclusion 301

Discussion Questions 302

Bibliography 302

12 Health As a Feminist Issue 311

Carrie Bourassa with contributions from Mel Bendig, Eric Oleson,

Cassie Ozog

Introduction 311

Defining Health 311

Social Determinants of Health 313

Health As a Feminist Issue 315

Gender Equity and Bias 320

Canadian Demographics 321

Gender Equity, Social Determinants of Health and Intersectionality—

Let the Data Speak 321

Transnational Health Concerns 322

Canadian Health Trends 323

Immigrant Women’s Health 324

Indigenous Women’s Health 325

Relevant Policy Analysis 327

Intersectional Feminist Frameworks 329

Women’s Health Activism in Canada 330

Cultural Safety 332

Conclusion 334

Endnotes 334

Discussion Questions 335

Bibliography 335

Index 340

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