An Introduction to Psychological Science, 2nd Canadian Edition PDF by Mark Krause, Daniel Corts, Stephen Smith and Dan Dolderman

By

An Introduction to Psychological Science, Second Canadian Edition

By Mark Krause, Daniel Corts, Stephen Smith and Dan Dolderman

An Introduction to Psychological Science, 2nd Canadian Edition

Contents

About the Authors xvii

About the Canadian Authors xvii

From the Authors xviii

Content and Features xxi

For Instructors xxvi

Acknowledgments xxviii

1 Introducing Psychological Science 1

Module 1.1 The Science of Psychology 2

The Scientific Method 3

Hypotheses: Making Predictions 3

Theories: Explaining Phenomena 4

The Biopsychosocial Model 5

Building Scientific Literacy 6

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Planning When to Study 7

Critical Thinking, Curiosity, and a Dose of Healthy Skepticism 8

Myths in Mind Abducted by Aliens! 9

Summary 10

Module 1.2 How Psychology Became a Science 11

Psychology’s Philosophical and Scientific Origins 12

Influences from the Ancients: Philosophical Insights

into Behaviour 12

Influences from Physics: Experimenting with the Mind 13

Influences from Evolutionary Theory: The Adaptive

Functions of Behaviour 13

Influences from Medicine: Diagnoses and Treatments 15

The Influence of Social Sciences: Measuring and Comparing Humans 16

The Beginnings of Contemporary Psychology 18

Structuralism and Functionalism: The Beginnings of

Psychology 18

The Rise of Behaviourism 19

Radical Behaviourism 20

Humanistic Psychology Emerges 21

The Brain and Behaviour 21

The Cognitive Revolution 21

Social and Cultural Influences 23

Emerging Themes in Psychology 24

Psychology of Women 24

Comparing Cultures 25

The Neuroimaging Explosion 25

The Search for the Positive 26

Psychology in the Real World 26

Summary 28

2 Reading and Evaluating Scientific Research 29

Module 2.1 Principles of Scientific Research 30

Five Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research 31

Scientific Measurement: Objectivity 31

Scientific Measurement: Reliability, and Validity 32

Generalizability of Results 33

Sources of Bias in Psychological Research 34

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Demand

Characteristics and Participant Behaviour 35

Techniques That Reduce Bias 36

Sharing the Results 37

Psych@ The Hospital: The Placebo Effect 37

Replication 38

Five Characteristics of Poor Research 39

Summary 41

Module 2.2 Scientific Research Designs 42

Descriptive Research 43

Case Studies 43

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Case Studies as a Form of Scientific Research 44

Naturalistic Observation 45

Surveys and Questionnaires 46

Correlational Research 47

Myths in Mind Beware of Illusory Correlations 48

Experimental Research 49

The Experimental Method 49

The Quasi-Experimental Method 50

Converging Operations 50

Summary 51

Module 2.3 Ethics in Psychological Research 53

Promoting the Welfare of Research Participants 54

Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Research 54

Obtaining Informed Consent 55

The Right to Anonymity and Confidentiality 56

The Welfare of Animals in Research 56

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Animal Models of Disease 57

REBs for Animal-Based Research 59

Ethical Collection, Storage, and Reporting of Data 59

Summary 61

Module 2.4 A Statistical Primer 62

Descriptive Statistics 63

Frequency 63

Central Tendency 63

Variability 65

Hypothesis Testing: Evaluating the Outcome of a Study 66

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Statistical Significance 68

Summary 70

3 Biological Psychology 71

Module 3.1 Genetic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Behaviour 72

Heredity and Behaviour 73

The Genetic Code 73

Behavioural Genomics: The Molecular Approach 75

Behavioural Genetics: Twin and Adoption Studies 75

Myths in Mind Single Genes and Behaviour 76

Gene Expression and Behaviour 78

Evolutionary Insights into Human Behaviour 79

Evolutionary Psychology 80

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Hunters and Gatherers:

Men, Women, and Spatial Memory 81

Sexual Selection and Evolution 83

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Sexual Selection and

the Colour Red 84

Summary 86

Module 3.2 How the Nervous System Works: Cells and

Neurotransmitters 88

Neural Communication 89

The Neuron 89

Myths in Mind We Are Born with All the Brain Cells We Will

Ever Have 90

Glial Cells 91

The Neuron’s Electrical System: Resting and Action

Potentials 91

The Chemical Messengers: Neurotransmitters and

Hormones 93

Types of Neurotransmitters 94

Drug Effects on Neurotransmission 95

Hormones and the Endocrine System 96

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Testosterone and Aggression 97

Neurons in Context 99

Summary 100

Module 3.3 Structure and Organization of the Nervous System 101

Divisions of the Nervous System 102

The Central Nervous System 102

The Peripheral Nervous System 102

The Brain and Its Structures 104

The Hindbrain: Sustaining the Body 104

The Midbrain: Sensation and Action 105

The Forebrain: Emotion, Memory, and Thought 106

The Cerebral Cortex 108

The Four Lobes 108

Left Brain, Right Brain: Hemispheric Specialization 111

Psych@ The Gym 111

The Changing Brain: Neuroplasticity 112

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Neuroplasticity and Recovery from Brain Injury 113

Summary 115

Module 3.4 Windows to the Brain: Measuring and Observing

Brain Activity 116

Insights from Brain Damage 117

Lesioning and Brain Stimulation 117

Structural and Functional Neuroimaging 119

Structural Neuroimaging 119

Functional Neuroimaging 120

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Functional MRI and

Behaviour 122

Summary 124

4 Sensation and Perception 125

Module 4.1 Sensation and Perception at a Glance 126

Sensing the World Around Us 127

Stimulus Thresholds 129

Signal Detection 130

Priming and Subliminal Perception 131

Myths in Mind Setting the Record Straight on Subliminal Messaging 131

Perceiving the World Around Us 132

Gestalt Principles of Perception 132

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Backward Messages in Music 134

Attention and Perception 136

Summary 137

Module 4.2 The Visual System 139

The Human Eye 140

How the Eye Gathers Light 140

The Structure of the Eye 141

The Retina: From Light to Nerve Impulse 142

The Retina and the Perception of Colours 144

Common Visual Disorders 145

4 Sensation and Perception 125

Module 4.1 Sensation and Perception at a Glance 126

Sensing the World Around Us 127

Stimulus Thresholds 129

Signal Detection 130

Priming and Subliminal Perception 131

Myths in Mind Setting the Record Straight on Subliminal Messaging 131

Perceiving the World Around Us 132

Gestalt Principles of Perception 132

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Backward Messages in

Music 134

Attention and Perception 136

Summary 137

Module 4.2 The Visual System 139

The Human Eye 140

How the Eye Gathers Light 140

The Structure of the Eye 141

The Retina: From Light to Nerve Impulse 142

The Retina and the Perception of Colours 144

Common Visual Disorders 145

Visual Perception and the Brain 146

The Ventral Stream 148

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Are Faces Special? 148

The Dorsal Stream 151

Depth Perception 152

Psych@ The Artist’s Studio 153

Summary 155

Module 4.3 The Auditory and Vestibular Systems 156

Sound and the Structures of the Ear 157

Sound 157

The Human Ear 157

The Perception of Sound 160

Sound Localization: Finding the Source 160

Theories of Pitch Perception 160

Auditory Perception and the Brain 161

The Perception of Music 162

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The Perception of Musical Beats 162

The Vestibular System 164

Sensation and the Vestibular System 164

The Vestibular System and the Brain 165

Summary 165

Module 4.4 Touch and the Chemical Senses 167

The Sense of Touch 168

Feeling Pain 169

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Empathy and Pain 171

Phantom Limb Pain 172

The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell 173

The Gustatory System: Taste 173

The Olfactory System: Smell 175

Multimodal Integration 176

What Is Multimodal Integration? 176

Synesthesia 177

Summary 178

5 Consciousness 180

Module 5.1 Biological Rhythms of Consciousness:

Wakefulness and Sleep 181

What Is Sleep? 182

Biological Rhythms 182

The Stages of Sleep 184

Why Do We Need Sleep? 186

Theories of Sleep 186

Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Displacement 187

Theories of Dreaming 190

The Psychoanalytic Approach 190

The Activation– Synthesis Hypothesis 190

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Dreams, REM Sleep, and Learning 191

Disorders and Problems with Sleep 193

Insomnia 193

Nightmares and Night Terrors 194

Movement Disturbances 194

Sleep Apnea 195

Narcolepsy 196

Overcoming Sleep Problems 196

Summary 197

Module 5.2 Altered States of Consciousness: Hypnosis, Mind-

Wandering, and Disorders of Consciousness 199

Hypnosis 200

Theories of Hypnosis 200

Applications of Hypnosis 201

Myths in Mind Recovering Lost Memories through

Hypnosis 202

Mind-Wandering 203

What Is Mind-Wandering? 203

Mind-Wandering and the Brain 203

The Benefits of Mind-Wandering 204

Disorders of Consciousness 205

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Assessing

Consciousness in the Vegetative State 207

Summary 210

Module 5.3 Drugs and Conscious Experience 211

Physical and Psychological Effects of Drugs 212

Short-Term Effects 212

Long-Term Effects 213

Commonly Abused “Recreational” Drugs 215

Stimulants 215

Hallucinogens 217

Marijuana 218

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Recreational and

Spiritual Uses of Salvia Divinorum 219

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Marijuana, Memory,

and Cognition 219

Opiates 221

Legal Drugs and Their Effects on Consciousness 222

Sedatives 222

Prescription Drug Abuse 222

Alcohol 224

Why Are Some Drugs Legal and Others Illegal? 224

Psych@ University Parties 224

Summary 226

6 Learning 227

Module 6.1 Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association 228

Pavlov’s Dogs: Classical Conditioning of Salivation 229

Evolutionary Function of the CR 231

Classical Conditioning and the Brain 231

Processes of Classical Conditioning 233

Acquisition, Extinction, and Spontaneous Recovery 233

Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 234

Applications of Classical Conditioning 235

Conditioned Emotional Responses 235

Evolutionary Role for Fear Conditioning 236

Conditioned Taste Aversions 237

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Conditioning and

Negative Political Advertising 239

Drug Tolerance and Conditioning 241

Summary 242

Module 6.2 Operant Conditioning: Learning through

Consequences 244

Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning 245

Reinforcement and Punishment 245

Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment

247

Shaping 248

Applying Operant Conditioning 248

Processes of Operant Conditioning 249

Primary and Secondary Reinforcers 249

Discrimination and Generalization 250

Delayed Reinforcement and Extinction 251

Reward Devaluation 251

Reinforcement Schedules and Operant Conditioning 252

Schedules of Reinforcement 252

Psych@ Never Use Multiline Slot Machines 254

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Reinforcement and

Superstition 255

Applying Punishment 256

Are Classical and Operant Learning Distinct Events?

257

Summary 258

Module 6.3 Cognitive and Observational Learning 260

Cognitive Perspectives on Learning 261

Latent Learning 261

S-O-R Theory of Learning 262

Observational Learning 262

Processes Supporting Observational Learning 263

Myths in Mind Is Teaching Uniquely Human? 264

Imitation and Mirror Neurons 265

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Linking Media

Exposure to Behaviour 265

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Violence, Video

Games, and Culture 268

Summary 269

7 Memory 270

Module 7.1 Memory Systems 271

The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model 272

Sensory Memory 273

Short-Term Memory and the Magical Number 7 274

Long-Term Memory 275

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Distinguishing Short-

Term from Long-Term Memory Stores 276

The Working Memory Model: An Active STM System 279

The Phonological Loop 280

The Visuospatial Sketchpad 280

The Episodic Buffer 281

The Central Executive 281

Working Memory: Putting the Pieces Together 281

Long-Term Memory Systems: Declarative and

Nondeclarative Memories 282

Declarative Memory 282

Nondeclarative Memory 283

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory 283

Memory at the Cellular Level 283

Memory, the Brain, and Amnesia 284

Stored Memories and the Brain 285

Summary 287

Module 7.2 Encoding and Retrieving Memories 288

Encoding and Retrieval 289

Rehearsal: The Basics of Encoding 289

Levels of Processing 290

Retrieval 290

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Context-Dependent

Memory 291

State-Dependent Memory 294

Mood-Dependent Memory 294

Emotional Memories 295

Flashbulb Memories 296

Myths in Mind The Accuracy of Flashbulb Memories 297

Forgetting and Remembering 298

The Forgetting Curve: How Soon We Forget … 298

Mnemonics: Improving Your Memory Skills 298

Summary 301

Module 7.3 Constructing and Reconstructing Memories 302

How Memories Are Organized and Constructed 303

The Schema: An Active Organization Process 303

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: How Schemas

Influence Memory 303

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Your Earliest

Memories 305

Memory Reconstruction 306

The Perils of Eyewitness Testimony 306

Psych@ Court: Is Eyewitness Testimony Reliable? 308

Imagination and False Memories 308

Creating False Memories in the Laboratory 309

The Danger of False Remembering 310

Summary 312

8 Thought and Language 313

Module 8.1 The Organization of Knowledge 314

Concepts and Categories 315

Classical Categories: Definitions and Rules 315

Prototypes: Categorization by Comparison 315

Networks and Hierarchies 316

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Priming and Semantic

Networks 318

Memory, Culture, and Categories 319

Categorization and Experience 319

Categories, Memory, and the Brain 320

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Culture and

Categorical Thinking 321

Myths in Mind How Many Words for Snow? 322

Categories and Culture 322

Summary 323

Module 8.2 Problem Solving, Judgment, and Decision Making

324

Defining and Solving Problems 325

Problem-Solving Strategies and Techniques 325

Cognitive Obstacles 326

Psych@ Problem Solving and Humour 327

Judgment and Decision Making 328

Conjunction Fallacies and Representativeness 328

The Availability Heuristic 329

Anchoring and Framing Effects 330

Belief Perseverance and Confirmation Bias 331

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Maximizing and

Satisficing in Complex Decisions 332

Summary 335

Module 8.3 Language and Communication 336

What Is Language? 337

Early Studies of Language 337

Properties of Language 338

Phonemes and Morphemes: The Basic Ingredients of

Language 339

Syntax: The Language Recipe 339

Pragmatics: The Finishing Touches 340

The Development of Language 341

Infants, Sound Perception, and Language Acquisition

341

Producing Spoken Language 342

Sensitive Periods for Language 342

The Bilingual Brain 343

Genes, Evolution, and Language 344

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Genes and Language

344

Can Animals Use Language? 346

Summary 348

9 Intelligence Testing 349

Module 9.1 Measuring Intelligence 350

Different Approaches to Intelligence Testing 351

Intelligence and Perception: Galton’s Anthropometric

Approach 351

Intelligence and Thinking: The Stanford– Binet Test 352

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 353

Raven’s Progressive Matrices 355

The Checkered Past of Intelligence Testing 356

IQ Testing and the Eugenics Movement 356

The Race and IQ Controversy 357

Problems with the Racial Superiority Interpretation 358

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Beliefs about

Intelligence 358

Summary 361

Module 9.2 Understanding Intelligence 362

Intelligence as a Single, General Ability 363

Spearman’s General Intelligence 363

Does G Tell Us the Whole Story? 364

Intelligence as Multiple, Specific Abilities 365

The Hierarchical Model of Intelligence 365

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Testing for Fluid and

Crystallized Intelligence 366

Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 368

Myths in Mind Learning Styles 369

Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences 369

Psych@ The NFL Draft 370

The Battle of the Sexes 371

Do Males and Females have Unique Cognitive Skills?

372

Summary 373

Module 9.3 Biological, Environmental, and Behavioural

Influences on Intelligence 374

Biological Influences on Intelligence 375

The Genetics of Intelligence: Twin and Adoption

Studies 375

The Heritability of Intelligence 375

Behavioural Genomics 376

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Brain Size and

Intelligence 377

Environmental Influences on Intelligence 379

Birth Order 379

Socioeconomic Status 380

Nutrition 380

Stress 381

Education 381

The Flynn Effect: Is Everyone Getting Smarter? 381

Behavioural Influences on Intelligence 382

Brain Training Programs 383

Nootropic Drugs 383

Summary 384

10 Lifespan Development 385

Module 10.1 Physical Development from Conception through

Infancy 386

Methods for Measuring Developmental Trends 387

Patterns of Development: Stages and Continuity 387

Zygotes to Infants: From One Cell to Billions 388

Fertilization and Gestation 388

Fetal Brain Development 388

Nutrition, Teratogens, and Fetal Development 390

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The Long-Term Effects

of Premature Birth 392

Myths in Mind Vaccinations and Autism 394

Sensory and Motor Development in Infancy 394

Motor Development in the First Year 396

Summary 399

Module 10.2 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive and Emotional

Development 400

Cognitive Changes: Piaget’s Cognitive Development

Theory 401

The Sensorimotor Stage: Living in the Material World

401

The Preoperational Stage: Quantity and Numbers 402

The Concrete Operational Stage: Using Logical Thought

403

The Formal Operational Stage: Abstract and

Hypothetical Thought 403

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Evaluating Piaget 404

Complementary Approaches to Piaget 405

Social Development, Attachment, and Self-Awareness 406

What Is Attachment? 407

Types of Attachment 407

Development of Attachment 409

Self Awareness 409

Psychosocial Development 412

Development across the Lifespan 412

Parenting and Prosocial Behaviour 413

Parenting and Attachment 414

Summary 415

Module 10.3 Adolescence 417

Physical Changes in Adolescence 418

Emotional Challenges in Adolescence 419

Emotional Regulation during Adolescence 420

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Adolescent Risk and

Decision Making 420

Cognitive Development: Moral Reasoning vs. Emotions 422

Kohlberg’s Moral Development: Learning Right from

Wrong 422

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Emotion and Disgust

424

Social Development: Identity and Relationships 425

Who Am I? Identity Formation during Adolescence 425

Peer Groups 425

Romantic Relationships 426

Summary 427

Module 10.4 Adulthood and Aging 428

From Adolescence through Middle Age 429

Emerging Adults 429

Early and Middle Adulthood 429

Love and Marriage 431

Parenting 432

Late Adulthood 433

Happiness and Relationships 433

The Eventual Decline of Aging 434

Psych@ The Driver’s Seat 435

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Aging and Cognitive

Change 436

Summary 438

11 Motivation and Emotion 439

Module 11.1 Hunger and Eating 440

Physiological Aspects of Hunger 442

Food and Reward 443

Psychological Aspects of Hunger 445

Attention and Eating 445

Eating and Semantic Networks 446

Eating and the Social Context 446

Disorders of Eating 448

Anorexia and Bulimia 448

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The Effect of Media

Depictions of Beauty on Body Image 450

Summary 451

Module 11.2 Sex 452

Human Sexual Behaviour: Psychological Influences 453

Psychological Measures of Sexual Motivation 453

Human Sexual Behaviour: Physiological Influences 455

Physiological Measures of Sex 455

Sexual Orientation: Biology and Environment 456

Transgender and Transsexual Individuals 458

Psych@ Sex Ed 459

Human Sexual Behaviour: Cultural Influences 460

Sex and Technology 461

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Does Sex Sell? 462

Summary 464

Module 11.3 Social and Achievement Motivation 465

Belonging and Love Needs 466

Belonging Is a Need, Not a Want 467

Love 467

Belonging, Self-Esteem, and Our Worldview 468

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Terror Management

Theory and the Need to Belong 468

Achievement Motivation 470

Self-Determination Theory 471

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation 472

A Continuum of Motivation 472

Cultural Differences in Motivation 473

Summary 475

Module 11.4 Emotion 476

Physiology of Emotion 477

The Initial Response 477

The Autonomic Response: Fight or Flight? 478

The Emotional Response: Movement 479

Emotional Regulation 479

Experiencing Emotions 479

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The Two-Factor Theory

of Emotion 481

Expressing Emotions 484

Emotional Faces and Bodies 484

Culture, Emotion, and Display Rules 486

Culture, Context, and Emotion 487

Summary 489

12 Personality 490

Module 12.1 Contemporary Approaches to Personality 491

The Trait Perspective 492

Early Trait Research 492

The Five Factor Model 493

Openness 494

Conscientiousness 495

Extraversion 495

Agreeableness 495

Neuroticism 495

Beyond the Big Five: The Personality of Evil? 496

Honesty–Humility 496

The Dark Triad 496

Right-Wing Authoritarianism 497

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Right-Wing

Authoritarianism at the Group Level 497

Personality Traits over the Lifespan 499

Temperaments 499

Is Personality Stable over Time? 499

Personality Traits and States 500

Behaviourist and Social-Cognitive Perspectives 501

The Behaviourist Perspective 501

The Social-Cognitive Perspective 502

Summary 503

Module 12.2 Cultural and Biological Approaches to

Personality 505

Culture and Personality 506

Universals and Differences across Cultures: The Big

Five 506

Personality Structures in Different Cultures 506

Comparing Personality Traits between Nations 507

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES How Culture Shapes

Our Development: Cultural Differences in the Self 507

How Genes Affect Personality 508

Twin Studies 509

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: From Molecules to

Personality 510

The Role of Evolution in Personality 511

Animal Behaviour: The Evolutionary Roots of

Personality 511

Why There Are So Many Different Personalities: The

Evolutionary Explanation 512

Myths in Mind Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus

513

The Brain and Personality 514

Extraversion and Arousal 514

Contemporary Research: Images of Personality in the

Brain 515

Extraversion 515

Neuroticism 515

Agreeableness 515

Conscientiousness 515

Openness to Experience 515

Summary 516

Module 12.3 Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to

Personality 518

The Psychodynamic Perspective 519

Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theories 519

Unconscious Processes and Psychodynamics 520

The Structure of Personality 520

Defence Mechanisms 521

Personality Development: The Psychosexual Stages

522

The Oral Stage (0–18 Months) 523

The Anal Stage (18 Months–3 Years) 523

The Phallic Stage (3–6 Years) 523

The Latency Stage (6–13 years) 524

The Genital Stage 524

Exploring the Unconscious with Projective Tests 525

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Perceiving Others as a

Projective Test 526

Alternatives to the Psychodynamic Approach 527

Analytical Psychology 527

The Power of Social Factors 528

Humanistic Perspectives 528

Summary 529

13 Social Psychology 531

Module 13.1 The Power of the Situation: Social Influences on

Behaviour 532

The Person and the Situation 533

Mimicry and Social Norms 534

Group Dynamics: Social Loafing and Social Facilitation

535

Groupthink 536

The Asch Experiments: Conformity 537

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Examining Why People

Conform: Seeing Is Believing 538

The Bystander Effect: Situational Influences on Helping

Behaviour 541

Social Roles and Obedience 544

The Stanford Prison Study 544

Obedience to Authority: The Milgram Experiment 546

Summary 549

Module 13.2 Social Cognition 551

Person Perception 552

Thin Slices of Behaviour 553

Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Other Consequences of

First Impressions 553

The Self in the Social World 554

Projecting the Self onto Others: False Consensus and

Naive Realism 554

Self-Serving Biases and Attributions 555

Ingroups and Outgroups 556

Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination 557

Myths in Mind Are Only Negative Aspects of Stereotypes

Problematic? 558

Prejudice in a Politically Correct World 558

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Explicit versus Implicit

Measures of Prejudice 559

Psych@ The Law Enforcement Academy 561

Improving Intergroup Relations 562

Summary 563

Module 13.3 Attitudes, Behaviour, and Effective

Communication 564

Changing People’s Behaviour 565

Persuasion: Changing Attitudes through

Communication 565

Using the Central Route Effectively 566

Make It Personal 567

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The Identifiable Victim

Effect 568

Value Appeals 570

Preaching or Flip-Flopping? One-Sided vs. Two-Sided

Messages 570

Emotions in the Central Route 570

Using the Peripheral Route Effectively 572

Authority 572

Liking 572

Social Validation 572

Reciprocity 572

Consistency 573

The Attitude–Behaviour Feedback Loop 574

Cognitive Dissonance 574

Attitudes and Actions 575

Summary 576

14 Health, Stress, and Coping 578

Module 14.1 Behaviour and Health 579

Smoking 580

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Media Exposure and

Smoking 580

Efforts to Prevent Smoking 581

Obesity 582

Defining Healthy Weights and Obesity 583

Genetics and Body Weight 584

The Sedentary Lifestyle 584

Social Factors 585

Psychology and Weight Loss 585

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Ethnicity, Economics, and Obesity 585

Psychosocial Influences on Health 586

Poverty and Discrimination 586

Family and Social Environment 587

Social Contagion 587

Summary 588

Module 14.2 Stress and Illness 590

What Causes Stress? 591

Stress and Performance 592

Physiology of Stress 593

The Stress Pathways 594

Oxytocin: To Tend and Befriend 594

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Hormones,

Relationships, and Health 596

Stress, Immunity, and Illness 597

Stress, Personality, and Heart Disease 598

Myths in Mind Stress and Ulcers 599

Stress, Food, and Drugs 599

Stress, the Brain, and Disease 599

Summary 601

Module 14.3 Coping and Well-Being 602

Coping 603

Positive Coping Strategies 603

Optimism and Pessimism 603

Resilience 604

Biofeedback 605

Meditation and Relaxation 605

Psych@ Church 607

Exercise 608

Perceived Control 609

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Compensatory Control

and Health 610

Summary 612

15 Psychological Disorders 614

Module 15.1 Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders 615

Defining Abnormal Behaviour 616

What Is “Normal” Behaviour? 617

Psychology’s Puzzle: How to Diagnose Psychological

Disorders 617

Critiquing the DSM 618

The Power of a Diagnosis 619

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Labelling and Mental

Disorders 619

BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Symptoms,

Treatments, and Culture 621

Applications of Psychological Diagnoses 622

The Mental Disorder Defence (AKA the Insanity

Defence) 622

Summary 623

Module 15.2 Personality and Dissociative Disorders 624

Defining and Classifying Personality Disorders 625

Borderline Personality 625

Narcissistic Personality 626

Histrionic Personality 626

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Antisocial Personality Disorder 626

The Biopsychosocial Approach to Personality Disorders 629

Psychological Factors 629

Sociocultural Factors 629

Biological Factors 629

Dissociative Identity Disorder 630

Types of Dissociative Disorders 630

Is Dissociative Identity Disorder “Real?” 630

Summary 631

Module 15.3 Anxiety, Obsessive–Compulsive, and Depressive Disorders 633

Anxiety Disorders 634

Varieties of Anxiety Disorders 634

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Specific Phobias 635

The Vicious Cycle of Anxiety Disorders 637

Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 637

Mood Disorders 639

Types of Mood Disorders 639

Cognitive Aspects of Depression 639

Biological Aspects of Depression 640

Sociocultural and Environmental Influences on Mood Disorders 641

Suicide 641

Psych@ The Suicide Helpline 642

Summary 643

Module 15.4 Schizophrenia 644

Symptoms and Types of Schizophrenia 645

Stages of Schizophrenia 645

Symptoms of Schizophrenia 645

Common Sub-Types of Schizophrenia 646

Myths in Mind Schizophrenia Is Not a Sign of Violence or of Being a “Mad Genius” 647

Explaining Schizophrenia 648

Genetics 648

Schizophrenia and the Nervous System 648

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: The

Neurodevelopmental Hypothesis 649

Environmental and Social Influences on Schizophrenia

650

Culture and Schizophrenia 651

Summary 652

16 Therapies 653

Module 16.1 Treating Psychological Disorders 654

Barriers to Psychological Treatment 655

Stigma about Mental Illness 655

Gender Roles 656

Logistical Barriers: Expense and Availability 656

Involuntary Treatment 656

Mental Health Providers and Settings 657

Mental Health Providers 657

Inpatient Treatment and Deinstitutionalization 658

The Importance of Community Psychology 659

Psych@ The University Mental Health Counselling Centre

659

Evaluating Treatments 660

Empirically Supported Treatments 660

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Can Self-Help

Treatments Be Effective? 661

Summary 663

Module 16.2 Psychological Therapies 664

Insight Therapies 665

Psychoanalysis: Exploring the Unconscious 665

Modern Psychodynamic Therapies 666

Humanistic–Existential Psychotherapy 666

Evaluating Insight Therapies 667

Behavioural, Cognitive, and Group Therapies 668

Systematic Desensitization 668

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Virtual Reality

Therapies 669

Aversive Conditioning 671

Cognitive–Behavioural Therapies 671

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy 672

Group and Family Therapies 673

Evaluating Cognitive–Behavioural Therapies 673

Summary 674

Module 16.3 Biomedical Therapies 676

Drug Treatments 677

Antidepressants 677

Myths in Mind Antidepressant Drugs Are Happiness Pills

678

Working the Scientific Literacy Model: Is St. John’s Wort

Effective? 679

Mood Stabilizers 680

Antianxiety Drugs 680

Antipsychotic Drugs 680

Evaluating Drug Therapies 681

Technological and Surgical Methods 682

Focal Lesions 683

Electroconvulsive Therapy 683

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation 683

Deep Brain Stimulation 684

Summary 685

Glossary 686

References 701

Name Index 752

Subject Index 766

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