Practicing TEXAS Politics, 17th Edition PDF by By Lyle C. Brown, Joyce A. Langenegger, Sonia R. García, Robert E. Biles, Ryan T. Rynbrandt, Veronica Vega Reyna and Juan Carlos Huerta

By

Practicing TEXAS Politics, Enhanced 17th Edition

By Lyle C. Brown, Joyce A. Langenegger, Sonia R. García, Robert E. Biles, Ryan T. Rynbrandt, Veronica Vega Reyna and Juan Carlos Huerta

Practicing TEXAS Politics, Enhanced 17th Edition

Detailed Contents

Chapter 1: The Environment of Texas Politics 1

Everything Is Changing in Texas . . . . . . . 2

Texas Politics and Political Culture . . . . . . 3

Government, Politics, and Public Policy in Texas . 3

Types of Political Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Texas Political Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

A Changing Culture? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

The People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Texans Throughout History: From Conflict

Toward Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Texans Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

Religious Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

The Land and Population Distribution . . . . 17

Urbanization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Suburbanization and Gentrification . . . . . . . . 18

Rural Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

The Regions of Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20

The Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

The Texas Economy Through History . . . . . . . 24

New Economic Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Meeting New Challenges . . . . . . . . . . 31

Immigration: Federal and State Problems . . . .  31

Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35

Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36

Poverty and Social Problems . . . . . . . . . . .  37

Chapter 2: Federalism and the Texas Constitution 42

The American Federal Structure . . . . . . . 43

Distribution of Constitutional Powers . . . . . . . 44

Interstate Relations and State Immunities . . . .  47

State Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Federal-State Relations: An Evolving Process . .  53

The Texas Constitution: Politics of Policymaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Historical Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . .  56

Today: After More Than a Century of Usage . . .  62

Constitutional Amendments and Revision . . 66

Constitutional Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  68

More Revision Attempts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Piecemeal Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  70

The Texas Constitution: A Summary . . . . . 71

The Bill of Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  72

The Powers of Government and

Separation of Powers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Suffrage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  75

Local Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  76

Other Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  77

Chapter 3: Local Governments 80

Local Politics in Context . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Local Governments and Federalism . . . . . . .  82

Grassroots Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  83

Municipal Governments . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Legal Status of Municipalities . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Forms of Municipal Government . . . . . . . . .  86

Municipal Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Rules Make a Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Socioeconomic and Demographic Changes . . .  94

Municipal Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Municipal Government Revenue . . . . . . . . .  97

Generating Revenue for Economic

Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Counties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Structure and Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

County Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

County Government Reform . . . . . . . . . . .111

Border Counties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Special Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Public School Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Junior or Community College Districts . . . . . . 116

Noneducation Special Districts . . . . . . . . . . 117

Metropolitan Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

Councils of Governments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Municipal Annexation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

Chapter 4: Political Parties 125

Role of Political Parties . . . . . . . . . . 126

Political Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

Conservatism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

Libertarianism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

Liberalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Electoral Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

Third Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Independents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

An Overview of Texas Political History . . 132

1840s to 1870s: The Origin of the Party System 132

1870s to 1970s: A One-Party Dominant System . 133

1970s to 1990s: An Emerging Two-Party System . 134

2000 to 2016: Republican Dominance . . . . . . 135

2016 and Beyond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Party Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

Temporary Party Organization . . . . . . . . . .143

Selection of National Convention Delegates . . 147

Permanent Party Organization . . . . . . . . . .149

Chapter 5: Campaigns and Elections 155

Political Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

Conducting Campaigns in the 21st Century . . . 156

Campaign Reform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Campaign Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160

Racial and Ethnic Politics . . . . . . . . . 163

Latinos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

African Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Women in Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

Voting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Obstacles to Voting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

Democratization of the Ballot . . . . . . . . . . 172

Voter Turnout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173

Administering Elections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Primary, General, and Special Elections . . 183

Primaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

General and Special Elections . . . . . . . . . .187

Chapter 6: The Media and Politics 192

Where Do We Get Our Information? . . . 193

Print Media: Newspapers and News Magazines . 195

Electronic Media: Radio and Television . . . . . 197

Digital Media: The Internet and Social Media . . 200

The Media’s Roles in Politics . . . . . . . .203

Providing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Maintaining Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Setting the Public Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . .211

Shaping Our Views? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

Campaigns and Citizen Participation . . . 215

Campaigns and the Traditional Media . . . . . .216

Digital Campaigning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217

Citizen Participation in the Digital Age . . . . . . 218

Bias? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

Media Bias and the News . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

What Research Finds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221

Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Regulation of Print and Broadcast Media . . . . 222

Internet Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223

State and Local Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Latinos, African Americans, and

Women in Texas Media . . . . . . . . . . 225

Change in the Media: More Participation,

More Sources, but Less News? . . . . . . 227

Concentration of Ownership . . . . . . . . . . .227

For Good and for Bad: The Rise of

the Internet and Social Media . . . . . . . . .232

The Future? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Chapter 7: The Politics of Interest Groups 238

Interest Groups in the Political Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

What Is an Interest Group? . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

The Reasons for Interest Groups . . . . . . . . .240

Characteristics of Interest Groups . . . . . . . . 242

Types of Interest Groups . . . . . . . . . 245

Economic Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

Professional/Public Employee Groups . . . . . .247

Social Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249

Public Interest Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Texas Power Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Interest Group Activities . . . . . . . . . 255

Lobbying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256

Electioneering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

Campaign Financing by Political Action

Committees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

Bribery and Unethical Practices . . . . . . . . . 264

Power and Regulation in

Interest Group Politics . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Regulation of Interest Group Politics . . . . . . . 266

Interest Group Power and Public Policy . . . . .269

Pinpointing Political Power . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

Chapter 8: The Legislative Branch 273

Legislative Framework . . . . . . . . . . 276

Election and Terms of Office . . . . . . . . . . .276

Sessions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277

Districting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

Legislators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

Qualifications and Characteristics . . . . . . . . 284

Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

Legislative Organization . . . . . . . . . . 291

Presiding Officers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Committee System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293

Legislative Caucus System . . . . . . . . . . . .295

Legislative Operations . . . . . . . . . . . 297

Powers and Immunities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298

Rules and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

How a Bill Becomes a Law . . . . . . . . . . . .301

Influences Within the Legislative

Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

Research Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

The Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

Chapter 9: The Executive Branch 315

Gubernatorial Elections . . . . . . . . . . 318

Gubernatorial Politics: Money Matters . . . . . . 318

Gubernatorial Politics: Budgetary Influence . . .320

Overview of the Governorship . . . . . . 321

Compensation and Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324

Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324

Removal from Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325

Informal Powers of the Governor . . . . . 326

Executive Powers of the Governor . . . . 328

Appointive Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329

Removal Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330

Military Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Law Enforcement Power . . . . . . . . . . . . .332

Budgetary Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .332

Executive Orders and Proclamations . . . . . . . 333

Economic Development . . . . . . . . . . . . .334

Legislative Powers of the Governor . . . . 335

Message Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

Bill Signing Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

Veto Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336

Special Sessions Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337

Judicial Powers of the Governor . . . . . 338

Appointment and Removal of Judges and

Justices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338

Acts of Executive Clemency . . . . . . . . . . . 339

The Plural Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . 340

The Lieutenant Governor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

The Attorney General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

The Comptroller of Public Accounts . . . . . . .343

The Commissioner of the General Land Office . .344

The Commissioner of Agriculture . . . . . . . . 345

The Secretary of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347

The State Bureaucracy . . . . . . . . . . . 347

The Institutional Context . . . . . . . . . . . . .348

State Employees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349

Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352

Health and Human Services . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357

Economic and Environmental Agencies . . . . .357

Chapter 10: The Judicial Branch 363

State Law in Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364

Sources of Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365

Code Revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365

Courts, Judges, Lawyers, and Juries . . . 366

Trial and Appellate Courts . . . . . . . . . . . .366

Selecting Judges and Justices . . . . . . . . . .375

Disciplining and Removing Judges and

Justices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377

Lawyers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379

Juries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382

Judicial Procedures in

Civil Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385

Civil Trial Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386

Trial and Appeal of a Civil Case . . . . . . . . . 387

Judicial Procedures in Criminal

Cases . . . 388

Criminal Justice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388

Criminal Trial and Appeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

Chapter 11: Finance and Fiscal Policy 393

Fiscal Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395

Taxing Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396

Budget Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398

Spending Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

Revenue Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400

The Politics of Taxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401

Revenue from Gambling . . . . . . . . . . . . .407

Other Nontax Revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

The Public Debt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412

Budgeting and Fiscal Management . . . . 414

Budgeting Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414

Budget Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418

Budget Execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

Purchasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419

Accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419

Auditing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

Future Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420

Public Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421

Public Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424

Public Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .430

Infrastructure Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431

Chapter 12: Public Policy and Administration 435

Making Public Policy in Texas . . . . . . . 436

Models of Policymaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437

The Institutional Context . . . . . . . . . . . . .440

Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

Public Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442

Colleges and Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448

Health and Human Services . . . . . . . . 454

Human Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457

Health and Mental Health Services . . . . . . . . 458

Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

Economic and Environmental Policies . . . 462

Business Promotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463

Economic Regulatory Policy . . . . . . . . . . . 464

Environmental Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

Immigration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472

Chapter 13: The Criminal Justice System 477

Elements of the Criminal Justice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Criminal Justice Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479

Criminal Justice Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481

The Death Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483

Reinstitution of the Death Penalty . . . . . . . .483

Reviewing the Death Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . 485

Correction and Rehabilitation . . . . . . . 489

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice . . . . 490

Local Government Jails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498

Private Prisons and Jails . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

Juvenile Justice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500

State and Local Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501

Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502

Problems and Reforms: Implications

for Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503

Overcrowding and Mental Illness in Prison . . . 503

Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .504

Exoneration Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506

Racial Bias in the Criminal Justice System . . . .507

Misconduct by District Attorneys and

Prosecutors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508

Glossary 513

Endnotes 526

Index 559

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