Biological Science, Third Canadian Edition PDF by Scott Freeman, Kim Quillin, Lizabeth Allison, Michael Black, Greg Podgorski, Emily Taylor, Jeff Carmichael, Michael Harrington and Joan Sharp

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Biological Science, Third Canadian Edition

By Scott Freeman, Kim Quillin, Lizabeth Allison, Michael Black, Greg Podgorski, Emily Taylor, Jeff Carmichael, Michael Harrington and Joan Sharp

Biological Science, Third Canadian Edition

Detailed Contents

1 Biology and the Tree of Life 1

1.1 What Does It Mean to Say That Something Is Alive? 2

1.2 Life Is Cellular 2

All Organisms Are Made of Cells 2

Where Do Cells Come From? 3

Life Replicates through Cell Division 4

1.3 Life Evolves 4

What Is Evolution? 4

What Is Natural Selection? 4

1.4 Life Processes Information 5

The Central Dogma 5

Life Requires Energy 6

1.5 The Tree of Life 6

Using Molecules to Understand the Tree of Life 6

How Should We Name Branches on the Tree of Life? 8

1.6 Doing Biology 9

How Has Artificial Selection Affected Bighorn Sheep? An

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 9

CANADIAN RESEARCH 1.1 Artificial Selection on Bighorn Sheep in Alberta 10

How Do Ants Navigate? An Introduction to Experimental Design 10

CHAPTER REVIEW 13

Doing Biology 16

BioSkills 18

B.1 Using the Metric System and Significant Figures 19

Significant Figures 19

B.2 Reading and Making Graphs 20

Getting Started 21

Types of Graphs 22

Getting Practice 23

B.3 Interpreting Standard Error Bars and Using

Statistical Tests 23

Standard Error Bars 23

Using Statistical Tests 24

Interpreting P Values and Statistical Significance 24

B.4 Working with Probabilities 25

The Both-And Rule 25

The Either-Or Rule 26

B.5 Separating and Visualizing Molecules 26

Using Electrophoresis to Separate Molecules 26

Using Thin Layer Chromatography to Separate

Molecules 27

Visualizing Molecules 27

B.6 Separating Cell Components by

Centrifugation 29

B.7 Using Microscopy 30

Light and Fluorescence Microscopy 30

Electron Microscopy 30

Studying Live Cells and Real-Time Processes 31

Visualizing Cellular Structures in 3-D 32

B.8 Using Molecular Biology Tools and

Techniques 32

Making and Using DNA Libraries 33

Amplifying DNA Using the Polymerase

Chain Reaction (PCR) 33

Automated Sanger DNA Sequencing 35

Next-Generation DNA Sequencing (NGS) 36

B.9 Using Cell Culture and Model Organisms

as Tools 36

Cell and Tissue Culture Methods 36

Model Organisms 37

B.10 Reading and Making Visual Models 40

Tips for Interpreting Models 40

Tips for Making Your Own Models 40

Concept Maps 41

B.11 Reading and Making Phylogenetic Trees 42

Anatomy of a Phylogenetic Tree 42

How to Read a Phylogenetic Tree 43

How to Draw a Phylogenetic Tree 43

B.12 Reading Chemical Structures 43

B.13 Translating Greek and Latin Roots in Biology 45

B.14 Reading and Citing the Primary Literature 45

What Is the Primary Literature? 45

Getting Started 45

Citing Sources 47

Getting Practice 47

B.15 Recognizing and Correcting Misconceptions 47

B.16 Using Bloom’s Taxonomy for Study Success 48

Categories of Human Cognition 48

Six Study Steps to Success 48

UNIT 1 THE MOLECULAR ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE 50

2 Water and Carbon: The

Chemical Basis of Life 50

2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules: The Building

Blocks of Chemical Evolution 51

Basic Atomic Structure 51

How Does Covalent Bonding Hold Molecules Together? 53

Ionic Bonding, Ions, and the Electron-Sharing Continuum 54

Some Simple Molecules Formed from C, H, N, and O 55

The Geometry of Simple Molecules 55

Representing Molecules 55

2.2 Properties of Water and the Early Oceans 56

Why Is Water Such an Efficient Solvent? 57

What Properties Are Correlated with Water’s Structure? 57

The Role of Water in Acid–Base Chemical Reactions 59

2.3 Chemical Reactions, Energy, and Chemical

Evolution 61

How Do Chemical Reactions Happen? 61

What Is Energy? 62

What Makes a Chemical Reaction Spontaneous? 62

2.4 Model Systems for Investigating Chemical

Evolution 64

Early Origin-of-Life Experiments 64

Recent Origin-of-Life Experiments 65

CANADIAN RESEARCH 2.1 Searching for Life in Extreme

Environments 67

2.5 The Importance of Organic Molecules 67

CANADIAN RESEARCH 2.2 The Carbon-Rich Tagish Lake

Meteorite 68

Linking Carbon Atoms Together 68

Functional Groups 68

CHAPTER REVIEW 70

3 Protein Structure and

Function 73

3.1 Amino Acids and Their Polymerization 74

The Structure of Amino Acids 74

The Nature of Side Chains 74

How Do Amino Acids Link to Form Proteins? 76

3.2 What Do Proteins Look Like? 78

Primary Structure 78

CANADIAN RESEARCH 3.1 Designing New Proteins 79

Secondary Structure 80

Tertiary Structure 81

Quaternary Structure 81

3.3 Folding and Function 83

Normal Folding Is Crucial to Function 83

Protein Shape Is Flexible 83

Canadian Iss ues 3.1 Prion Diseases in Canada 85

3.4 Protein Functions Are as Diverse as Protein

Structures 85

Why Are Enzymes Good Catalysts? 85

Did Life Arise from a Self-Replicating Enzyme? 86

CHAPTER REVIEW 86

4 Nucleic Acids and

the RNA World 89

4.1 What Is a Nucleic Acid? 90

What Are Nucleotides? 90

How Do Nucleotides Polymerize to Form

Nucleic Acids? 91

4.2 DNA Structure and Function 93

What Is the Nature of DNA’s Secondary Structure? 93

The Tertiary Structure of DNA 95

DNA Functions as an Information-Containing Molecule 95

The DNA Double Helix Is a Stable Structure 96

4.3 RNA Structure and Function 97

Structurally, RNA Differs from DNA 97

RNA Is an Information-Containing Molecule 98

RNA Can Function as a Catalytic Molecule 98

4.4 In Search of the First Life-Form 99

How Biologists Study the RNA World 99

The RNA World May Have Sparked the Evolution of Life 100

CANADIAN RESEARCH 4.1 Designing New Deoxyribozymes 100

CHAPTER REVIEW 101

5 An Introduction to

Carbohydrates 103

5.1 Sugars as Monomers 104

What Distinguishes One Monosaccharide from Another? 104

Can Monosaccharides Form by Chemical Evolution? 105

5.2 The Structure of Disaccharides 106

5.3 The Structure of Polysaccharides 107

Starch: A Storage Polysaccharide in Plants 107

Glycogen: A Highly Branched Storage Polysaccharide in

Animals 107

Cellulose: A Structural Polysaccharide in Plants 107

Chitin: A Structural Polysaccharide in Fungi and

Animals 107

Peptidoglycan: A Structural Polysaccharide

in Bacteria 107

Polysaccharides and Chemical Evolution 107

5.4 What Do Carbohydrates Do? 109

Carbohydrates Can Provide Structural Support 109

The Role of Carbohydrates in Cell Identity 109

Carbohydrates and Energy Storage 110

CANADIAN RESEARCH 5.1 Human Milk Carbohydrates 110

Canadian Iss ues 5.1 Natural and Artificial Sweeteners 112

CHAPTER REVIEW 113

6 Lipids, Membranes, and the

First Cells 116

6.1 Lipid Structure and Function 117

Why Is Bond Structure Important? 117

A Look at Three Types of Lipids Found in Cells 118

How Membrane Lipids Interact with Water 119

Were Lipids Present during Chemical Evolution? 120

6.2 Phospholipid Bilayers 120

Artificial Membranes as an Experimental System 120

Selective Permeability of Lipid Bilayers 121

How Does Lipid Structure Affect Membrane Permeability? 121

How Does Temperature Affect the Fluidity and Permeability of

Membranes? 122

6.3 How Substances Move across Lipid Bilayers:

Diffusion and Osmosis 123

CANADIAN RESEARCH 6.1 Artificial Cells and Liposomal

Nanomedicines 124

Diffusion 125

Osmosis 125

Membranes and Chemical Evolution 126

6.4 Proteins Alter Membrane Structure and

Function 127

Development of the Fluid-Mosaic Model 128

Systems for Studying Membrane Proteins 129

Channel Proteins Facilitate Diffusion 129

Carrier Proteins Facilitate Diffusion 132

Pumps and Coupled Transporters Perform Active Transport 133

Plasma Membranes Define the Intracellular Environment 134

CANADIAN RESEARCH 6.2 Membrane Proteins 135

CHAPTER REVIEW 136

Macromolecules 138

CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 140

UNIT 2 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 140

7 Inside the Cell 140

7.1 Bacterial and Archaeal Cell Structures and Their

Functions 141

A Revolutionary New View 141

Prokaryotic Cell Structures: A Parts List 141

CANADIAN RESEARCH 7.1 Bacteria Cells Have Their Own

Cytoskeleton 143

7.2 Eukaryotic Cell Structures and Their

Functions 144

The Benefits of Organelles 145

Eukaryotic Cell Structures: A Parts List 145

7.3 Putting the Parts into a Whole 152

Structure and Function at the Whole-Cell Level 152

The Dynamic Cell 153

7.4 Cell Systems I: Nuclear Transport 154

Structure and Function of the Nuclear Envelope 154

How Do Molecules Enter the Nucleus? 154

7.5 Cell Systems II: The Endomembrane System

Manufactures, Ships, and Recycles Cargo 155

Studying the Pathway through the Endomembrane

System 156

Entering the Endomembrane System: The Signal Hypothesis 157

Moving from the ER to the Golgi Apparatus 158

What Happens Inside the Golgi Apparatus? 159

How Do Proteins Reach Their Destinations? 159

Recycling Material in the Lysosome 159

7.6 Cell Systems III: The Dynamic Cytoskeleton 161

Actin Filaments 162

Intermediate Filaments 163

Microtubules 163

Flagella and Cilia: Moving the Entire Cell 165

CANADIAN RESEARCH 7.2 Pathogenic Bacteria Alter the

Cytoskeleton of Human Cells 166

CHAPTER REVIEW 167

8 Energy and Enzymes:

An Introduction to

Metabolism 170

8.1 What Happens to Energy in Chemical

Reactions? 171

Chemical Reactions Involve Energy Transformations 171

Temperature and Concentration Affect Reaction Rates 172

8.2 Nonspontaneous Reactions May Be Driven Using

Chemical Energy 174

Redox Reactions Transfer Energy via Electrons 174

ATP Transfers Energy via Phosphate Groups 176

8.3 How Enzymes Work 178

Enzymes Help Reactions Clear Two Hurdles 178

What Limits the Rate of Catalysis? 180

Do Enzymes Work Alone? 181

8.4 What Factors Affect Enzyme Function? 181

Enzymes Are Optimized for Particular Environments 181

Most Enzymes Are Regulated 182

CANADIAN RESEARCH 8.1 Insulin Processing by Proprotein

Convertases 184

8.5 Enzymes Can Work Together in Metabolic

Pathways 184

Metabolic Pathways Are Regulated 184

Metabolic Pathways Evolve 185

CHAPTER REVIEW 186

9 Cellular Respiration and

Fermentation 189

9.1 An Overview of Cellular Respiration 190

What Happens When Glucose Is Oxidized? 190

Cellular Respiration Plays a Central Role in Metabolism 191

9.2 Glycolysis: Oxidizing Glucose to Pyruvate 193

Glycolysis Is a Sequence of 10 Reactions 193

How Is Glycolysis Regulated? 193

9.3 Processing Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA 196

9.4 The Citric Acid Cycle: Oxidizing Acetyl CoA to CO2 197

What Happens to the NADH and FADH2? 197

9.5 Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis: Building a

Proton Gradient to Produce ATP 200

The Electron Transport Chain 200

The Discovery of ATP Synthase 201

The Chemiosmosis Hypothesis 203

Organisms Use a Diversity of Electron Acceptors 204

CANADIAN RESEARCH 9.1 The ATP Synthase and Proton Pump 205

9.6 Fermentation 206

Many Different Fermentation Pathways Exist 207

Canadian Iss ues 9.1 Making Biofuels with Fermentation and

Anaerobic Respiration 208

Fermentation as an Alternative to Cellular Respiration 209

CHAPTER REVIEW 209

10 Photosynthesis 212

10.1 Photosynthesis Harnesses Sunlight to Make

Carbohydrate 213

Photosynthesis: Two Linked Sets of Reactions 213

Photosynthesis Occurs in Chloroplasts 214

10.2 How Do Pigments Capture Light Energy? 215

Photosynthetic Pigments Absorb Light 215

When Light Is Absorbed, Electrons Enter an Excited

State 218

10.3 The Discovery of Photosystems I and II 220

How Does Photosystem II Work? 220

How Does Photosystem I Work? 222

The Z Scheme: Photosystems II and I Work Together 223

10.4 How Is Carbon Dioxide Reduced to Produce

Sugars? 225

The Calvin Cycle Fixes Carbon 225

The Discovery of Rubisco 227

How Is Photosynthesis Regulated? 228

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Pass through Stomata 228

Mechanisms for Increasing CO2 Concentration 229

CANADIAN RESEARCH 10.1 Photosynthesis in Rice 230

What Happens to the Sugar That Is Produced by

Photosynthesis? 231

CHAPTER REVIEW 232

Energy for Life 234

11 Cell–Cell Interactions 236

11.1 The Cell Surface 237

The Structure and Function of an Extracellular Layer 237

The Extracellular Matrix in Animals 237

CANADIAN RESEARCH 11.1 Collagen Fingerprinting Identifies

Canadian Camels 239

The Cell Wall in Plants 239

11.2 How Do Adjacent Cells Connect and

Communicate? 240

Cell–Cell Attachments in Multicellular Eukaryotes 241

Cells Communicate via Cell–Cell Gaps 244

11.3 How Do Distant Cells Communicate? 246

Cell–Cell Signalling in Multicellular Organisms 246

Signal Reception 246

Signal Processing 246

CANADIAN RESEARCH 11.2 The Discovery of Insulin 249

Signal Response 251

Signal Deactivation 252

11.4 Signalling between Unicellular Organisms 252

CHAPTER REVIEW 253

12 The Cell Cycle 256

12.1 How Do Cells Replicate? 257

What Is a Chromosome? 257

Cells Alternate between M Phase and Interphase 258

The Discovery of S Phase 258

The Discovery of the Gap Phases 258

The Cell Cycle 259

12.2 What Happens during M Phase? 260

Proteins Needed for Mitosis 260

Events in Mitosis 260

How Do Chromosomes Move during Anaphase? 262

Cytokinesis Results in Two Daughter Cells 265

Bacterial Cell Replication 266

12.3 Control of the Cell Cycle 266

The Discovery of Cell-Cycle Regulatory Molecules 267

CANADIAN RESEARCH 12.1 Yoshio Masui and the Discovery of

MPF 268

CANADIAN RESEARCH

12.2 MPF Activates Condensins Directly 269

Cell-Cycle Checkpoints Can Arrest the Cell Cycle 270

12.4 Cancer: Out-of-Control Cell Division 271

Properties of Cancer Cells 271

Causes of Cancer 271

CHAPTER REVIEW 274

Unit 3 GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION 276

13 Meiosis 276

13.1 How Does Meiosis Occur? 277

Organisms Have Unique Chromosome Compositions 277

The Concept of Ploidy 278

An Overview of Meiosis 279

The Phases of Meiosis I 282

The Phases of Meiosis II 284

A Closer Look at Synapsis and Crossing Over 284

Mitosis versus Meiosis 285

CANADIAN RESEARCH 13.1 The Proteins Required for Prophase I

of Meiosis 287

13.2 Meiosis Promotes Genetic Variation 287

Chromosomes and Heredity 288

The Role of Independent Assortment 288

The Role of Crossing Over 289

How Does Fertilization Affect Genetic Variation? 289

13.3 What Happens When Things Go Wrong in

Meiosis? 290

How Do Mistakes Occur? 290

Why Do Mistakes Occur? 291

13.4 Why Does Meiosis Exist? 292

The Paradox of Sex 292

The Purifying Selection Hypothesis 293

The Changing-Environment Hypothesis 293

CHAPTER REVIEW 294

14 Mendel and the Gene 297

14.1 Mendel’s Experimental System 298

What Questions Was Mendel Trying to Answer? 298

The Garden Pea Served as the First Model Organism in

Genetics 298

14.2 Mendel’s Experiments with a Single Trait 300

The Monohybrid Cross 300

Particulate Inheritance 302

14.3 Mendel’s Experiments with Two Traits 304

The Dihybrid Cross 304

Using a Testcross to Confirm Predictions 306

14.4 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance 307

Meiosis Explains Mendel’s Principles 307

Testing the Chromosome Theory 307

14.5 Extending Mendel’s Rules 310

Linkage: What Happens When Genes Are Located on the Same

Chromosome? 310

Quantitative Methods 14.1 Linkage and Genetic Mapping 312

How Many Alleles Can a Gene Have? 313

Are Alleles Always Dominant or Recessive? 313

Does Each Gene Affect Just One Trait? 314

Are All Traits Determined by a Gene? 314

Can Mendel’s Principles Explain Traits That Don’t Fall into

Distinct Categories? 315

14.6 Applying Mendel’s Rules to Human Inheritance 317

Identifying Alleles as Recessive or Dominant 317

Identifying Traits as Autosomal or Sex-Linked 318

CANADIAN RESEARCH 14.1 The Genetics of Dog

Coat Colour 319

CHAPTER REVIEW 321

15 DNA and the Gene: Synthesis

and Repair 325

15.1 What Are Genes Made Of? 326

The Hershey–Chase Experiment 326

The Secondary Structure of DNA 327

15.2 Testing Early Hypotheses about DNA

Synthesis 328

Three Alternative Hypotheses 329

The Meselson–Stahl Experiment 329

15.3 A Model for DNA Synthesis 329

Where Does Replication Start? 331

How Is the Helix Opened and Stabilized? 331

How Is the Leading Strand Synthesized? 332

How Is the Lagging Strand Synthesized? 333

15.4 Replicating the Ends of Linear Chromosomes 336

The End Replication Problem 336

Telomerase Solves the End Replication Problem 337

Telomerase Regulation 337

CANADIAN RESEARCH 15.1 Telomerase and Cancer 339

15.5 Repairing Mistakes and DNA Damage 339

Correcting Mistakes in DNA Synthesis 339

Repairing Damaged DNA 340

DNA Repair and the Cell Cycle 341

CANADIAN RESEARCH 15.2 Telomeres and Cancer 341

CHAPTER REVIEW 342

16 How Genes Work 344

16.1 What Do Genes Do? 345

The One-Gene, One-Enzyme Hypothesis 345

An Experimental Test of the Hypothesis 345

16.2 The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology 347

RNA as the Intermediary between Genes and Proteins 347

Dissecting the Central Dogma 347

Linking the Central Dogma to Cellular Processes 348

16.3 The Genetic Code 349

How Long Is a “Word” in the Genetic Code? 349

How Did Researchers Crack the Code? 350

16.4 What Are the Types and Consequences of

Mutation? 352

Point Mutations 352

Chromosome Mutations 354

CANADIAN RESEARCH 16.1 The Mutations Responsible for

Himalayan Fur Colour in Mink and Mice 354

CHAPTER REVIEW 355

17 Transcription, RNA

Processing, and

Translation 358

17.1 An Overview of Transcription 359

Initiation: How Does Transcription Begin in Bacteria? 359

Elongation and Termination 361

Transcription in Eukaryotes 361

17.2 mRNA Processing in Eukaryotes 363

The Startling Discovery of Split Eukaryotic Genes 363

CANADIAN RESEARCH 17.1 RNA Base Modifications 363

RNA Splicing 364

Adding Caps and Tails to Transcripts 364

17.3 An Introduction to Translation 365

Ribosomes Are the Site of Protein Synthesis 365

Translation in Bacteria and Eukaryotes 365

How Does an mRNA Codon Specify an Amino Acid? 366

17.4 The Structure and Function of Transfer RNA 366

What Do tRNAs Look Like? 367

How Are Amino Acids Attached to tRNAs? 368

How Many tRNAs Are There? 369

17.5 The Structure of Ribosomes and Their Function in

Translation 369

Initiating Translation 370

Elongation: Extending the Polypeptide 371

Terminating Translation 371

Post-Translational Modifications 371

CANADIAN RESEARCH 17.2 RNA Synthesis in Mitochondria 373

CHAPTER REVIEW 374

18 Control of Gene Expression

in Bacteria 377

18.1 An Overview of Gene Regulation and Information

Flow 378

Mechanisms of Regulation 378

Metabolizing Lactose—A Model System 379

18.2 Identifying Regulated Genes 380

18.3 Negative Control of Transcription 382

The Operon Model 382

How Does Glucose Regulate the lac Operon? 384

Why Has the lac Operon Model Been So Important? 384

18.4 Positive Control of Transcription 385

18.5 Global Gene Regulation 386

CANADIAN RESEARCH 18.1 Gene Expression in a Pathogenic

Bacteria 387

CHAPTER REVIEW 387

19 Control of Gene Expression

in Eukaryotes 390

19.1 Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes—An Overview 391

19.2 Chromatin Remodelling 391

What Is Chromatin’s Basic Structure? 392

Evidence that Chromatin Structure Is Altered in Active

Genes 393

How Is Chromatin Altered? 393

Chromatin Modifications Can Be Inherited 394

CANADIAN RESEARCH 19.1 Epigenetic Regulation of Ant Size 395

19.3 Initiating Transcription: Regulatory Sequences and

Proteins 396

Promoter-Proximal Elements Are Regulatory Sequences Near

the Core Promoter 396

Enhancers Are Regulatory Sequences Far from the Core

Promoter 396

The Role of Transcription Factors in Differential Gene

Expression 397

How Do Transcription Factors Recognize Specific DNA

Sequences? 397

A Model for Transcription Initiation 398

19.4 Post-Transcriptional Control 400

Alternative Splicing of Primary RNAs 400

How Is Translation Controlled? 400

CANADIAN RESEARCH 19.2 Alternative Splicing of RNAs in

Human Nerve Cells 401

Post-Translational Control 403

19.5 How Does Gene Expression Compare in Bacteria and

Eukaryotes? 403

19.6 Linking Cancer to Defects in Gene Regulation 405

The Genetic Basis of Uncontrolled Cell Growth 405

The p53 Tumour Suppressor: A Case Study 405

CHAPTER REVIEW 406

Genetic Information 408

20 The Molecular Revolution:

Biotechnology and

Beyond 410

20.1 Recombinant DNA Technology 411

Using Plasmids in Cloning 411

Using Restriction Endonucleases and DNA Ligase to Cut and

Paste DNA 411

Transformation: Introducing Recombinant Plasmids into

Bacterial Cells 413

Using Reverse Transcriptase to Produce cDNAs 413

Adding Genes to an Organism 413

Removing Genes from an Organism 414

20.2 The Polymerase Chain Reaction 414

Requirements of PCR 414

DNA Fingerprinting 415

CANADIAN RESEARCH 20.1 Ancient DNA in Canada 415

20.3 DNA Sequencing 417

Bioinformatics 418

Which Genomes Are Being Sequenced, and Why? 418

20.4 Insights from Genome Analysis 418

The Natural History of Prokaryotic Genomes 419

The Natural History of Eukaryotic Genomes 419

Insights from the Human Genome Project 422

Genomics after Genome Projects 422

Canadian Iss ues 20.1 iBOL: The International Barcode of Life

Project 423

20.5 Finding and Engineering Genes 424

What Were Some of the First Human Genes Found? 424

How Are Human Genes Found Today? 425

What Are the Benefits of Finding a Disease Gene? 425

Can Gene Therapy Provide a Cure? 426

20.6 Metagenomics, Functional Genomics, and

Proteomics 427

What Is Metagenomics? 427

What Is Functional Genomics? 427

What Is Proteomics? 427

CHAPTER REVIEW 428

21 Genes, Development,

and Evolution 430

21.1 Shared Developmental Processes 431

Cell Division 431

Cell–Cell Interactions 432

Cell Differentiation 432

Cell Movement and Changes in Shape 433

Programmed Cell Death 433

21.2 Genetic Equivalence and Differential Gene

Expression in Development 433

Evidence that Differentiated Plant Cells Are Genetically

Equivalent 433

Evidence that Differentiated Animal Cells Are Genetically

Equivalent 434

How Does Differential Gene Expression Occur? 435

CANADIAN RESEARCH 21.1 The First Cloned Drosophila 435

21.3 Regulatory Cascades Establish the Body Plan 436

Morphogens Set Up the Body Axes 436

Regulatory Genes Provide Increasingly Specific Positional

Information 438

Regulatory Genes and Signalling Molecules Are Evolutionarily

Conserved 439

CANADIAN RESEARCH 21.2 Stem Cells and Stem Cell–Based

Therapies 441

21.4 Changes in Developmental Gene Expression Drive

Evolutionary Change 443

CHAPTER REVIEW 445

UNIT 4 EVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS AND PROCESSES 447

 

22 Evolution by Natural

Selection 447

22.1 The Evolution of Evolutionary Thought 448

Plato and Typological Thinking 448

Aristotle and the Scale of Nature 448

Lamarck and the Idea of Evolution as Change through

Time 448

Darwin and Wallace and Evolution by Natural Selection 448

22.2 The Pattern of Evolution: Have Species Changed, and

Are They Related? 449

Evidence for Change through Time 449

Evidence of Descent from a Common Ancestor 452

Evolution’s “Internal Consistency”—The Importance of

Independent Data Sets 455

22.3 The Process of Evolution: How Does Natural

Selection Work? 456

Darwin’s Inspiration 456

Darwin’s Four Postulates 457

The Biological Definitions of Fitness and Adaptation 457

22.4 Evolution in Action: Recent Research on Natural

Selection 458

Case Study 1: How Did Mycobacterium tuberculosis Become

Resistant to Antibiotics? 458

Case Study 2: Why Do Beak Sizes and Shapes Vary in Galápagos

Finches? 460

Canadian Iss ues 22.1 Evolution in Action: Do Hunting and

Fishing Select for Undesirable Traits? 460

22.5 Common Misconceptions about Natural Selection

and Adaptation 463

Natural Selection Does Not Change Individuals 463

Evolution Is Not Goal Directed 464

Limitations of Natural Selection 465

CHAPTER REVIEW 467

23 Evolutionary Processes 469

23.1 Analyzing Change in Allele Frequencies: The Hardy–

Weinberg Principle 470

The Gene Pool Concept 470

Deriving the Hardy–Weinberg Principle 470

The Hardy–Weinberg Model Makes Important

Assumptions 471

How Does the Hardy–Weinberg Principle Serve as a Null

Hypothesis? 472

23.2 Natural Selection 474

How Does Selection Affect Genetic Variation? 474

Mode 1: Directional Selection 474

Mode 2: Stabilizing Selection 475

Mode 3: Disruptive Selection 476

Mode 4: Balancing Selection 477

23.3 Genetic Drift 477

Simulation Studies of Genetic Drift 478

Experimental Studies of Genetic Drift 479

What Causes Genetic Drift in Natural Populations? 480

23.4 Gene Flow 481

Measuring Gene Flow between Populations 481

Gene Flow Is Random with Respect to Fitness 482

23.5 Mutation 483

Mutation as an Evolutionary Mechanism 483

Experimental Studies of Mutation 484

Studies of Mutation in Natural Populations 485

23.6 Nonrandom Mating 486

Inbreeding 486

Assortative Mating 488

Sexual Selection 488

CANADIAN RESEARCH 23.1 Evolution in Action: Kermode Bears

and Newfoundland Moose 489

CHAPTER REVIEW 493

24 Speciation 496

24.1 How Are Species Defined and Identified? 497

The Biological Species Concept 497

The Morphospecies Concept 497

The Ecological Species Concept 498

The Phylogenetic Species Concept 498

Species Definitions in Action: The Case of the Dusky Seaside

Sparrow 500

24.2 Isolation and Divergence in Allopatry 501

Allopatric Speciation by Dispersal 502

Allopatric Speciation by Vicariance 502

24.3 Isolation and Divergence in Sympatry 503

Sympatric Speciation by Disruptive Selection 503

Sympatric Speciation by Polyploidization 505

24.4 What Happens When Isolated Populations Come into

Contact? 507

Reinforcement 507

CANADIAN RESEARCH 24.1 Dolph Schluter Studies New

Species 508

Hybrid Zones 509

New Species through Hybridization 510

CHAPTER REVIEW 512

25 Phylogenies and the History

of Life 514

25.1 Tools for Studying History: Phylogenetic Trees 515

How Do Biologists Estimate Phylogenies? 516

How Can Biologists Distinguish Homology from

Homoplasy? 517

Whale Evolution: A Case Study 518

25.2 Tools for Studying History: The Fossil Record 520

How Do Fossils Form? 521

Limitations of the Fossil Record 522

Life’s Time Line 522

25.3 Adaptive Radiation 525

Why Do Adaptive Radiations Occur? 525

The Cambrian Explosion 527

CANADIAN RESEARCH 25.1 The Burgess Shale: A Window into the

Cambrian Explosion 528

25.4 Mass Extinction 530

How Do Mass Extinctions Differ from Background

Extinctions? 530

The End-Permian Extinction 531

The End-Cretaceous Extinction 531

The Sixth Mass Extinction? 533

CHAPTER REVIEW 533

Evolution 536

Unit 5 THE DIVERSIFICATION OF LIFE 538

26 Bacteria and Archaea 538

26.1 Why Do Biologists Study Bacteria and Archaea? 539

Biological Impact 539

Some Prokaryotes Thrive in Extreme Environments 539

Medical Importance 540

Role in Bioremediation 542

26.2 How Do Biologists Study Bacteria and Archaea? 543

Using Enrichment Cultures 543

Using Metagenomics 544

Investigating the Human Microbiome 544

Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies 545

26.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of

Bacteria and Archaea? 546

Genetic Variation through Gene Transfer 546

Morphological Diversity 546

Metabolic Diversity 548

Ecological Diversity and Global Impacts 552

26.4 Key Lineages of Bacteria and Archaea 554

CANADIAN RESEARCH 26.1 Is There a Universal Tree of Life? 555

Bacteria 556

Archaea 556

CHAPTER REVIEW 558

27 Protists 561

27.1 Why Do Biologists Study Protists? 562

Impacts on Human Health and Welfare 562

Ecological Importance of Protists 564

CANADIAN RESEARCH 27.1 How Will Phytoplankton Respond to

Elevated CO2 Levels? 565

27.2 How Do Biologists Study Protists? 567

Microscopy: Studying Cell Structure 567

Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies 568

Discovering New Lineages via Direct Sequencing 568

27.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of

Protists? 569

What Morphological Innovations Evolved in Protists? 569

How Do Protists Obtain Food? 573

How Do Protists Move? 575

How Do Protists Reproduce? 576

Life Cycles—Haploid Dominated versus Diploid Dominated 576

27.4 Key Lineages of Protists 579

Amoebozoa 579

Excavata 579

Plantae 579

Rhizaria 579

Alveolata 581

Stramenopila (Heterokonta) 581

CHAPTER REVIEW 581

28 Green Algae and Land

Plants 584

28.1 Why Do Biologists Study Green Algae and Land

Plants? 585

Plants Provide Ecosystem Services 585

Plants Provide Humans with Food, Fuel, Fibre, Building

Materials, and Medicines 586

28.2 How Do Biologists Study Green Algae and Land

Plants? 587

Analyzing Morphological Traits 587

Using the Fossil Record 588

Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies 590

28.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of Land

Plants? 591

The Transition to Land, I: How Did Plants Adapt to Dry

Conditions with Intense Sunlight? 591

Mapping Evolutionary Changes on the Phylogenetic Tree 593

The Transition to Land, II: How Do Plants Reproduce in Dry

Conditions? 594

Canadian Iss ues 28.1 Canada’s National Tree Seed Centre 599

The Angiosperm Radiation 602

CANADIAN RESEARCH 28.1 Flowering Plants and Their

Pollinators 604

28.4 Key Lineages of Green Algae and Land Plants 606

Green Algae 606

Nonvascular Plants 608

Seedless Vascular Plants 608

Seed Plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms 608

CHAPTER REVIEW 613

29 Fungi 615

29.1 Why Do Biologists Study Fungi? 616

Fungi Have Important Economic and Ecological Impacts 616

Mycorrhizal Fungi Provide Nutrients for Land Plants 617

Saprophytic Fungi Accelerate the Carbon Cycle on Land 618

29.2 How Do Biologists Study Fungi? 618

Analyzing Morphological Traits 619

Evaluating Molecular Phylogenies 622

29.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of

Fungi? 623

Fungi Often Participate in Symbioses 623

CANADIAN RESEARCH 29.1 Photosynthetic Carbon Is Transferred

from Stressed to Healthy Plants through Ectomycorrhizal

Networks 627

What Adaptations Make Fungi Such Effective

Decomposers? 628

Variation in Reproduction 629

Four Major Types of Life Cycles 631

29.4 Key Lineages of Fungi 634

Microsporidia 634

Chytrids 635

Zygomycetes 635

Glomeromycota 636

Basidiomycota 636

Ascomycota 636

CHAPTER REVIEW 636

30 An Introduction to

Animals 639

Canadian Iss ues 30.1 The Canadian Healthy Oceans

Network 640

30.1 What Is an Animal? 641

30.2 What Key Innovations Occurred during the Origin of

Animal Phyla? 642

Origin of Multicellularity 644

Origin of Embryonic Tissue Layers and Muscle 645

Origin of Bilateral Symmetry, Cephalization, and the Nervous

System 646

Origin of the Coelom 649

Origin of Protostomes and Deuterostomes 649

Origin of Segmentation 650

30.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of

Animals within Phyla? 650

Sensory Organs 651

Feeding 652

Movement 654

Reproduction 655

Life Cycles 656

30.4 Key Lineages of Animals: Non-Bilaterian

Groups 657

Porifera (Sponges) 657

Ctenophora (Comb Jellies) 658

Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Corals, Anemones, Hydroids) 658

CHAPTER REVIEW 659

31 Protostome Animals 661

31.1 What Is a Protostome? 662

The Water-to-Land Transition 663

Modular Body Plans 664

31.2 What Is a Lophotrochozoan? 664

What Is a Flatworm? 667

What Is a Segmented Worm? 668

What Is a Mollusk? 668

CANADIAN RESEARCH 31.1 Canada’s Cambrian Mollusks 671

31.3 What Is an Ecdysozoan? 673

What Is a Nematode? 674

What Are Tardigrades and Velvet Worms? 674

What Is an Arthropod? 674

Arthropod Diversity 677

Arthropod Metamorphosis 681

CHAPTER REVIEW 682

32 Deuterostome Animals 684

32.1 What Is an Echinoderm? 685

The Echinoderm Body Plan 685

Echinoderms Are Important Consumers 686

32.2 What Is a Chordate? 688

The Cephalochordates 689

The Urochordates 689

The Vertebrates 690

32.3 What Is a Vertebrate? 690

32.4 What Key Innovations Occurred during the

Evolution of Vertebrates? 691

Urochordates: Outgroup to Vertebrates 691

First Vertebrates: Origin of the Cranium and Vertebrae 693

Gnathostomes: Origin of the Vertebrate Jaw 693

Origin of the Bony Endoskeleton 696

Tetrapods: Origin of the Limb 696

Amniotes: Origin of the Amniotic Egg 697

Mammals: Origin of Lactation and Fur 698

Reptiles: Origin of Scales and Feathers Made of Keratin 700

Canadian Iss ues 32.1 Alberta during the Mesozoic Era 701

Parental Care 704

Take-Home Messages 704

32.5 The Primates and Hominins 705

The Primates 705

Fossil Humans 705

The Out-of-Africa Hypothesis 709

Have Humans Stopped Evolving? 710

CHAPTER REVIEW 711

33 Viruses 713

CANADIAN RESEARCH 33.1 Viruses in the Oceans 714

33.1 Why Do Biologists Study Viruses? 715

Viruses Shape the Evolution of Organisms 715

Viruses Cause Disease 715

Current Viral Pandemics in Humans: AIDS 716

33.2 How Do Biologists Study Viruses? 717

Analyzing Morphological Traits 718

Analyzing the Genetic Material 719

Analyzing the Phases of Replicative Growth 719

Analyzing How Viruses Coexist with Host Cells 725

33.3 What Themes Occur in the Diversification of

Viruses? 726

Where Did Viruses Come From? 726

Emerging Viruses, Emerging Diseases 726

33.4 Key Lineages of Viruses 728

CHAPTER REVIEW 732

Diversity of Life 734

Unit 6 HOW PLANTS WORK 736

34 Plant Form and Function 736

34.1 Plant Form: Themes with Many Variations 737

The Importance of Surface Area/Volume Relationships 738

The Root System 738

The Shoot System 740

The Leaf 742

CANADIAN RESEARCH 34.1 Does Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaves

Offer Protection against Herbivore Attack? 744

34.2 Plant Cells and Tissue Systems 746

The Dermal Tissue System 746

The Ground Tissue System 748

The Vascular Tissue System 749

34.3 Primary Growth Extends the Plant Body 751

How Do Apical Meristems Produce the Primary Plant

Body? 751

How Is the Primary Root System Organized? 752

How Is the Primary Shoot System Organized? 754

34.4 Secondary Growth Widens Shoots and Roots 754

What Is a Cambium? 755

How Does a Cambium Initiate Secondary Growth? 755

What Do Vascular Cambia Produce? 756

What Do Cork Cambia Produce? 756

The Structure of Tree Trunks 757

CHAPTER REVIEW 758

35 Water and Sugar Transport in

Plants 760

35.1 Water Potential and Water Movement 761

What Is Water Potential? 761

What Factors Affect Water Potential? 761

Working with Water Potentials 762

Water Potentials in Soils, Plants, and the Atmosphere 763

35.2 How Does Water Move from Roots to

Shoots? 765

Movement of Water and Solutes into the Root 765

Water Movement via Root Pressure 766

Water Movement via Capillary Action 767

The Cohesion-Tension Theory 767

35.3 Plant Features That Reduce Water Loss 770

Limiting Water Loss 770

CANADIAN RESEARCH 35.1 Ecological Pressures and the Evolution

of Drought Adaptation in Plants 771

Obtaining Carbon Dioxide under Water Stress 772

35.4 Translocation of Sugars 773

Tracing Connections between Sources and Sinks 773

The Anatomy of Phloem 773

The Pressure-Flow Hypothesis 774

Phloem Loading 775

Phloem Unloading 777

CHAPTER REVIEW 779

36 Plant Nutrition 782

36.1 Nutritional Requirements of Plants 783

Which Nutrients Are Essential? 783

What Happens When Key Nutrients Are in Short Supply? 785

36.2 Soil: A Dynamic Mixture of Living and Nonliving

Components 786

The Importance of Soil Conservation 786

What Factors Affect Nutrient Availability? 788

36.3 Nutrient Uptake 789

Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake 789

CANADIAN RESEARCH 36.1 Do Belowground Interactions between

Plants and Fungi Influence Aboveground Interactions

between Plants and Pollinators? 791

Mechanisms of Ion Exclusion 793

36.4 Nitrogen Fixation 795

The Role of Symbiotic Bacteria 795

How Do Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Infect Plant Roots? 796

36.5 Nutritional Adaptations of Plants 797

Parasitic Plants 797

Epiphytic Plants 797

Carnivorous Plants 798

CHAPTER REVIEW 799

37 Plant Sensory Systems,

Signals, and Responses 801

37.1 Information Processing in Plants 802

How Do Cells Receive and Process an External

Signal? 802

How Do Cells Respond to Cell–Cell Signals? 802

37.2 Blue Light: The Phototropic Response 804

Phototropins as Blue-Light Receptors 804

Auxin as the Phototropic Hormone 805

37.3 Red and Far-Red Light: Germination, Stem

Elongation, and Flowering 808

The Red/Far-Red “Switch” 808

Phytochrome Is a Red/Far-Red Receptor 808

CANADIAN RESEARCH 37.1 Plant Signalling Networks Help

Influence Proper Growth 809

Signals That Promote Flowering 810

37.4 Gravity: The Gravitropic Response 812

The Statolith Hypothesis 812

Auxin as the Gravitropic Signal 813

37.5 How Do Plants Respond to Wind and Touch? 814

Changes in Growth Patterns 814

Movement Responses 814

37.6 Youth, Maturity, and Aging: The Growth

Responses 815

Auxin and Apical Dominance 815

Cytokinins and Cell Division 816

Gibberellins and ABA: Growth and Dormancy 816

Brassinosteroids and Body Size 819

Ethylene and Senescence 820

An Overview of Plant Growth Regulators 821

37.7 Pathogens and Herbivores: The Defence

Responses 823

How Do Plants Sense and Respond to Pathogens? 823

How Do Plants Sense and Respond to Herbivore

Attack? 825

CHAPTER REVIEW 827

38 Plant Reproduction and

Development 830

38.1 An Introduction to Plant Reproduction 831

Asexual Reproduction 831

Sexual Reproduction and the Plant Life Cycle 832

38.2 Reproductive Structures 833

The General Structure of the Flower 833

How Are Female Gametophytes Produced? 835

How Are Male Gametophytes Produced? 836

38.3 Pollination and Fertilization 837

Pollination 837

Canadian Iss ues 38.1 What Is the Effect of Agriculture on Wild

Bee Abundance and Crop Pollination? 837

Fertilization 840

38.4 Seeds and Fruits 841

The Role of Drying in Seed Maturation 841

Fruit Development and Seed Dispersal 842

Seed Dormancy 843

Seed Germination 845

38.5 Embryogenesis and Vegetative Development 846

Embryogenesis 846

Meristem Formation 847

Which Genes Determine Body Axes in the Plant Embryo? 848

Which Genes Determine Leaf Structure and Shape? 848

CANADIAN RESEARCH 38.1 Apoptosis during the Formation of

Plant Leaves 849

38.6 Reproductive Development 851

The Floral Meristem and the Flower 851

The Genetic Control of Flower Structures 851

CHAPTER REVIEW 853

How Vascular Plants Work 856

Unit 7 HOW ANIMALS WORK 858

39 Animal Form and Function 858

39.1 Form, Function, and Adaptation 859

The Role of Fitness Trade-Offs 859

Adaptation and Acclimatization 861

39.2 Tissues, Organs, and Systems: How Does Structure

Correlate with Function? 861

Structure–Function Relationships at the Molecular and Cellular

Levels 862

Tissues Are Groups of Cells That Function as a Unit 862

Organs and Organ Systems 865

39.3 How Does Body Size Affect Animal Physiology? 866

Surface Area/Volume Relationships: Theory 866

Surface Area/Volume Relationships: Data 867

Adaptations That Increase Surface Area 868

39.4 Homeostasis 869

Homeostasis: General Principles 869

The Role of Regulation and Feedback 870

39.5 Thermoregulation: A Closer Look 871

Mechanisms of Heat Exchange 871

Thermoregulatory Strategies 872

Comparing Endothermy and Ectothermy 872

Countercurrent Heat Exchangers 873

CANADIAN RESEARCH 39.1 Freeze-Tolerant Animals 874

CHAPTER REVIEW 875

40 Water and Electrolyte

Balance in Animals 878

40.1 Osmoregulation and Excretion 879

What Is Osmotic Stress? 879

Osmotic Stress in Seawater, in Freshwater, and on Land 879

How Do Electrolytes and Water Move across Cell

Membranes? 881

Types of Nitrogenous Wastes: Impact on Water Balance 881

40.2 Water and Electrolyte Balance in Marine Fishes 882

Osmoconformation versus Osmoregulation in Marine

Fishes 882

How Do Sharks Excrete Salt? 882

CANADIAN RESEARCH 40.1 The Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre

and Research on Shark Osmoregulation 883

40.3 Water and Electrolyte Balance in Freshwater

Fishes 884

How Do Freshwater Fishes Osmoregulate? 884

40.4 Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial

Insects 885

How Do Insects Minimize Water Loss from the Body

Surface? 885

40.5 Water and Electrolyte Balance in Terrestrial

Vertebrates 887

The Structure of the Mammalian Kidney 887

The Function of the Mammalian Kidney: An Overview 888

Filtration: The Renal Corpuscle 889

Reabsorption: The Proximal Tubule 889

Creating an Osmotic Gradient: The Loop of Henle 890

Regulating Water and Electrolyte Balance: The Distal Tubule

and Collecting Duct 893

Urine Formation in Nonmammalian Vertebrates 894

CHAPTER REVIEW 895

41 Animal Nutrition 898

41.1 Nutritional Requirements 899

Defining Human Nutritional Requirements 899

Meeting Human Nutritional Requirements 899

Canadian Iss ues 41.1 Vitamin D Deficiency in Canada 901

41.2 Capturing Food: The Structure and Function of

Mouthparts 903

Mouthparts as Adaptations 903

A Case Study: The Cichlid Throat Jaw 903

Detecting the Nutritional Value of Food 904

41.3 How Are Nutrients Digested and Absorbed? 905

An Introduction to the Digestive Tract 905

An Overview of Digestive Processes 905

The Mouth and Esophagus 906

The Stomach 908

The Small Intestine 910

The Large Intestine 913

41.4 Nutritional Homeostasis—Glucose as a Case

Study 914

The Discovery of Insulin 914

Insulin’s Role in Homeostasis 914

Diabetes Mellitus Has Two Forms 915

CANADIAN RESEARCH 41.1 Treating Diabetes Mellitus 916

CHAPTER REVIEW 917

42 Gas Exchange and

Circulation 919

42.1 The Respiratory and Circulatory Systems 920

42.2 Air and Water as Respiratory Media 920

How Do Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Behave in Air? 920

How Do Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Behave in Water? 921

42.3 Organs of Gas Exchange 922

Physical Parameters: The Law of Diffusion 922

How Do Gills Work? 922

How Do Insect Tracheae Work? 924

How Do Vertebrate Lungs Work? 926

Homeostatic Control of Ventilation 927

42.4 How Are Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transported in

Blood? 929

Structure and Function of Hemoglobin 929

CO2 Transport and the Buffering of Blood pH 932

CANADIAN RESEARCH 42.1 Peter Hochachka and Physiological

Adaptation in Animals 933

42.5 Circulation 934

What Is an Open Circulatory System? 935

What Is a Closed Circulatory System? 935

How Does the Heart Work? 937

Patterns in Blood Pressure and Blood Flow 941

CHAPTER REVIEW 943

43 Animal Nervous Systems 945

43.1 Principles of Electrical Signalling 946

Types of Neurons 946

The Anatomy of a Neuron 947

An Introduction to Membrane Potentials 947

How Is the Resting Potential Maintained? 948

Using Electrodes to Measure Membrane Potentials 949

What Is an Action Potential? 949

43.2 Dissecting the Action Potential 950

Distinct Ion Currents Are Responsible for Depolarization and

Repolarization 950

How Do Voltage-Gated Channels Work? 950

How Is the Action Potential Propagated? 951

43.3 The Synapse 954

Synapse Structure and Neurotransmitter Release 954

What Do Neurotransmitters Do? 955

Postsynaptic Potentials 956

CANADIAN RESEARCH 43.1 David Suzuki and the Discovery of the

Genes Encoding Neuron Proteins 958

43.4 The Vertebrate Nervous System 959

What Does the Peripheral Nervous System Do? 959

Functional Anatomy of the CNS 961

How Do Learning and Memory Work? 964

CHAPTER REVIEW 966

44 Animal Sensory Systems 969

44.1 How Do Sensory Organs Convey Information to the

Brain? 970

Sensory Transduction 970

Transmitting Information to the Brain 971

44.2 Mechanoreception: Sensing Pressure Changes 971

How Do Sensory Cells Respond to Sound Waves and Other Forms

of Pressure? 971

Hearing: The Mammalian Ear 972

CANADIAN RESEARCH 44.1 Why Do Wind Farms Kill Bats? 975

The Lateral Line System in Fishes and Amphibians 977

44.3 Photoreception: Sensing Light 978

The Insect Eye 978

The Vertebrate Eye 978

44.4 Chemoreception: Sensing Chemicals 983

Taste: Detecting Molecules in the Mouth 983

Olfaction: Detecting Molecules in the Air 984

44.5 Other Sensory Systems 986

Thermoreception: Sensing Temperature 986

Electroreception: Sensing Electric Fields 987

Magnetoreception: Sensing Magnetic Fields 988

CHAPTER REVIEW 988

45 Animal Movement 991

45.1 How Do Muscles Contract? 992

Early Muscle Experiments 992

The Sliding-Filament Model 992

How Do Actin and Myosin Interact? 993

How Do Neurons Initiate Contraction? 995

45.2 Muscle Tissues 996

Smooth Muscle 996

Cardiac Muscle 997

Skeletal Muscle 997

45.3 Skeletal Systems 999

Hydrostatic Skeletons 1000

Endoskeletons 1001

Exoskeletons 1002

45.4 Locomotion 1003

How Do Biologists Study Locomotion? 1003

CANADIAN RESEARCH 45.1 Tyrannosaur Tails 1005

Size Matters 1006

CHAPTER REVIEW 1008

46 Chemical Signals in

Animals 1011

46.1 Cell-to-Cell Signalling: An Overview 1012

Major Categories of Chemical Signals 1012

Hormone Signalling Pathways 1013

What Makes Up the Endocrine System? 1014

How Do Researchers Identify a Hormone? 1015

A Breakthrough in Measuring Hormone Levels 1015

46.2 How Do Hormones Act on Target Cells? 1016

Hormone Concentrations Are Low, but Their Effects Are

Large 1016

Three Chemical Classes of Hormones 1016

Steroid Hormones Bind to Intracellular Receptors 1017

Polypeptide Hormones Bind to Receptors on the Plasma

Membrane 1018

Why Do Different Target Cells Respond in Different Ways? 1020

46.3 What Do Hormones Do? 1020

How Do Hormones Direct Developmental Processes? 1021

Canadian Iss ues 46.1 Estrogens in the Environment 1023

How Do Hormones Coordinate Responses to Stressors? 1024

How Are Hormones Involved in Homeostasis? 1026

CANADIAN RESEARCH 46.1 Cortisol Mediates Stress in

Wildlife 1026

46.4 How Is the Production of Hormones

Regulated? 1027

The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 1027

Control of Adrenaline by Sympathetic Nerves 1029

CHAPTER REVIEW 1030

47 Animal Reproduction and

Development 1032

47.1 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 1033

How Does Asexual Reproduction Occur? 1033

Switching Reproductive Modes: A Case History 1033

Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction: Gametogenesis 1035

47.2 Reproductive Structures and Their Functions 1037

The Male Reproductive System 1037

The Female Reproductive System 1038

47.3 Fertilization and Egg Development 1040

External Fertilization 1040

Internal Fertilization 1040

The Cell Biology of Fertilization 1042

Why Do Some Females Lay Eggs While Others Give

Birth? 1043

47.4 Embryonic Development 1045

Cleavage 1045

Gastrulation 1046

Organogenesis 1047

CANADIAN RESEARCH 47.1 Apoptosis during the Morphogenesis

of Chick Embryos 1049

47.5 The Role of Sex Hormones in Mammalian

Reproduction 1050

Which Hormones Control Puberty? 1050

Which Hormones Control the Menstrual Cycle in

Humans? 1051

47.6 Pregnancy and Birth in Mammals 1054

Gestation and Development in Marsupials 1054

Major Events during Human Pregnancy 1054

How Does the Mother Nourish the Fetus? 1056

Birth 1056

Canadian Iss ues 47.1 Canada’s Assisted Human Reproduction

Act 1057

CHAPTER REVIEW 1058

48 The Immune System in

Animals 1060

48.1 Innate Immunity 1061

Barriers to Entry 1061

The Innate Immune Response 1062

48.2 Adaptive Immunity: Recognition 1064

An Introduction to Lymphocytes 1065

Lymphocytes Recognize a Diverse Array of Antigens 1066

CANADIAN RESEARCH 48.1 Tak Wah Mak and the Discovery of the

T-Cell Receptor 1068

How Does the Immune System Distinguish Self from

Nonself? 1070

48.3 Adaptive Immunity: Activation 1070

The Clonal Selection Theory 1070

T-Cell Activation 1071

B-Cell Activation and Antibody Secretion 1073

48.4 Adaptive Immunity: Response and Memory 1074

How Are Extracellular Pathogens Eliminated? 1074

How Are Intracellular Pathogens Eliminated? 1075

Why Does the Immune System Reject Foreign Tissues and

Organs? 1076

CANADIAN RESEARCH 48.2 Designing Universal Blood for

Donations 1077

Responding to Future Infections: Immunological

Memory 1077

48.5 What Happens When the Immune System Doesn’t

Work Correctly? 1079

Allergies 1079

Autoimmune Diseases 1079

Immunodeficiency Diseases 1079

CHAPTER REVIEW 1080

How Humans Work 1082

Unit 8 ECOLOGY 1084

49 An Introduction to

Ecology 1084

49.1 Levels of Ecological Study 1085

Organismal Ecology 1085

Population Ecology 1086

Community Ecology 1086

Ecosystem Ecology 1086

Global Ecology 1086

CANADIAN RESEARCH 49.1 Salmon Migration in a Warming

World 1086

Conservation Biology Applies All Levels of Ecological

Study 1088

49.2 What Determines the Distribution and Abundance

of Organisms? 1088

Abiotic Factors 1088

Biotic Factors 1088

History Matters: Past Abiotic and Biotic Factors Influence

Present Patterns 1089

Biotic and Abiotic Factors Interact 1090

49.3 Climate Patterns 1092

Why Are the Tropics Warm and the Poles Cold? 1092

Why Are the Tropics Wet? 1092

What Causes Seasonality in Weather? 1092

What Regional Effects Do Mountains and Oceans Have on

Climate? 1094

49.4 Types of Terrestrial Biomes 1095

Natural Biomes 1095

Anthropogenic Biomes 1097

How Will Global Climate Change Affect Terrestrial Biomes? 1098

49.5 Types of Aquatic Biomes 1099

Salinity 1100

Water Depth and Sunlight Availability 1100

Water Flow 1101

Nutrient Availability 1102

How Are Aquatic Biomes Affected by Humans? 1103

CANADIAN RESEARCH 49.2 The Future of Canada’s Lakes

and Wetlands 1105

CHAPTER REVIEW 1107

50 Behavioural Ecology 1109

50.1 An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology 1110

Proximate and Ultimate Causation 1110

CANADIAN RESEARCH 50.1 Do Male Redback Spiders Benefit from

Being Eaten by Their Mates? 1110

Types of Behaviour: An Overview 1112

50.2 Choosing What, How, and When to Eat 1113

Proximate Causes: Foraging Alleles in Drosophila

melanogaster 1113

Ultimate Causes: Optimal Foraging 1113

50.3 Choosing a Mate 1115

Proximate Causes: How Is Sexual Activity Triggered in Anolis

Lizards? 1115

Ultimate Causes: Sexual Selection 1116

50.4 Choosing a Place to Live 1117

Proximate Causes: How Do Animals Navigate? 1117

Canadian Iss ues 50.1 The Whisky Jack: Canada’s National

Bird? 1118

Ultimate Causes: Why Do Animals Migrate? 1119

50.5 Communicating with Others 1121

Proximate Causes: How Do Honeybees

Communicate? 1121

Ultimate Causes: Why Do Honeybees Communicate the Way

They Do? 1122

When Is Communication Honest or Deceitful? 1122

50.6 Cooperating with Others 1124

Kin Selection 1124

Quantitative Methods 50.1 Calculating the Coefficient of

Relatedness 1125

Manipulation 1126

Reciprocal Altruism 1126

Cooperation and Mutualism 1127

Individuals Do Not Act for the Good of the Species 1127

CHAPTER REVIEW 1127

51 Population Ecology 1130

51.1 Distribution and Abundance 1131

Geographic Distribution 1131

Sampling Methods 1132

Quantitative Methods 51.1 Mark–Recapture

Studies 1132

51.2 Demography 1133

Life Tables 1133

Quantitative Methods 51.2 Using Life Tables to Calculate Population

Growth Rates 1135

CANADIAN RESEARCH 51.1 Tyrannosaur Life Tables 1136

The Role of Life History 1137

51.3 Population Growth 1138

Exponential Growth 1138

Logistic Growth 1139

Quantitative Methods 51.3 Using Growth Models to Predict

Population Growth 1140

What Factors Limit Population Size? 1141

51.4 Population Dynamics 1143

Why Do Some Populations Cycle? 1143

How Do Metapopulations Change through Time? 1145

51.5 Human Population Growth 1146

Age Structure in Human Populations 1146

Analyzing Change in the Growth Rate of Human

Populations 1147

51.6 How Can Population Ecology Help Conserve

Biodiversity? 1149

Using Life-Table Data 1149

Preserving Metapopulations 1150

CHAPTER REVIEW 1152

52 Community Ecology 1154

52.1 Species Interactions 1155

Commensalism 1155

Competition 1156

Consumption 1159

Mutualism 1163

52.2 Community Structure 1165

Why Are Some Species More Important than Others in

Structuring Communities? 1165

How Predictable Are Communities? 1167

52.3 Community Dynamics 1168

Disturbance and Change in Ecological Communities 1168

Succession: The Development of Communities after

Disturbance 1169

52.4 Patterns in Species Richness 1172

Predicting Species Richness: The Theory of Island

Biogeography 1173

Quantitative Methods 52.1 Measuring Species

Diversity 1173

Global Patterns in Species Richness 1174

CANADIAN RESEARCH 52.1 Why Is Biodiversity Higher in the

Tropics? 1176

CHAPTER REVIEW 1177

53 Ecosystems and Global

Ecology 1180

53.1 How Does Energy Flow through Ecosystems? 1181

How Efficient Are Autotrophs at Capturing Solar Energy? 1181

What Happens to the Biomass of Autotrophs? 1182

Energy Transfer between Trophic Levels 1184

Global Patterns in Productivity 1186

53.2 How Do Nutrients Cycle through Ecosystems? 1188

Nutrient Cycling within Ecosystems 1188

CANADIAN RESEARCH 53.1 Can Predators Increase Nutrient

Cycling? 1189

Global Biogeochemical Cycles 1191

53.3 Global Climate Change 1195

What Is the Cause of Global Climate Change? 1195

How Much Will the Climate Change? 1196

Biological Effects of Climate Change 1199

Canadian Iss ues 53.1 Insect Outbreaks Result from and

Contribute to Climate Change 1201

Consequences to Net Primary Productivity 1202

CHAPTER REVIEW 1203

54 Biodiversity and Conservation

Biology 1206

54.1 What Is Biodiversity? 1207

Biodiversity Can Be Measured and Analyzed at Several

Levels 1207

How Many Species Are Living Today? 1209

Where Is Biodiversity Highest? 1210

54.2 Threats to Biodiversity 1212

Multiple Interacting Threats 1212

How Will These Threats Affect Future Extinction Rates? 1216

Quantitative Methods 54.1 Species–Area Plots 1217

54.3 Why Is Biodiversity Important? 1219

Biological Benefits of Biodiversity 1219

Ecosystem Services: Economic and Social Benefits of

Biodiversity and Ecosystems 1221

An Ethical Dimension 1222

54.4 Preserving Biodiversity and Ecosystem

Function 1223

Addressing the Ultimate Causes of Loss 1223

Conservation Strategies to Preserve Genetic Diversity, Species,

and Ecosystem Function 1224

Canadian Iss ues 54.1 SARA—Canada’s Species at Risk Act 1226

Take-Home Message 1229

CHAPTER REVIEW 1230

Ecology 1232

APPENDIX A Answers A:1

APPENDIX B Periodic Table of Elements B:1

Glossary G:1

Credits C:1

Index I:1

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