Forensic Psychology, 5th Edition PDF by Joanna Pozzulo, Craig Bennell and Adelle Forth

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Forensic Psychology, Fifth Edition

By Joanna Pozzulo, Craig Bennell and Adelle Forth

Forensic Psychology, 5th Edition

Contents

Preface xii

1 An Introduction to Forensic Psychology 1

In the Media The Reality of Reality TV 2

A Brief History of Forensic Psychology 3

Early Research on Testimony and Suggestibility 3

Court Cases in Europe 4

Advocates for Forensic Psychology in North America 5

Box 1.1 Biological, Sociological, and

Psychological Theories of Crime 7

Landmark Court Cases in the United States 8

Progress in Canada 9

A Legitimate Field of Psychology 10

Box 1.2 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Stephen Wormith 11

Forensic Psychology Today 12

The Roles of a Forensic Psychologist 13

Box 1.3 Other Forensic Disciplines 14

The Relationship Between Psychology and Law 16

Box 1.4 Influential Court Cases in the Field of Forensic Psychology 17

Modern-Day Debates: Psychological Experts in Court 18

The Function of the Expert Witness 18

The Challenges of Providing Expert Testimony 18

Criteria for Accepting Expert Testimony 20

Box 1.5 The Challenges of Applying the Mohan Criteria: The Case of R. v. D.D. (2000) 23

Box 1.6 Myths Associated with the Field of Forensic Psychology 25

2 Police Psychology 27

Police Selection 28

A Brief History of Police Selection 28

Box 2.1 So, You Want to Be an RCMP Officer?

The RCMP Regular Member Selection Process 30

Developing Police Selection Instruments 31

The Validity of Police Selection Instruments 33

Box 2.2 The Use of Assessment Centres in Canadian Policing 37

Police Discretion 38

Why Is Police Discretion Necessary? 38

Areas Where Police Discretion Is Used 39

Box 2.3 The Supreme Court of Canada Rules on

Investigative Discretion in Beaudry v. The Queen (2007) 40

Box 2.4 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Dorothy Cotton 43

In the Media The Death of Sammy Yatim 44

Controlling Police Discretion 45

Box 2.5 The RCMP’s Incident Management/

Intervention Model 46

Police Stress 48

Sources of Police Stress 48

Box 2.6 Work–Life Balance and Police Officer

Well-Being in Canada 49

Consequences of Police Stress 51

Box 2.7 Myths Associated with Police Psychology 53

Preventing and Managing Police Stress 54

3 The Psychology of Police Investigations 57

Police Interrogations 58

Box 3.1 The Mr. Big Technique 59

The Reid Model of Interrogation 60

The Use of the Reid Model in Actual

Interrogations 62

Potential Problems with the Reid Model of

Interrogation 63

Box 3.2 Myths About Police Interrogations 65

Box 3.3 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Joseph

Eastwood 66

Interrogation Practices and the Courts 68

An Alternative to the Reid Model 68

Box 3.4 The Admissibility of Confession

Evidence: Court Rulings in R. v. Oickle

(2000) and R. v. Chapple (2012) 69

False Confessions 70

The Frequency of False Confessions 71

Different Types of False Confessions 71

Box 3.5 A Coerced-Compliant False Confession

in a Canadian Child Abuse Case 73

Studying False Confessions in the Lab 75

The Consequences of Falsely Confessing 77

Criminal Profiling 79

What Is a Criminal Profile? 79

In the Media Hollywood Depictions of Criminal

Profiling 80

The Origins of Criminal Profiling 81

Box 3.6 The RCMP’s Violent Crime Linkage

Analysis System (ViCLAS) 83

How Is a Criminal Profile Constructed? 83

The Validity of Criminal Profiling 87

Geographic Profiling 90

4 Deception 94

The Polygraph Technique 95

Applications of the Polygraph Test 95

Types of Polygraph Tests 96

Validity of Polygraph Techniques 99

Can the Guilty Learn to Beat the Polygraph? 100

Box 4.1 Seeing Through the Face of

Deception 101

Scientific Opinion: What Do the Experts Say? 102

Admissibility of Polygraph Evidence 103

Brain-Based Deception Research 103

Box 4.2 Brain Fingerprinting: Is This Admissible

in Court? Harrington v. State (2003) 106

Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviour Cues to Lying 107

Box 4.3 Myths and Realities: Detection of Deception 108

Verbal Cues to Lying 110

Are Some People Better at Detecting Deception? 110

Box 4.4 Quest for Love: Truth and Deception in Online Dating 111

In the Media TV and Lie Detection 112

Box 4.5 Detecting High-Stakes Lies 114

Box 4.6 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Leanne ten Brinke 115

Assessment of Malingering and Deception 116

Disorders of Deception 116

Explanatory Models of Malingering 118

How to Study Malingering 119

Malingered Psychosis 120

Box 4.7 Being Sane in Insane Places 121

Assessment Methods to Detect Malingered Psychosis 123

5 Eyewitness Testimony 126

Eyewitness Testimony: The Role of Memory 127

Box 5.1 Eyewitness Myths 128

Box 5.2 Canada’s Witness Protection Program 129

How do We Study Eyewitness Issues? 130

The Laboratory Simulation 130

Recall Memory 131

Interviewing Eyewitnesses 131

The Leading Question: The Misinformation Effect 132

Procedures That Help Police Interview Eyewitnesses 134

Hypnosis 134

The Cognitive Interview 135

In the Media Hypnotically Refreshed Memory Goes to Court, or Not 136

Recall of The Perpetrator 137

Quantity and Accuracy of Descriptions 137

Recognition Memory 139

Lineup Identification 139

Box 5.3 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Rod Lindsay 143

Voice Identification 145

Are Several Identifications Better Than One? 147

Are Confident Witnesses Accurate? 147

Estimator Variable Research in Recognition Memory 149

Expert Testimony on Eyewitness Issues 153

Public Policy Issues and Guidelines 154

Box 5.4 How Does a Case Go Wrong?

v. Sophonow (1986) 156

6 Child Victims and Witnesses 160

Box 6.1 Child Victims and Witnesses 161

History 162

Box 6.2 The Martensville Babysitting Case:

v. Sterling (1995) 163

Recall for Events 163

Free Recall versus Directed Questioning 164

Box 6.3 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Laura

Melnyk Gribble 165

Why Are Children More Suggestible Than Adults? 166

Anatomically Detailed Dolls 167

Other Techniques for Interviewing Children 169

Recall Memory Following a Long Delay 174

Box 6.4 Delayed Memory Goes to Court: v. Kliman (1998) 175

Can Traumatic Memories Be Forgotten? 176

Box 6.5 Delayed Prosecutions of Historic Child Sexual Abuse 177

Recall for People 178

Describing the Culprit 178

Recognition 180

Lineup Procedure and Identification Rates 180

Testifying in Court 182

Courtroom Accommodations 183

Child Maltreatment 184

Box 6.6 Discipline or Physical Abuse? R. v. Poulin (2002) 185

Risk Factors Associated with Child Maltreatment 187

Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Physical Abuse 187

Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Sexual Abuse 188

Box 6.7 Luring Children over the Internet: v. Symes (2005) 190

In the Media to Catch a Predator: Teenage Style 190

7 Juries: Fact Finders 193

Jury Selection in Canada 194

The Cases Heard by Juries 194

Jury Selection 195

Characteristics and Responsibilities of Juries in

Canada 196

Representativeness 196

Box 7.1 Was the Jury Racially Balanced?

v. Brown (2005) 197

Impartiality 198

Box 7.2 A Guilty Juror? R. v. Guess (1998) 198

Box 7.3 Cases Allowing a Challenge for Cause 202

Jury Functions 203

Ignoring the Law 203

Box 7.4 Two Cases of Jury Nullification 204

How do we Study Juror and Jury Behaviour? 205

Post-trial Interviews 205

Archives 205

Simulation 206

Field Studies 206

Box 7.5 Jurors and Juries 207

Reaching a Verdict 208

Listening to the Evidence 208

Disregarding Inadmissible Evidence 210

In the Media the CSI Effect 210

Judge’s Instructions 212

Jury Decision-Making Models 212

Deliberations 214

The Final Verdict 215

Predicting Verdicts 216

Demographic Variables 216

Personality Traits 218

Attitudes 219

Defendant Characteristics 219

Victim Characteristics 220

Expert Testimony 222

Box 7.6 When Law Meets Religion 223

Box 7.7 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Tara Burke 225

8 The Role of Mental Illness in Court 227

Presumptions in Canada’s Legal System 228

Fitness to Stand Trial 228

Box 8.1 Mental Illness and the Court 228

Raising the Issue of Fitness 230

How Many Defendants Are Referred for Fitness Evaluations? 231

Who Can Assess Fitness? 232

Fitness Instruments 232

Box 8.2 Fitness Instruments 233

Distinguishing between Fit and Unfit Defendants 234

How Is Fitness Restored? 235

What Happens after a Finding of Unfitness? 236

Box 8.3 Mentally Ill but Competent to Make

Treatment Decisions? Starson v. Swayze, (1999) 237

Mental State at Time of Offence 239

Box 8.4 Sportscaster Shot Dead by Patient with a Mental Illness 241

Raising the Issue of Insanity 242

Assessing Insanity 243

What Happens to a Defendant Found NCRMD? 243

Box 8.5 Police Officer Run Over by Snowplow 246

Automatism 247

Box 8.6 A Gas Company, a Tire Company, and a Case of Automatism 247

Box 8.7 Can Insults Lead to Automatism?

R v. Stone (1999) 248

How Do NCRMD and Automatism Differ? 249

Intoxication as a Defence 249

Defendants with Mental Disorders 250

In the Media What to Do with Mentally Ill

Offenders? 251

Why Are There Such High Rates of Mental Illness in Offender Populations? 252

Dealing with Offenders Who Are Mentally Ill 252

Bias against Mentally Ill Offenders 252

Are People with Mental Illnesses Violent? 253

Types of Offences Committed by People with Mental

Illnesses 254

Box 8.8 A Violent Crime Committed by a

Mentally Ill Man 255

Recidivism Rates and People with Mental Illnesses 255

Treatment of Offenders with Mental Disorders 256

A New Court For The Mentally Ill: The

Mental Health Courts 257

Perceptions of Mental Health Courts 258

Are Mental Health Courts Effective? 258

Box 8.9 Canadian Researcher Profile:

Dr. Mary Ann Campbell 259

9 Sentencing and Parole in Canada 262

The Structure of the Canadian Court

System 263

Aboriginal Courts 265

Sentencing in Canada 267

The Purposes of Sentencing 267

Box 9.1 Do Aboriginal Healing Lodges Reduce

Aboriginal Overrepresentation? 268

The Principles of Sentencing 269

Sentencing Options in Canada 270

Factors That Affect Sentencing Decisions 271

Box 9.2 Creative Sentencing Options 272

Sentencing Disparity 273

Are the Goals of Sentencing Achieved? 276

Box 9.3 Using Starting Point Sentences to

Increase Sentencing Uniformity: v. Arcand (2010) 277

Box 9.4 The Death Penalty in Canada: What

Does the Public Think? 278

What Works in Offender Treatment? 279

Parole in Canada 280

Types of Parole 280

In the Media Kelly Ellard Denied Day Parole 281

Parole Decision Making 282

Box 9.5 Parole in Canada 283

Box 9.6 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Ralph Serin 284

The Effectiveness of Parole Decisions in Canada 285

10 Risk Assessment 289

What is Risk Assessment? 290

Risk Assessments: When are They

Conducted? 291

Civil Setting 291

Criminal Settings 292

Types of Prediction Outcomes 293

The Base Rate Problem 294

A History of Risk Assessment 295

Methodological Issues 296

Judgment Error and Biases 297

Approaches to The Assessment of Risk 298

Box 10.1 Dr. Death: A Legendary (Notorious)

Forensic Psychiatrist 299

Types of Risk Factors 300

Box 10.2 Canadian Researcher Profile:

Dr. R. Karl Hanson 301

Important Risk Factors 302

Dispositional Factors 303

Box 10.3 Predicting Terrorism: Are There Unique

Risk Factors? 304

Historical Factors 305

Clinical Factors 306

Contextual Factors 307

Box 10.4 Risk Assessment 308

Risk-Assessment Instruments 308

Current Issues 310

Where Is the Theory? 310

Unique Sub-populations of Offenders 311

In the Media Ashley Smith: A Preventable Death? 313

Box 10.5 Are the Tools Valid? Ewert v. Canada (2015) 314

What about Protective Factors? 315

Risk Assessment: Risky Business? 315

Are Psychologists and Decision Makers Using the Scientific Research? 317

Why Do Some Individuals Stop Committing Crimes? 318

Box 10.6 Why Do High-Risk Violent Offenders

Stop Offending? 319

11 Psychopaths 321

Assessment of Psychopathy 322

Box 11.1 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Robert Hare 323

Box 11.2 Subclinical Psychopaths: University Samples 325

Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder 326

Forensic Use of Psychopathy 327

Psychopathy and Violence 328

Box 11.3 Psychopathy 329

Psychopaths in the Community 330

Psychopathy and Sexual Violence 331

In the Media Mean on the Screen: Media’s

Portrayal of Psychopaths 332

Psychopathy and Treatment 333

Box 11.4 Predatory Psychopath Prompts Change

in Legislation: Section 754—The “Faint

Hope Clause” 334

Psychopathy in Youth 335

Box 11.5 Psychopathy Label: The Potential for Stigma 336

Psychopathy: Nature Versus Nurture? 338

Does Family Matter? 339

Psychopathy and Law Enforcement 340

What Makes Them Tick? Cognitive and

Affective Models of Psychopathy 341

12 Assessment and Treatment of Young Offenders 345

Historical Overview 346

Naming Youth 348

Box 12.1 Teen Love, Not So Innocent? The

Stefanie Rengel Murder (2008) 349

In the Media Canada’s Youth Crime Legislation 350

Box 12.2 Young Offenders 351

Youth Crime Rates 352

Assessment of Young Offenders 355

Assessing Those under Age 12 355

Assessing the Adolescent 356

Rates of Behaviour Disorders in Youth 357

Box 12.3 Risk-Assessment Tools Used with Young

Offenders in Canada 358

Trajectories of Young Offenders 359

Theories to Explain Antisocial Behaviour 359

Biological Theories 359

Cognitive Theories 360

Social Theories 361

Risk Factors 362

Individual Risk Factors 362

Familial Risk Factors 363

School and Social Risk Factors 363

Box 12.4 Running Around with the Wrong

Crowd: A Look at Gangs 364

Protective Factors 365

Individual Protective Factors 366

Familial Protective Factors 366

Social/External Protective Factors 366

Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of

Young Offending 367

Primary Intervention Strategies 367

Box 12.5 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Leena Augimeri 370

Secondary Intervention Strategies 371

Tertiary Intervention Strategies 373

13 Intimate Partner Violence 375

Types of Violence and Measurement 376

Box 13.1 Intimate Partner Violence 378

Box 13.2 Husband Battering and Same-Sex

Battering Does Exist 379

Intimate Partners: A Risky Relationship 380

Theories of Intimate Violence 382

Social Learning Theory 383

Evolutionary Psychology Theory 383

Box 13.3 Canadian Researcher Profile:

Dr. Donald Dutton 384

Why Do Battered Women Stay? 385

Box 13.4 Battered Woman Syndrome: Should It

Be Admissible in Court? R. v. Lavallee (1990) 388

Box 13.5 Woman’s Best Friend: Pet Abuse and

Intimate Violence 389

A Heterogeneous Population: Typologies of

Male Batterers 390

Criminal Justice Response 391

Does Treatment of Male Batterers Work? 393

Box 13.6 The Correctional Service of Canada’s

Family Violence Prevention

Programs 394

Stalking: Definition, Prevalence, and

Typologies 397

In the Media Dangerous Fixations: Celebrity

Stalkers 400

14 Sexual Offenders 403

Nature and Extent of Sexual Violence 404

Definition of Sexual Assault 405

Consequences for Victims 406

Box 14.1 Sexual Assault 407

Classification of Sexual Offenders 407

Rapist Typologies 408

Box 14.2 Is Resisting a Sexual Attack a Good Idea? 408

Child Molester Typologies 410

Box 14.3 National Sex Offender Registry: Is It

Helping the Police to Locate Sex Offenders? 411

Adolescent Sexual Offenders 412

Female Sexual Offenders 412

Box 14.4 Sexual Objectification in Video Games

and Sexual Assault Myths: Is There a Link? 413

In the Media A Seemingly Normal Couple: The Facade

of Paul Bernardo and Karla Homolka 415

Aboriginal Sex offenders 416

Theories of Sexual Aggression 417

Box 14.5 Canadian Researcher Profile:

Dr. Martin Lalumière 418

Assessment and Treatment of Sexual

Offenders 419

Denial, Minimizations, and Cognitive Distortions 419

Empathy 420

Social Skills 421

Substance Abuse 421

Deviant Sexual Interests 421

Relapse Prevention 422

Effectiveness of Treatment For Sexual Offenders 422

Box 14.6 Relapse Prevention with Sexual Offenders 423

15 Homicidal Offenders 427

Nature and Extent of Homicidal Violence 428

Bimodal Classification of Homicide 429

Types of Homicide 430

Filicide: When Parents Kill 430

In the Media Mothers Who Kill 433

Youth Who Kill 434

Box 15.1 The Youngest Convicted Multiple Murderer in Canada: The Case of

Jasmine Richardson 435

Spousal Killers 436

Sexual Homicide 437

Box 15.2 Canadian Researcher Profile: Dr. Eric Beauregard 439

Multiple Murderers 442

Serial Murder 442

Box 15.3 Serial Killers 443

Mass Murderers 446

Box 15.4 Canada’s Deadliest Mass Murder 446

Theories of Homicidal Aggression 447

Treatment of Homicidal Offenders 449

Glossary 453

References 459

Case/Legislation Index 506

Name Index 507

Subject Index 521

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