Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 9th Edition PDF by Martin S. Silberberg and Patricia G. Amateis


Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, Ninth Edition

By Martin S. Silberberg and Patricia G. Amateis

Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, 9th Edition

Detailed Contents:

Chapter 1: Keys to Studying Chemistry: Definitions, Units, and Problem Solving 2

1.1 Some Fundamental Definitions 3

The States of Matter 4

The Properties of Matter and Its

Changes 4

The Central Theme in Chemistry 8

The Importance of Energy in the Study

of Matter 8

1.2 The Scientific Approach: Developing

a Model 10

1.3 Measurement and Chemical Problem

Solving 12

General Features of SI Units 12

Some Important SI Units in Chemistry 13

Units and Conversion Factors in

Calculations 15

A Systematic Approach to Solving

Chemistry Problems 18

Temperature Scales 23

Extensive and Intensive Properties 25

1.4 Uncertainty in Measurement:

Significant Figures 26

Determining Which Digits Are

Significant 27

Significant Figures: Calculations and

Rounding Off 28

Precision, Accuracy, and Instrument

Calibration 30



Chapter 2 The Components of Matter 40

2.1 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures:

An Atomic Overview 42

2.2 The Observations That Led to an

Atomic View of Matter 44

Mass Conservation 44

Definite Composition 45

Multiple Proportions 47

2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 48

Postulates of the Atomic Theory 48

How the Theory Explains the

Mass Laws 48

2.4 The Observations That Led to the

Nuclear Atom Model 50

Discovery of the Electron and Its

Properties 50

Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus 52

2.5 The Atomic Theory Today 53

Structure of the Atom 53

Atomic Number, Mass Number, and

Atomic Symbol 54

Isotopes 55

Atomic Masses of the Elements 55

2.6 Elements: A First Look at the

Periodic Table 59

2.7 Compounds: Introduction

to Bonding 62

The Formation of Ionic Compounds 62

The Formation of Covalent

Substances 64

2.8 Compounds: Formulas, Names,

and Masses 65

Binary Ionic Compounds 65

Compounds That Contain

Polyatomic Ions 69

Acid Names from Anion Names 71

Binary Covalent Compounds 72

The Simplest Organic Compounds:

Straight-Chain Alkanes 73

Molecular Masses from Chemical

Formulas 74

Representing Molecules with Formulas

and Models 76

2.9 Mixtures: Classification

and Separation 78

An Overview of the Components

of Matter 79



Chapter 3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations 92

3.1 The Mole 93

Defining the Mole 93

Determining Molar Mass 94

Converting Between Amount, Mass, and

Number of Chemical Entities 95

The Importance of Mass Percent 99

3.2 Determining the Formula of

an Unknown Compound 102

Empirical Formulas 102

Molecular Formulas 103

Chemical Formulas and Molecular

Structures; Isomers 107

3.3 Writing and Balancing Chemical

Equations 108

3.4 Calculating Quantities of Reactant

and Product 113

Stoichiometrically Equivalent Molar

Ratios from the Balanced

Equation 113

Reactions That Occur in a Sequence 117

Reactions That Involve a Limiting

Reactant 118

Theoretical, Actual, and Percent

Reaction Yields 124



Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions 142

4.1 Solution Concentration and the Role

of Water as a Solvent 143

The Polar Nature of Water 144

Ionic Compounds in Water 144

Covalent Compounds in Water 148

Expressing Concentration in Terms

of Molarity 148

Amount-Mass-Number Conversions

Involving Solutions 149

Preparing and Diluting Molar

Solutions 150

4.2 Precipitation Reactions 154

The Key Event: Formation of a Solid

from Dissolved Ions 154

Predicting Whether a Precipitate

Will Form 156

Stoichiometry of Precipitation

Reactions 159

4.3 Acid-Base Reactions 162

The Key Event: Formation of H2O from

H+ and OH− 165

Proton Transfer in Acid-Base

Reactions 165

Stoichiometry of Acid-Base Reactions:

Acid-Base Titrations 169

4.4 Oxidation-Reduction (Redox)

Reactions 172

The Key Event: Movement of Electrons

Between Reactants 172

Some Essential Redox Terminology 173

Using Oxidation Numbers to Monitor

Electron Charge 173

Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions:

Redox Titrations 177

4.5 Elements in Redox Reactions 179

Combination Redox Reactions 179

Decomposition Redox Reactions 180

Displacement Redox Reactions and

Activity Series 182

Combustion Reactions 184

4.6 The Reversibility of Reactions

and the Equilibrium State 186



Chapter 5 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 202

5.1 An Overview of the Physical States

of Matter 203

5.2 Gas Pressure and Its Measurement 205

Measuring Gas Pressure: Barometers and

Manometers 205

Units of Pressure 207

5.3 The Gas Laws and Their Experimental

Foundations 208

The Relationship Between Volume and

Pressure: Boyle’s Law 209

The Relationship Between Volume and

Temperature: Charles’s Law 210

The Relationship Between Volume and

Amount: Avogadro’s Law 212

Gas Behavior at Standard Conditions 213

The Ideal Gas Law 214

Solving Gas Law Problems 215

5.4 Rearrangements of the Ideal

Gas Law 220

The Density of a Gas 220

The Molar Mass of a Gas 222

The Partial Pressure of Each Gas in

a Mixture of Gases 223

The Ideal Gas Law and Reaction

Stoichiometry 226

5.5 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: A Model

for Gas Behavior 229

How the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

Explains the Gas Laws 229

Effusion and Diffusion 234

The Chaotic World of Gases: Mean Free

Path and Collision Frequency 236


5.6 Real Gases: Deviations from Ideal

Behavior 239

Effects of Extreme Conditions

on Gas Behavior 239

The van der Waals Equation: Adjusting

the Ideal Gas Law 241



Chapter 6 Thermochemistry: Energy Flow and Chemical Change 254

6.1 Forms of Energy and Their

Interconversion 255

Defining the System and Its

Surroundings 256

Energy Change (ΔE): Energy Transfer to

or from a System 256

Heat and Work: Two Forms of Energy

Transfer 257

The Law of Energy Conservation 259

Units of Energy 260

State Functions and the Path

Independence of the Energy

Change 261

Calculating Pressure-Volume Work

(PV Work) 262

6.2 Enthalpy: Changes at Constant

Pressure 263

The Meaning of Enthalpy 263

Comparing ΔE and ΔH 264

Exothermic and Endothermic

Processes 264

6.3 Calorimetry: Measuring the Heat

of a Chemical or Physical Change 266

Specific Heat Capacity 266

The Two Major Types of

Calorimetry 268

6.4 Stoichiometry of Thermochemical Equations 272

6.5 Hess’s Law: Finding ΔH

of Any Reaction 274

6.6 Standard Enthalpies of

Reaction (ΔH°rxn) 276

Formation Equations and Their Standard

Enthalpy Changes 277

Determining ΔH°rxn from ΔH°f Values for

Reactants and Products 278




Chapter 7 Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure 294

7.1 The Nature of Light 295

The Wave Nature of Light 296

The Particle Nature of Light 299

7.2 Atomic Spectra 302

Line Spectra and the Rydberg

Equation 302

The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen

Atom 303

The Energy Levels of the Hydrogen

Atom 305


7.3 The Wave-Particle Duality of Matter

and Energy 310

The Wave Nature of Electrons and the

Particle Nature of Photons 310

Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 313

7.4 The Quantum-Mechanical Model

of the Atom 314

The Atomic Orbital and the Probable

Location of the Electron 314

Quantum Numbers of an Atomic

Orbital 316

Quantum Numbers and Energy

Levels 317

Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 319

The Special Case of Energy Levels in

the Hydrogen Atom 322



Chapter 8 Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity 330

8.1 Characteristics of Many-Electron

Atoms 332

The Electron-Spin Quantum Number 332

The Exclusion Principle 333

Electrostatic Effects and Energy-Level

Splitting 333

8.2 The Quantum-Mechanical Model and

the Periodic Table 335

Building Up Period 1 336

Building Up Period 2 336

Building Up Period 3 338

Building Up Period 4: The First Transition

Series 338

General Principles of Electron

Configurations 340

Intervening Series: Transition and Inner

Transition Elements 341

Similar Electron Configurations Within

Groups 342

8.3 Trends in Three Atomic

Properties 344

Trends in Atomic Size 345

Trends in Ionization Energy 347

Trends in Electron Affinity 351

8.4 Atomic Properties and Chemical

Reactivity 352

Trends in Metallic Behavior 352

Properties of Monatomic Ions 354



Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding 368

9.1 Atomic Properties and Chemical

Bonds 369

The Three Ways Elements Combine 369

Lewis Symbols and the Octet Rule 371

9.2 The Ionic Bonding Model 372

Why Ionic Compounds Form:

The Importance of Lattice

Energy 373

Periodic Trends in Lattice Energy 376

How the Model Explains the Properties

of Ionic Compounds 378

9.3 The Covalent Bonding Model 379

The Formation of a Covalent Bond 379

Bonding Pairs and Lone Pairs 380

Properties of a Covalent Bond:

Order, Energy, and Length 380

How the Model Explains the Properties

of Covalent Substances 383


9.4 Bond Energy and Chemical

Change 385

Changes in Bond Energy: Where Does

ΔH°rxn Come From? 385

Using Bond Energies to Calculate

ΔH°rxn 386

Bond Strengths and the Heat Released

from Fuels and Foods 389

9.5 Between the Extremes:

Electronegativity and Bond

Polarity 390

Electronegativity 390

Bond Polarity and Partial Ionic

Character 392

The Gradation in Bonding Across

a Period 394

9.6 An Introduction to Metallic

Bonding 395

The Electron-Sea Model 395

How the Model Explains the Properties

of Metals 396



Chapter 10 The Shapes of Molecules 404

10.1 Depicting Molecules and Ions with

Lewis Structures 405

Applying the Octet Rule to Write

Lewis Structures 405

Resonance: Delocalized Electron-Pair

Bonding 410

Formal Charge: Selecting the More

Important Resonance Structure 411

Lewis Structures for Exceptions to

the Octet Rule 414

10.2 Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion

(VSEPR) Theory 418

Electron-Group Arrangements and

Molecular Shapes 418

The Molecular Shape with Two Electron

Groups (Linear Arrangement) 419

Molecular Shapes with Three Electron

Groups (Trigonal Planar

Arrangement) 420

Molecular Shapes with Four Electron

Groups (Tetrahedral

Arrangement) 421

Molecular Shapes with Five Electron

Groups (Trigonal Bipyramidal

Arrangement) 422

Molecular Shapes with Six Electron

Groups (Octahedral

Arrangement) 423

Using VSEPR Theory to Determine

Molecular Shape 424

Molecular Shapes with More Than One

Central Atom 427

10.3 Molecular Shape and Molecular

Polarity 429

Bond Polarity, Bond Angle, and Dipole

Moment 429

The Effect of Molecular Polarity on

Behavior 431




Chapter 11 Theories of Covalent Bonding 442

11.1 Valence Bond (VB) Theory and

Orbital Hybridization 443

The Central Themes of VB Theory 443

Types of Hybrid Orbitals 444

11.2 Modes of Orbital Overlap and the

Types of Covalent Bonds 452

Orbital Overlap in Single and Multiple

Bonds 452

Orbital Overlap and Rotation Within

a Molecule 455

11.3 Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory and

Electron Delocalization 455

The Central Themes of MO Theory 456

Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules of

Period 2 Elements 458

Two Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules:

HF and NO 462

Two Polyatomic Molecules: Benzene and

Ozone 463



Chapter 12 Intermolecular Forces: Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes 470

12.1 An Overview of Physical States

and Phase Changes 471

A Kinetic-Molecular View of the Three

States 472

Types of Phase Changes and Their

Enthalpies 473

12.2 Quantitative Aspects of Phase

Changes 475

Heat Involved in Phase Changes 475

The Equilibrium Nature of Phase

Changes 479

Phase Diagrams: Effect of Pressure and

Temperature on Physical State 483

12.3 Types of Intermolecular Forces 485

How Close Can Molecules Approach

Each Other? 485

Ion-Dipole Forces 486

Dipole-Dipole Forces 487

The Hydrogen Bond 487

Polarizability and Induced Dipole

Forces 489

Dispersion (London) Forces 490

12.4 Properties of the Liquid State 492

Surface Tension 492

Capillarity 493

Viscosity 494

12.5 The Uniqueness of Water 495

Solvent Properties of Water 495

Thermal Properties of Water 495

Surface Properties of Water 496

The Unusual Density of Solid Water 496

12.6 The Solid State: Structure, Properties,

and Bonding 497

Structural Features of Solids 497


Types and Properties of Crystalline

Solids 505

Amorphous Solids 508

Bonding in Solids: Molecular Orbital

Band Theory 509

12.7 Advanced Materials 511

Electronic Materials 511

Liquid Crystals 513

Ceramic Materials 515

Polymeric Materials 517

Nanotechnology: Designing Materials

Atom by Atom 522



Chapter 13 The Properties of Mixtures: Solutions and Colloids 534

13.1 Types of Solutions: Intermolecular

Forces and Solubility 535

Intermolecular Forces in Solution 536

Liquid Solutions and the Role of

Molecular Polarity 537

Gas Solutions and Solid Solutions 539

13.2 Intermolecular Forces and Biological

Macromolecules 541

The Structures of Proteins 541

Dual Polarity in Soaps, Membranes,

and Antibiotics 543

The Structure of DNA 544

13.3 Why Substances Dissolve: Breaking

Down the Solution Process 546

The Heat of Solution and Its

Components 546

The Heat of Hydration: Dissolving Ionic

Solids in Water 547

The Solution Process and the Change in

Entropy 550

13.4 Solubility as an Equilibrium

Process 552

Effect of Temperature on Solubility 552

Effect of Pressure on Solubility 553

13.5 Concentration Terms 555

Molarity and Molality 555

Parts of Solute by Parts of Solution 557

Interconverting Concentration

Terms 559

13.6 Colligative Properties of Solutions 560

Nonvolatile Nonelectrolyte

Solutions 561

Using Colligative Properties to Find

Solute Molar Mass 566

Volatile Nonelectrolyte Solutions 567

Strong Electrolyte Solutions 567

Applications of Colligative

Properties 570

13.7 The Structure and Properties

of Colloids 571




Chapter 14 Periodic Patterns in the Main-Group Elements 588

14.1 Hydrogen, the Simplest Atom 589

Where Hydrogen Fits in the Periodic

Table 589

Highlights of Hydrogen Chemistry 590

14.2 Trends Across the Periodic Table:

The Period 2 Elements 591

14.3 Group 1A(1): The Alkali Metals 594

Why the Alkali Metals Are Unusual

Physically 594

Why the Alkali Metals Are

So Reactive 596

14.4 Group 2A(2): The Alkaline Earth

Metals 597

How the Alkaline Earth and Alkali Metals

Compare Physically 597

How the Alkaline Earth and Alkali Metals

Compare Chemically 597

Diagonal Relationships: Lithium and

Magnesium 599

14.5 Group 3A(13): The Boron Family 599

How the Transition Elements Influence

This Group’s Properties 599

Features That First Appear in This

Group’s Chemical Properties 601

Highlights of Boron Chemistry 601

Diagonal Relationships: Beryllium

and Aluminum 602

14.6 Group 4A(14): The Carbon

Family 602

How Type of Bonding Affects Physical

Properties 604

How Bonding Changes in This Group’s

Compounds 605

Highlights of Carbon Chemistry 606

Highlights of Silicon Chemistry 607

Diagonal Relationships: Boron

and Silicon 608

14.7 Group 5A(15): The Nitrogen

Family 608

The Wide Range of Physical

Behavior 610

Patterns in Chemical Behavior 610

Highlights of Nitrogen Chemistry 612

Highlights of Phosphorus Chemistry 614

14.8 Group 6A(16): The Oxygen

Family 616

How the Oxygen and Nitrogen Families

Compare Physically 616

How the Oxygen and Nitrogen Families

Compare Chemically 618

Highlights of Oxygen Chemistry:

Range of Oxide Properties 619

Highlights of Sulfur Chemistry 619

14.9 Group 7A(17): The Halogens 621

Physical Behavior of the Halogens 621

Why the Halogens Are

So Reactive 621

Highlights of Halogen Chemistry 623

14.10 Group 8A(18): The Noble

Gases 626

How the Noble Gases and Alkali

Metals Contrast Physically 626

How Noble Gases Can Form

Compounds 626



Chapter 15 Organic Compounds and the Atomic Properties of Carbon 636

15.1 The Special Nature of Carbon and

the Characteristics of Organic

Molecules 637

The Structural Complexity of Organic

Molecules 638

The Chemical Diversity of Organic

Molecules 638

15.2 The Structures and Classes of

Hydrocarbons 640

Carbon Skeletons and Hydrogen

Skins 640

Alkanes: Hydrocarbons with Only

Single Bonds 643

Dispersion Forces and the Physical

Properties of Alkanes 645

Constitutional Isomerism 645

Chiral Molecules and Optical

Isomerism 646

Alkenes: Hydrocarbons with Double

Bonds 648

Restricted Rotation and Geometric

(cis-trans) Isomerism 649

Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with Triple

Bonds 650

Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Cyclic

Molecules with Delocalized π

Electrons 651

Variations on a Theme: Catenated

Inorganic Hydrides 652


15.3 Some Important Classes of Organic

Reactions 655

Types of Organic Reactions 655

The Redox Process in Organic

Reactions 657

15.4 Properties and Reactivities of

Common Functional Groups 658

Functional Groups with Only Single

Bonds 658

Functional Groups with Double

Bonds 663

Functional Groups with Both Single

and Double Bonds 666

Functional Groups with Triple Bonds 670

15.5 The Monomer-Polymer Theme I:

Synthetic Macromolecules 672

Addition Polymers 672

Condensation Polymers 673

15.6 The Monomer-Polymer Theme II:

Biological Macromolecules 674

Sugars and Polysaccharides 674

Amino Acids and Proteins 676

Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 678




Chapter 16 Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions 694

16.1 Focusing on Reaction Rate 695

16.2 Expressing the Reaction Rate 698

Average, Instantaneous, and Initial

Reaction Rates 698

Expressing Rate in Terms of Reactant

and Product Concentrations 700

16.3 The Rate Law and Its

Components 702

Some Laboratory Methods for

Determining the Initial Rate 703

Determining Reaction Orders 703

Determining the Rate Constant 708

16.4 Integrated Rate Laws: Concentration

Changes over Time 712

Integrated Rate Laws and Reaction

Half-Life for First-Order

Reactions 712

Integrated Rate Law and Reaction

Half-Life for Second-Order

Reactions 716

Integrated Rate Law and Reaction

Half-Life for Zero-Order

Reactions 718

Determining Reaction Orders from an

Integrated Rate Law 718

16.5 Theories of Chemical Kinetics 720

Collision Theory: Basis of the

Rate Law 720

Transition State Theory: What the

Activation Energy Is Used For 722

The Effect of Temperature on Rate 724

16.6 Reaction Mechanisms: The Steps

from Reactant to Product 727

Elementary Reactions and

Molecularity 727

The Rate-Determining Step of a Reaction

Mechanism 728

Correlating the Mechanism with

the Rate Law 729

16.7 Catalysis: Speeding Up a Reaction 733

The Basis of Catalytic Action 733

Homogeneous Catalysis 734

Heterogeneous Catalysis 735

Kinetics and Function of Biological

Catalysts 736




Chapter 17 Equilibrium: The Extent of Chemical Reactions 752

17.1 The Equilibrium State and

the Equilibrium Constant 753

17.2 The Reaction Quotient and

the Equilibrium Constant 756

The Changing Value of the Reaction

Quotient 756

Writing the Reaction Quotient in Its

Various Forms 757

17.3 Expressing Equilibria with Pressure

Terms: Relation Between Kc

and Kp 763

17.4 Comparing Q and K to Determine

Reaction Direction 764

17.5 How to Solve Equilibrium

Problems 767

Using Quantities to Find the Equilibrium

Constant 767

Using the Equilibrium Constant to Find

Quantities 770

Problems Involving Mixtures of Reactants

and Products 775

17.6 Reaction Conditions and Equilibrium:

Le Châtelier’s Principle 777

The Effect of a Change in

Concentration 777

The Effect of a Change in Pressure

(Volume) 780

The Effect of a Change in

Temperature 782

The Lack of Effect of a Catalyst 785

Applying Le Châtelier’s Principle to

the Synthesis of Ammonia 787




Chapter 18 Acid-Base Equilibria 802

18.1 Release of H+ or OH− and the

Arrhenius Acid-Base Definition 804

18.2 Proton Transfer and the Brønsted-

Lowry Acid-Base Definition 805

Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 806

Relative Acid-Base Strength and the

Net Direction of Reaction 807

18.3 Autoionization of Water and

the pH Scale 809

The Equilibrium Nature of Autoionization:

The Ion-Product Constant for

Water (Kw) 810

Expressing the Hydronium Ion

Concentration: The pH Scale 811

18.4 Strong Acids and Bases and

pH Calculations 813

Strong Acids 813

Strong Bases 814

Calculating pH for Strong Acids

and Bases 814

18.5 Weak Acids and Their Equilibria

Calculations 815

The Acid Dissociation Constant (Ka) 815

Finding Ka, Given Concentrations 818

Finding Concentrations, Given Ka 819

The Effect of Concentration on the Extent

of Acid Dissociation 821

The Behavior of Polyprotic Acids 822

18.6 Molecular Properties and Acid

Strength 825

Acid Strength of Nonmetal Hydrides 825

Acid Strength of Oxoacids 825

Acidity of Hydrated Metal Ions 826

18.7 Weak Bases and Their Relation to

Weak Acids 827

Molecules as Weak Bases: Ammonia

and the Amines 828

Anions of Weak Acids as

Weak Bases 830

The Relation Between Ka and Kb of a

Conjugate Acid-Base Pair 830

18.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salt

Solutions 833

Salts That Yield Neutral Solutions 833

Salts That Yield Acidic Solutions 833

Salts That Yield Basic Solutions 834

Salts of Weakly Acidic Cations and

Weakly Basic Anions 835

Salts of Amphiprotic Anions 835

18.9 Generalizing the Brønsted-Lowry

Concept: The Leveling Effect 837

18.10 Electron-Pair Donation and the

Lewis Acid-Base Definition 838

Molecules as Lewis Acids 838

Metal Cations as Lewis Acids 839

An Overview of Acid-Base

Definitions 840



Chapter 19 Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems 852

19.1 Equilibria of Acid-Base Buffers 853

What a Buffer Is and How It Works: The

Common-Ion Effect 853

The Henderson-Hasselbalch

Equation 858

Buffer Capacity and Buffer Range 859

Preparing a Buffer 861

19.2 Acid-Base Titration Curves 863

Strong Acid–Strong Base Titration

Curves 863

Weak Acid–Strong Base

Titration Curves 866

Weak Base–Strong Acid Titration

Curves 870

Monitoring pH with Acid-Base

Indicators 872

Titration Curves for Polyprotic Acids 874

Amino Acids as Biological Polyprotic

Acids 875

19.3 Equilibria of Slightly Soluble Ionic

Compounds 876

The Ion-Product Expression (Qsp) and the

Solubility-Product Constant (Ksp) 876

Calculations Involving the Solubility-

Product Constant 877

Effect of a Common Ion on Solubility 880

Effect of pH on Solubility 882

Applying Ionic Equilibria to the Formation

of a Limestone Cave 883

Predicting the Formation of a

Precipitate: Qsp vs. Ksp 884

Separating Ions by Selective

Precipitation and Simultaneous

Equilibria 886


19.4 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 890

Formation of Complex Ions 890

Complex Ions and the Solubility

of Precipitates 891

Complex Ions of Amphoteric

Hydroxides 893



Chapter 20: Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and

Reaction Direction 906

20.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics:

Predicting Spontaneous Change 907

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Does Not Predict Spontaneous

Change 908

The Sign of ΔH Does Not Predict

Spontaneous Change 908

Freedom of Particle Motion and

Dispersal of Kinetic Energy 909

Entropy and the Number of

Microstates 910

Entropy and the Second Law of

Thermodynamics 913

Standard Molar Entropies and the

Third Law 913

Predicting Relative S ° of a System 914

20.2 Calculating the Change in Entropy of

a Reaction 918

Entropy Changes in the System: Standard

Entropy of Reaction (ΔS°rxn) 918

Entropy Changes in the Surroundings:

The Other Part of the Total 920

The Entropy Change and the Equilibrium

State 922

Spontaneous Exothermic and

Endothermic Changes 923

20.3 Entropy, Free Energy, and Work 924

Free Energy Change and Reaction

Spontaneity 924

Calculating Standard Free Energy

Changes 925

The Free Energy Change and the Work a

System Can Do 927

The Effect of Temperature on Reaction

Spontaneity 928

Coupling of Reactions to Drive a

Nonspontaneous Change 932


20.4 Free Energy, Equilibrium, and

Reaction Direction 934



Chapter 21 Electrochemistry: Chemical Change and Electrical Work 950

21.1 Redox Reactions and Electrochemical

Cells 951

A Quick Review of Oxidation-Reduction

Concepts 951

Half-Reaction Method for Balancing

Redox Reactions 952

An Overview of Electrochemical

Cells 955

21.2 Voltaic Cells: Using Spontaneous

Reactions to Generate Electrical

Energy 957

Construction and Operation of a

Voltaic Cell 957

Notation for a Voltaic Cell 960

Why Does a Voltaic Cell Work? 961

21.3 Cell Potential: Output of a Voltaic

Cell 962

Standard Cell Potential (E°cell) 962

Relative Strengths of Oxidizing and

Reducing Agents 965

Using E°half-cell Values to Write

Spontaneous Redox Reactions 967

Explaining the Activity Series of

the Metals 970

21.4 Free Energy and Electrical Work 971

Standard Cell Potential and the

Equilibrium Constant 971

The Effect of Concentration on Cell

Potential 974

Following Changes in Potential During

Cell Operation 975

Concentration Cells 976

21.5 Electrochemical Processes

in Batteries 980

Primary (Nonrechargeable) Batteries 980

Secondary (Rechargeable) Batteries 981

Fuel Cells 982

21.6 Corrosion: An Environmental

Voltaic Cell 984

The Corrosion of Iron 984

Protecting Against the Corrosion

of Iron 985

21.7 Electrolytic Cells: Using Electrical

Energy to Drive Nonspontaneous

Reactions 986

Construction and Operation of an

Electrolytic Cell 986

Predicting the Products of

Electrolysis 988

Stoichiometry of Electrolysis: The

Relation Between Amounts of

Charge and Products 992




Chapter 22 The Elements in Nature and Industry 1008

22.1 How the Elements Occur in

Nature 1009

Earth’s Structure and the Abundance of

the Elements 1009

Sources of the Elements 1013

22.2 The Cycling of Elements Through

the Environment 1014

The Carbon Cycle 1014

The Nitrogen Cycle 1016

The Phosphorus Cycle 1017

22.3 Metallurgy: Extracting a Metal

from Its Ore 1020

Pretreating the Ore 1021

Converting Mineral to Element 1022

Refining and Alloying the Element 1024

22.4 Tapping the Crust: Isolation and Uses

of Selected Elements 1026

Producing the Alkali Metals: Sodium

and Potassium 1026

The Indispensable Three: Iron, Copper,

and Aluminum 1027

Mining the Sea for Magnesium 1033

The Sources and Uses of

Hydrogen 1034

22.5 Chemical Manufacturing: Two Case

Studies 1037

Sulfuric Acid, the Most Important

Chemical 1037

The Chlor-Alkali Process 1040



Chapter 23 Transition Elements and Their Coordination Compounds 1048

23.1 Properties of the Transition

Elements 1049

Electron Configurations of the Transition

Metals and Their Ions 1050

Atomic and Physical Properties of

the Transition Elements 1052

Chemical Properties of the Transition

Elements 1054

23.2 The Inner Transition Elements 1056

The Lanthanides 1056

The Actinides 1057

23.3 Coordination Compounds 1058

Complex Ions: Coordination Numbers,

Geometries, and Ligands 1058

Formulas and Names of Coordination

Compounds 1060

Isomerism in Coordination

Compounds 1064

23.4 Theoretical Basis for the Bonding and

Properties of Complex Ions 1067

Applying Valence Bond Theory to

Complex Ions 1067

Crystal Field Theory 1069




Chapter 24 Nuclear Reactions and Their Applications 1086

24.1 Radioactive Decay and Nuclear

Stability 1087

Comparing Chemical and Nuclear

Change 1088

The Components of the Nucleus:

Terms and Notation 1088

The Discovery of Radioactivity and

the Types of Emissions 1089

Modes of Radioactive Decay; Balancing

Nuclear Equations 1089

Nuclear Stability and the Mode

of Decay 1093

24.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive

Decay 1097

Detection and Measurement of

Radioactivity 1097

The Rate of Radioactive Decay 1098

Radioisotopic Dating 1102

24.3 Nuclear Transmutation: Induced

Changes in Nuclei 1104

Early Transmutation Experiments;

Nuclear Shorthand Notation 1104

Particle Accelerators and the

Transuranium Elements 1105

24.4 Ionization: Effects of Nuclear

Radiation on Matter 1107

Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Living

Tissue 1108

Background Sources of Ionizing

Radiation 1110

Assessing the Risk from Ionizing

Radiation 1111

24.5 Applications of Radioisotopes 1112

Radioactive Tracers 1112

Additional Applications of Ionizing

Radiation 1114

24.6 The Interconversion of Mass and

Energy 1115

The Mass Difference Between a Nucleus

and Its Nucleons 1116

Nuclear Binding Energy and Binding

Energy per Nucleon 1117

24.7 Applications of Fission

and Fusion 1119

The Process of Nuclear Fission 1119

The Promise of Nuclear Fusion 1123





Appendix A Common Mathematical

Operations in Chemistry A-1

Appendix B Standard Thermodynamic Values

for Selected Substances A-5

Appendix C Equilibrium Constants for

Selected Substances A-8

Appendix D Standard Electrode

(Half-Cell) Potentials A-14

Appendix E Answers to Selected

Problems A-15

Glossary G-1

Index I-1

LIST OF SAMPLE PROBLEMS (Molecular-scene problems are shown in color.)

Chapter 1

1.1 Visualizing Change on the Atomic Scale 6

1.2 Distinguishing Between Physical and Chemical Change 7

1.3 Converting Units of Length 18

1.4 Converting Units of Volume 19

1.5 Converting Units of Mass 20

1.6 Converting Units Raised to a Power 21

1.7 Calculating Density from Mass and Volume 22

1.8 Converting Units of Temperature 25

1.9 Determining the Number of Significant Figures 27

1.10 Significant Figures and Rounding 30

Chapter 2

2.1 Distinguishing Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

at the Atomic Scale 43

2.2 Calculating the Mass of an Element in a Compound 46

2.3 Visualizing the Mass Laws 49

2.4 Determining the Numbers of Subatomic Particles in the

Isotopes of an Element 55

2.5 Calculating the Atomic Mass of an Element 57

2.6 Identifying an Element from Its Z Value 61

2.7 Predicting the Ion an Element Forms 63

2.8 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 67

2.9 Determining Formulas of Binary Ionic Compounds 67

2.10 Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds of

Metals That Form More Than One Ion 69

2.11 Determining Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Containing Polyatomic Ions (Including Hydrates) 70

2.12 Recognizing Incorrect Names and Formulas of Ionic

Compounds 71

2.13 Determining Names and Formulas of Anions and Acids 72

2.14 Determining Names and Formulas of Binary Covalent

Compounds 72

2.15 Recognizing Incorrect Names and Formulas of Binary

Covalent Compounds 73

2.16 Calculating the Molecular Mass of a Compound 75

2.17 Using Molecular Depictions to Determine Formula, Name,

and Mass 75

Chapter 3

3.1 Converting Between Mass and Amount of an Element 96

3.2 Converting Between Number of Entities and Amount

of an Element 97

3.3 Converting Between Number of Entities and Mass

of an Element 97

3.4 Converting Between Number of Entities and Mass

of a Compound 98

3.5 Calculating the Mass Percent of Each Element in a

Compound from the Formula 100

3.6 Calculating the Mass of an Element in a Compound 101

3.7 Determining an Empirical Formula from Masses of

Elements 102

3.8 Determining a Molecular Formula from Elemental Analysis

and Molar Mass 104

3.9 Determining a Molecular Formula from Combustion

Analysis 105

3.10 Balancing a Chemical Equation 111

3.11 Writing a Balanced Equation from a Molecular

Scene 112

3.12 Calculating Quantities of Reactants and Products: Amount

(mol) to Amount (mol) and to Mass (g) 115

3.13 Calculating Quantities of Reactants and Products:

Mass to Mass 116

3.14 Writing an Overall Equation for a Reaction Sequence 117

3.15 Using Molecular Depictions in a Limiting-Reactant

Problem 120

3.16 Calculating Quantities in a Limiting-Reactant Problem:

Amount to Amount 121

3.17 Calculating Quantities in a Limiting-Reactant Problem:

Mass to Mass 122

3.18 Calculating Percent Yield 125

Chapter 4

4.1 Using Molecular Scenes to Depict an Ionic Compound

in Aqueous Solution 146

4.2 Determining Amount (mol) of Ions in Solution 147

4.3 Calculating the Molarity of a Solution 148

4.4 Calculating Mass of Solute in a Given Volume of Solution 149

4.5 Determining Amount (mol) of Ions in a Solution 150

4.6 Preparing a Dilute Solution from a Concentrated Solution 151

4.7 Visualizing Changes in Concentration 152

4.8 Predicting Whether a Precipitation Reaction Occurs;

Writing Ionic Equations 157

4.9 Using Molecular Depictions in Precipitation Reactions 158

4.10 Calculating Amounts of Reactants and Products in a

Precipitation Reaction 160

4.11 Solving a Limiting-Reactant Problem for a Precipitation

Reaction 161

4.12 Determining the Number of H+ (or OH−) Ions in Solution 164

4.13 Writing Ionic Equations and Proton-Transfer Equations

for Acid-Base Reactions 168

4.14 Calculating the Amounts of Reactants and Products in an

Acid-Base Reaction 169

4.15 Finding the Concentration of an Acid from a Titration 171

4.16 Determining the Oxidation Number of Each Element

in a Compound (or Ion) 174

4.17 Identifying Redox Reactions and Oxidizing and Reducing

Agents 175

4.18 Finding the Amount of Reducing Agent by Titration 177

4.19 Identifying the Type of Redox Reaction 185

Chapter 5

5.1 Converting Units of Pressure 208

5.2 Applying the Volume-Pressure Relationship 215

5.3 Applying the Volume-Temperature and Pressure-

Temperature Relationships 216

5.4 Applying the Volume-Amount and Pressure-Amount

Relationships 216

5.5 Applying the Volume-Pressure-Temperature

Relationship 217

5.6 Solving for an Unknown Gas Variable at Fixed

Conditions 218

5.7 Using Gas Laws to Determine a Balanced Equation 219

5.8 Calculating Gas Density 221

5.9 Finding the Molar Mass of a Volatile Liquid 223

5.10 Applying Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 224

5.11 Calculating the Amount of Gas Collected over Water 226

5.12 Using Gas Variables to Find Amounts of Reactants

or Products I 227

5.13 Using Gas Variables to Find Amounts of Reactants

or Products II 228

5.14 Applying Graham’s Law of Effusion 234

Chapter 6

6.1 Determining the Change in Internal Energy of a System 260

6.2 Calculating Pressure-Volume Work Done by or on a

System 262

6.3 Drawing Enthalpy Diagrams and Determining the Sign

of ΔH 265

6.4 Relating Quantity of Heat and Temperature Change 267

6.5 Determining the Specific Heat Capacity of a Solid 268

6.6 Determining the Enthalpy Change of an Aqueous

Reaction 269

6.7 Calculating the Heat of a Combustion Reaction 271

6.8 Using the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction (ΔH ) to Find the

Amount of a Substance 273

6.9 Using Hess’s Law to Calculate an Unknown ΔH 275

6.10 Writing Formation Equations 277

6.11 Calculating ΔH°rxn from ΔH°f Values 279

Chapter 7

7.1 Interconverting Wavelength and Frequency 297

7.2 Interconverting Energy, Wavelength, and Frequency 301

7.3 Determining ΔE and λ of an Electron Transition 307

7.4 Calculating the de Broglie Wavelength of an Electron 311

7.5 Applying the Uncertainty Principle 313

7.6 Determining Quantum Numbers for an Energy Level 317

7.7 Determining Sublevel Names and Orbital Quantum

Numbers 318

7.8 Identifying Incorrect Quantum Numbers 318

Chapter 8

8.1 Determining Electron Configurations 343

8.2 Ranking Elements by Atomic Size 346

8.3 Ranking Elements by First Ionization Energy 349

8.4 Identifying an Element from Its Ionization Energies 351

8.5 Writing Electron Configurations of Main-Group Ions 355

8.6 Writing Electron Configurations and Predicting Magnetic

Behavior of Transition Metal Ions 358

8.7 Ranking Ions by Size 360

Chapter 9

9.1 Depicting Ion Formation 373

9.2 Predicting Relative Lattice Energy from Ionic Properties 377

9.3 Comparing Bond Length and Bond Strength 382

9.4 Using Bond Energies to Calculate ΔH°rxn 388

9.5 Determining Bond Polarity from EN Values 393

Chapter 10

10.1 Writing Lewis Structures for Species with Single Bonds and

One Central Atom 407

10.2 Writing Lewis Structures for Molecules with Single Bonds and

More Than One Central Atom 408

10.3 Writing Lewis Structures for Molecules with Multiple

Bonds 409

10.4 Writing Resonance Structures and Assigning Formal

Charges 413

10.5 Writing Lewis Structures for Octet-Rule Exceptions 417

10.6 Examining Shapes with Two, Three, or Four Electron

Groups 426

10.7 Examining Shapes with Five or Six Electron Groups 427

10.8 Predicting Molecular Shapes with More Than One Central

Atom 428

10.9 Predicting the Polarity of Molecules 430

Chapter 11

11.1 Postulating Hybrid Orbitals in a Molecule 450

11.2 Describing the Types of Orbitals and Bonds in Molecules 454

11.3 Predicting Stability of Species Using MO Diagrams 458

11.4 Using MO Theory to Explain Bond Properties 461

Chapter 12

12.1 Finding the Heat of a Phase Change Depicted

by Molecular Scenes 477

12.2 Applying the Clausius-Clapeyron Equation 481

12.3 Using a Phase Diagram to Predict Phase Changes 484

12.4 Drawing Hydrogen Bonds Between Molecules

of a Substance 488

12.5 Identifying the Types of Intermolecular Forces 491

12.6 Determining the Number of Particles per Unit Cell and the

Coordination Number 499

12.7 Determining Atomic Radius 502

12.8 Determining Atomic Radius from the Unit Cell 503

Chapter 13

13.1 Predicting Relative Solubilities 539

13.2 Calculating an Aqueous Ionic Heat of Solution 549

13.3 Using Henry’s Law to Calculate Gas Solubility 554

13.4 Calculating Molality 556

13.5 Expressing Concentrations in Parts by Mass, Parts by

Volume, and Mole Fraction 558

13.6 Interconverting Concentration Terms 559

13.7 Using Raoult’s Law to Find ΔP 561

13.8 Determining Boiling and Freezing Points of

a Solution 564

13.9 Determining Molar Mass from Colligative Properties 566

13.10 Depicting Strong Electrolyte Solutions 568

Chapter 15

15.1 Drawing Hydrocarbons 641

15.2 Naming Hydrocarbons and Understanding Chirality and

Geometric Isomerism 650

15.3 Recognizing the Type of Organic Reaction 656

15.4 Predicting the Reactions of Alcohols, Alkyl Halides, and

Amines 662

15.5 Predicting the Steps in a Reaction Sequence 665

15.6 Predicting Reactions of the Carboxylic Acid Family 669

15.7 Recognizing Functional Groups 671

Chapter 16

16.1 Expressing Rate in Terms of Changes in Concentration

with Time 701

16.2 Determining Reaction Orders from Rate Laws 705

16.3 Determining Reaction Orders and Rate Constants from

Rate Data 709

16.4 Determining Reaction Orders from Molecular Scenes 710

16.5 Determining the Reactant Concentration After a Given Time

in a First-Order Reaction 712

16.6 Using Molecular Scenes to Find Quantities at Various

Times 714

16.7 Determining the Half-Life of a First-Order Reaction 715

16.8 Determining Reactant Concentration and Half-Life for

Second-Order Reactions 717

16.9 Drawing Reaction Energy Diagrams and Transition States 724

16.10 Determining the Energy of Activation 726

16.11 Determining Molecularities and Rate Laws for Elementary

Steps 728

16.12 Identifying Intermediates and Correlating Rate Laws and

Reaction Mechanisms 731

Chapter 17

17.1 Writing the Reaction Quotient from the Balanced

Equation 759

17.2 Finding K for Reactions Multiplied by a Common Factor,

Reversed, or Written as an Overall Process 761

17.3 Converting Between Kc and Kp 764

17.4 Using Molecular Scenes to Determine Reaction

Direction 765

17.5 Using Concentrations to Determine Reaction Direction 766

17.6 Calculating Kc from Concentration Data 769

17.7 Determining Equilibrium Concentrations from Kc 770

17.8 Determining Equilibrium Concentrations from Initial

Concentrations and Kc 770

17.9 Making a Simplifying Assumption to Calculate Equilibrium

Concentrations 773

17.10 Predicting Reaction Direction and Calculating Equilibrium

Concentrations 775

17.11 Predicting the Effect of a Change in Concentration

on the Equilibrium Position 779

17.12 Predicting the Effect of a Change in Volume (Pressure)

on the Equilibrium Position 781

17.13 Predicting the Effect of a Change in Temperature

on the Equilibrium Position 783

17.14 Calculating the Change in Kc with a Change in

Temperature 784

17.15 Determining Equilibrium Parameters from Molecular

Scenes 785

Chapter 18

18.1 Identifying Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 806

18.2 Predicting the Net Direction of an Acid-Base Reaction 807

18.3 Using Molecular Scenes to Predict the Net Direction

of an Acid-Base Reaction 809

18.4 Calculating [H3O+] or [OH−] in Aqueous Solution 811

18.5 Calculating [H3O+], pH, [OH−], and pOH for Strong Acids

and Bases 814

18.6 Finding Ka of a Weak Acid from the Solution pH 818

18.7 Determining Concentration and pH from Ka and

Initial [HA] 820

18.8 Finding the Percent Dissociation of a Weak Acid 821

18.9 Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations for a

Polyprotic Acid 823

18.10 Determining pH from Kb and Initial [B] 829

18.11 Determining the pH of a Solution of A− 831

18.12 Predicting Relative Acidity of Salt Solutions from Reactions

of the Ions with Water 834

18.13 Predicting the Relative Acidity of a Salt Solution from

Ka and Kb of the Ions 835

18.14 Identifying Lewis Acids and Bases 840

Chapter 19

19.1 Calculating the Effect of Added H3O+ or OH− on

Buffer pH 856

19.2 Using Molecular Scenes to Examine Buffers 860

19.3 Preparing a Buffer 862

19.4 Finding the pH During a Weak Acid–Strong Base

Titration 868

19.5 Writing Ion-Product Expressions 877

19.6 Determining Ksp from Solubility 878

19.7 Determining Solubility from Ksp 879

19.8 Calculating the Effect of a Common Ion on Solubility 881

19.9 Predicting the Effect on Solubility of Adding Strong Acid 883

19.10 Predicting Whether a Precipitate Will Form 884

19.11 Using Molecular Scenes to Predict Whether a Precipitate

Will Form 885

19.12 Separating Ions by Selective Precipitation 887

19.13 Calculating the Concentration of a Complex Ion 891

19.14 Calculating the Effect of Complex-Ion Formation

on Solubility 892

Chapter 20

20.1 Predicting Relative Entropy Values 917

20.2 Calculating the Standard Entropy of Reaction,

ΔS°rxn 919

20.3 Determining Reaction Spontaneity 921

20.4 Calculating ΔG°rxn from Enthalpy and Entropy Values 925

20.5 Calculating ΔG°rxn from ΔG°f Values 926

20.6 Using Molecular Scenes to Determine the Signs of ΔH, ΔS,

and ΔG 929

20.7 Determining the Effect of Temperature on ΔG 930

20.8 Finding the Temperature at Which a Reaction Becomes

Spontaneous 931

20.9 Exploring the Relationship Between ΔG° and K 935

20.10 Using Molecular Scenes to Find ΔG for a Reaction

at Nonstandard Conditions 936

20.11 Calculating ΔG at Nonstandard Conditions 938

Chapter 21

21.1 Balancing a Redox Reaction in Basic Solution 954

21.2 Describing a Voltaic Cell with a Diagram and

Notation 960

21.3 Using E°half-cell Values to Find E°cell 963

21.4 Calculating an Unknown E°half-cell from E°cell 965

21.5 Writing Spontaneous Redox Reactions and Ranking

Oxidizing and Reducing Agents by Strength 968

21.6 Calculating K and ΔG° from E°cell 973

21.7 Using the Nernst Equation to Calculate Ecell 974

21.8 Calculating the Potential of a Concentration Cell 978

21.9 Predicting the Electrolysis Products of a Molten Salt

Mixture 989

21.10 Predicting the Electrolysis Products of Aqueous Salt

Solutions 991

21.11 Applying the Relationship Among Current, Time,

and Amount of Substance 993

Chapter 23

23.1 Writing Electron Configurations of Transition Metal

Atoms and Ions 1052

23.2 Finding the Number of Unpaired Electrons 1057

23.3 Finding the Coordination Number and Charge of the Central

Metal Ion in a Coordination Compound 1061

23.4 Writing Names and Formulas of Coordination

Compounds 1063

23.5 Determining the Type of Stereoisomerism 1067

23.6 Ranking Crystal Field Splitting Energies (Δ) for Complex Ions

of a Metal 1073

23.7 Identifying High-Spin and Low-Spin Complex Ions 1074

Chapter 24

24.1 Writing Equations for Nuclear Reactions 1092

24.2 Predicting Nuclear Stability 1094

24.3 Predicting the Mode of Nuclear Decay 1096

24.4 Calculating the Specific Activity and the Decay Constant of a

Radioactive Nuclide 1099

24.5 Finding the Number of Radioactive Nuclei 1101

24.6 Applying Radiocarbon Dating 1103

24.7 Writing Equations for Transmutation Reactions 1107

24.8 Calculating the Binding Energy per Nucleon 1117

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