General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 11th Edition PDF by Ralph H Petrucci, F Geoffrey Herring, Jeffry D Madura and Carey Bissonnette

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Eleventh Edition

By Ralph H Petrucci, F Geoffrey Herring, Jeffry D Madura and Carey Bissonnette

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 11th Edition

Contents

About the Authors xvi

Preface xviii

1 Matter: Its Properties and Measurement 1

1-1 The Scientific Method 2

1-2 Properties of Matter 4

1-3 Classification of Matter 5

1-4 Measurement of Matter: SI (Metric) Units 8

1-5 Density and Percent Composition: Their Use in Problem Solving 13

1-6 Uncertainties in Scientific Measurements 18

1-7 Significant Figures 19

Summary 23 Integrative Example 24

Exercises 26 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 29

Feature Problems 31 Self-Assessment Exercises 32

2 Atoms and the Atomic Theory 34

2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory 35

2-2 Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics 38

2-3 The Nuclear Atom 42

2-4 Chemical Elements 44

2-5 Atomic Mass 48

2-6 Introduction to the Periodic Table 51

2-7 The Concept of the Mole and the Avogadro Constant 55

2-8 Using the Mole Concept in Calculations 57

Summary 59 Integrative Example 60

Exercises 61 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 65

Feature Problems 66 Self-Assessment Exercises 67

3 Chemical Compounds 68

3-1 Types of Chemical Compounds and Their Formulas 69

3-2 The Mole Concept and Chemical Compounds 73

3-3 Composition of Chemical Compounds 76

3-4 Oxidation States: A Useful Tool in Describing Chemical Compounds 84

3-5 Naming Compounds: Organic and Inorganic Compounds 86

3-6 Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds 87

3-7 Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds 94

Summary 100 Integrative Example 101

Exercises 103 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 107

Feature Problems 109 Self-Assessment Exercises 110

4 Chemical Reactions 111

4-1 Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations 112

4-2 Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry 115

4-3 Chemical Reactions in Solution 122

4-4 Determining the Limiting Reactant 128

4-5 Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry 131

4-6 The Extent of Reaction 137

Summary 139 Integrative Example 140

Exercises 141 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 146

Feature Problems 150 Self-Assessment Exercises 150

5 Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous

Solutions 152

5-1 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions 153

5-2 Precipitation Reactions 157

5-3 Acid–Base Reactions 161

5-4 Oxidation–Reduction Reactions: Some General Principles 167

5-5 Balancing Oxidation–Reduction Equations 171

5-6 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents 176

5-7 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations 179

Summary 183 Integrative Example 183

Exercises 185 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 189

Feature Problems 191 Self-Assessment Exercises 192

6 Gases 194

6-1 Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure 195

6-2 The Simple Gas Laws 201

6-3 Combining the Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation

and the General Gas Equation 206

6-4 Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation 209

6-5 Gases in Chemical Reactions 212

6-6 Mixtures of Gases 214

6-7 Kinetic–Molecular Theory of Gases 218

6-8 Gas Properties Relating to the Kinetic–Molecular Theory 225

6-9 Nonideal (Real) Gases 228

Summary 232 Integrative Example 232

Exercises 234 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 238

Feature Problems 241 Self-Assessment Exercises 242

7 Thermochemistry 244

7-1 Getting Started: Some Terminology 245

7-2 Heat 247

7-3 Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry 252

7-4 Work 256

7-5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 259

7-6 Application of the First Law to Chemical

and Physical Changes 263

7-7 Indirect Determination of : Hess’s Law 270

7-8 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 272

7-9 Fuels as Sources of Energy 279

7-10 Spontaneous and Nonspontaneous Processes: An Introduction 285

Summary 287 Integrative Example 288

Exercises 290 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 295

Feature Problems 298 Self-Assessment Exercises 300

8 Electrons in Atoms 301

8-1 Electromagnetic Radiation 302

8-2 Prelude to Quantum Theory 307

8-3 Energy Levels, Spectrum, and Ionization

Energy of the Hydrogen Atom 316

8-4 Two Ideas Leading to Quantum Mechanics 321

8-5 Wave Mechanics 325

8-6 Quantum Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 331

8-7 Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals

of the Hydrogen Atom 337

8-8 Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number 347

8-9 Multielectron Atoms 350

8-10 Electron Configurations 353

8-11 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 358

Summary 363 Integrative Example 364

Exercises 366 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 372

Feature Problems 373 Self-Assessment Exercises 375

9 The Periodic Table and Some Atomic

Properties 376

9-1 Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law

and the Periodic Table 377

9-2 Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions 380

9-3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions 383

9-4 Ionization Energy 393

9-5 Electron Affinity 397

9-6 Magnetic Properties 399

9-7 Polarizability 400

Summary 402 Integrative Example 403

Exercises 405 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 407

Feature Problems 408 Self-Assessment Exercises 409

10 Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts 411

10-1 Lewis Theory: An Overview 412

10-2 Covalent Bonding: An Introduction 415

10-3 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electrostatic Potential Maps 418

10-4 Writing Lewis Structures 424

10-5 Resonance 432

10-6 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 434

10-7 Shapes of Molecules 437

10-8 Bond Order and Bond Lengths 449

10-9 Bond Energies 450

Summary 454 Integrative Example 455

Exercises 456 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 461

Feature Problems 463 Self-Assessment Exercises 464

11 Chemical Bonding II: Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories 466

11-1 What a Bonding Theory Should Do 467

11-2 Introduction to the Valence Bond Method 470

11-3 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals 472

11-4 Multiple Covalent Bonds 481

11-5 Molecular Orbital Theory 486

11-6 Delocalized Electrons: An Explanation Based on Molecular Orbital Theory 497

11-7 Some Unresolved Issues: Can Electron Density Plots Help? 503

Summary 508 Integrative Example 509

Exercises 510 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 512

Feature Problems 514 Self-Assessment Exercises 515

12 Intermolecular Forces: Liquids and Solids 517

12-1 Intermolecular Forces 518

12-2 Some Properties of Liquids 526

12-3 Some Properties of Solids 540

12-4 Phase Diagrams 541

12-5 The Nature of Bonding in Solids 546

12-6 Crystal Structures 551

12-7 Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals 563

Summary 565 Integrative Example 566

Exercises 567 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 572

Feature Problems 574 Self-Assessment Exercises 577

13 Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Gibbs Energy 579

13-1 Entropy: Boltzmann’s View 580

13-2 Entropy Change: Clausius’s View 588

13-3 Combining Boltzmann’s and Clausius’s Ideas: Absolute Entropies 595

13-4 Criterion for Spontaneous Change: The Second Law of Thermodynamics 599

13-5 Gibbs Energy Change of a System of Variable

Composition: and 605

13-6 and K as Functions of Temperature 619

13-7 Coupled Reactions 622

13-8 Chemical Potential and Thermodynamics of Spontaneous

Chemical Change 623

Summary 628 Integrative Example 629

Exercises 630 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 635

Feature Problems 636 Self-Assessment Exercises 638

14 Solutions and Their Physical Properties 640

14-1 Types of Solutions: Some Terminology 641

14-2 Solution Concentration 641

14-3 Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process 645

14-4 Solution Formation and Equilibrium 654

14-5 Solubilities of Gases 657

14-6 Vapor Pressures of Solutions 660

14-7 Osmotic Pressure 665

14-8 Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling-Point Elevation of

Nonelectrolyte Solutions 669

14-9 Solutions of Electrolytes 672

14-10 Colloidal Mixtures 674

Summary 677 Integrative Example 678

Exercises 679 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 684

Feature Problems 686 Self-Assessment Exercises 687

15 Principles of Chemical Equilibrium 689

15-1 The Nature of the Equilibrium State 690

15-2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression 695

15-3 Relationships Involving Equilibrium Constants 699

15-4 The Magnitude of an Equilibrium Constant 703

15-5 Predicting the Direction of Net Chemical Change 705

15-6 Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle 707

15-7 Equilibrium Calculations: Some Illustrative Examples 713

Summary 722 Integrative Example 723

Exercises 724 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 730

Feature Problems 732 Self-Assessment Exercises 733

16 Acids and Bases 734

16-1 Acids, Bases, and Conjugate Acid–Base Pairs 735

16-2 Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale 739

16-3 Ionization of Acids and Bases in Water 742

16-4 Strong Acids and Strong Bases 750

16-5 Weak Acids and Weak Bases 752

16-6 Polyprotic Acids 757

16-7 Simultaneous or Consecutive Acid–Base Reactions:

A General Approach 761

16-8 Ions as Acids and Bases 762

16-9 Qualitative Aspects of Acid–Base Reactions 768

16-10 Molecular Structure and Acid–Base Behavior 769

16-11 Lewis Acids and Bases 776

Summary 779 Integrative Example 780

Exercises 782 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 786

Feature Problems 787 Self-Assessment Exercises 788

17 Additional Aspects of Acid–Base Equilibria 789

17-1 Common-Ion Effect in Acid–Base Equilibria 790

17-2 Buffer Solutions 794

17-3 Acid–Base Indicators 804

17-4 Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves 807

17-5 Solutions of Salts of Polyprotic Acids 816

17-6 Acid–Base Equilibrium Calculations: A Summary 818

Summary 819 Integrative Example 820

Exercises 821 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 825

Feature Problems 828 Self-Assessment Exercises 829

18 Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria 830

18-1 Solubility Product Constant, 831

18-2 Relationship Between Solubility and 832

18-3 Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria 834

18-4 Limitations of the Concept 836

18-5 Criteria for Precipitation and Its Completeness 838

18-6 Fractional Precipitation 841

18-7 Solubility and pH 843

18-8 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions 845

18-9 Qualitative Cation Analysis 851

Summary 856 Integrative Example 856

Exercises 858 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 861

Feature Problems 862 Self-Assessment Exercises 863

19 Electrochemistry 865

19-1 Electrode Potentials and Their Measurement 866

19-2 Standard Electrode Potentials 871

19-3 and K 877

19-4 as a Function of Concentrations 883

19-5 Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions 891

19-6 Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells 898

19-7 Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur 900

19-8 Industrial Electrolysis Processes 904

Summary 908 Integrative Example 909

Exercises 911 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 916

Feature Problems 918 Self-Assessment Exercises 921

20 Chemical Kinetics 922

20-1 Rate of a Chemical Reaction 923

20-2 Measuring Reaction Rates 925

20-3 Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates: The Rate Law 928

20-4 Zero-Order Reactions 931

20-5 First-Order Reactions 932

20-6 Second-Order Reactions 939

20-7 Reaction Kinetics: A Summary 940

20-8 Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics 942

20-9 The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates 946

20-10 Reaction Mechanisms 949

20-11 Catalysis 958

Summary 964 Integrative Example 965

Exercises 967 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 972

Feature Problems 974 Self-Assessment Exercises 976

21 Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements I:

Groups 1, 2, 13, and 14 977

21-1 Periodic Trends and Charge Density 978

21-2 Group 1: The Alkali Metals 980

21-3 Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals 993

21-4 Group 13: The Boron Family 1001

21-5 Group 14: The Carbon Family 1011

Summary 1028 Integrative Example 1029

Exercises 1030 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1032

Feature Problems 1034 Self-Assessment Exercises 1034

22 Chemistry of the Main-Group Elements II:

Groups 18, 17, 16, 15, and Hydrogen 1036

22-1 Periodic Trends in Bonding 1037

22-2 Group 18: The Noble Gases 1039

22-3 Group 17: The Halogens 1045

22-4 Group 16: The Oxygen Family 1054

22-5 Group 15: The Nitrogen Family 1064

22-6 Hydrogen: A Unique Element 1077

Summary 1081 Integrative Example 1082

Exercises 1083 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1086

Feature Problems 1088 Self-Assessment Exercises 1089

23 The Transition Elements 1091

23-1 General Properties 1092

23-2 Principles of Extractive Metallurgy 1097

23-3 Metallurgy of Iron and Steel 1104

23-4 First-Row Transition Metal Elements: Scandium to Manganese 1106

23-5 The Iron Triad: Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel 1112

23-6 Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold 1114

23-7 Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury 1116

23-8 Lanthanides 1119

23-9 High-Temperature Superconductors 1119

Summary 1122 Integrative Example 1122

Exercises 1123 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1126

Feature Problems 1127 Self-Assessment Exercises 1128

24 Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds 1129

24-1 Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds:

An Overview 1130

24-2 Ligands 1132

24-3 Nomenclature 1135

24-4 Isomerism 1136

24-5 Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory 1143

24-6 Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds

and Crystal Field Theory 1148

24-7 Color and the Colors of Complexes 1150

24-8 Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria 1153

24-9 Acid–Base Reactions of Complex Ions 1155

24-10 Some Kinetic Considerations 1156

24-11 Applications of Coordination Chemistry 1157

Summary 1162 Integrative Example 1163

Exercises 1164 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1166

Feature Problems 1168 Self-Assessment Exercises 1169

25 Nuclear Chemistry 1170

25-1 Radioactivity 1171

25-2 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Isotopes 1174

25-3 Nuclear Reactions and Artificially Induced Radioactivity 1176

25-4 Transuranium Elements 1177

25-5 Rate of Radioactive Decay 1178

25-6 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions 1184

25-7 Nuclear Stability 1187

25-8 Nuclear Fission 1190

25-9 Nuclear Fusion 1193

25-10 Effect of Radiation on Matter 1194

25-11 Applications of Radioisotopes 1197

Summary 1199 Integrative Example 1200

Exercises 1201 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1204

Feature Problems 1205 Self-Assessment Exercises 1206

26 Structures of Organic Compounds 1207

26-1 Organic Compounds and Structures: An Overview 1208

26-2 Alkanes 1215

26-3 Cycloalkanes 1221

26-4 Stereoisomerism in Organic Compounds 1228

26-5 Alkenes and Alkynes 1235

26-6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 1239

26-7 Organic Compounds Containing Functional Groups 1241

26-8 From Molecular Formula to Molecular Structure 1252

Summary 1255 Integrative Example 1257

Exercises 1258 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1264

Feature Problem 1265 Self-Assessment Exercises 1267

27 Reactions of Organic Compounds 1268

27-1 Organic Reactions: An Introduction 1269

27-2 Introduction to Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions 1271

27-3 Introduction to Elimination Reactions 1285

27-4 Reactions of Alcohols 1294

27-5 Introduction to Addition Reactions: Reactions of Alkenes 1299

27-6 Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution 1304

27-7 Reactions of Alkanes 1308

27-8 Polymers and Polymerization Reactions 1310

27-9 Synthesis of Organic Compounds 1314

Summary 1316 Integrative Example 1317

Exercises 1319 Integrative and Advanced Exercises 1323

Feature Problem 1324 Self-Assessment Exercises 1325

28 Chemistry of the Living State on MasteringChemistry

(www.masteringchemistry.com)

APPENDICES

A Mathematical Operations A1

B Some Basic Physical Concepts A11

C SI Units A15

D Data Tables A17

E Concept Maps A37

F Glossary A39

G Answers to Practice Examples and Selected

Exercises A56

H Answers to Concept Assessment Questions A90

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