Systems Analysis and Design, 12th Edition PDF by Scott Tilley

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Systems Analysis and Design, Twelfth Edition

By Scott Tilley

Systems Analysis and Design, 12th Edition

Table of Contents

PHASE 1: SYSTEMS PLANNING

Chapter 1

Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Learning Objectives 2

1.1 Information Technology 3

1.1.1 The Changing Nature of Information Technology 3

1.1.2 Systems Analysis and Design 4

1.1.3 What Does a Systems Analyst Do? 4

1.2 Information Systems 4

1.2.1 Hardware 5

1.2.2 Software 5

1.2.3 Data 6

1.2.4 Processes 7

1.2.5 People 7

Case in Point 1.1: Data Breaches 8

1.3 Internet Business Strategies 8

1.3.1 The Internet Model 8

1.3.2 B2C (Business-to-Consumer) 8

1.3.3 B2B (Business-to-Business) 9

1.4 Modeling Business Operations 9

1.5 Business Information Systems 11

1.5.1 Enterprise Computing 11

1.5.2 Transaction Processing 11

1.5.3 Business Support 12

1.5.4 Knowledge Management 13

1.5.5 User Productivity 14

1.5.6 Digital Assistants 15

1.5.7 Systems Integration 15

Case in Point 1.2: Autonomous Vehicles 15

1.6 Organizational Information Models 16

1.6.1 Functions and Organizational Levels 16

1.6.2 Top Managers 16

1.6.3 Middle Managers and Knowledge Workers 17

1.6.4 Supervisors and Team Leaders 17

1.6.5 Operational Employees 17

1.7 Systems Development 17

1.7.1 Structured Analysis 18

1.7.2 Object-Oriented Analysis 21

1.7.3 Agile Methods 22

1.7.4 Prototyping 24

1.7.5 Tools 24

1.8 The Information Technology Department 26

1.8.1 Application Development 27

Case in Point 1.3: Global Hotels and Momma’s Motels 27

1.8.2 Systems Support and Security 27

1.8.3 User Support 28

1.8.4 Database Administration 28

1.8.5 Network Administration 28

1.8.6 Web Support 28

1.8.7 Quality Assurance (QA) 28

1.9 The Systems Analyst 28

1.9.1 Role 28

1.9.2 Knowledge, Skills, and Education 29

1.9.3 Certification 31

1.9.4 Career Opportunities 32

1.9.5 Trends in Information Technology 33

A Question of Ethics 35

1.10 Summary 35

Key Terms 37

Exercises 42

Chapter 2

Analyzing the Business Case Learning Objectives 44

2.1 Strategic Planning 45

2.1.1 Strategic Planning Overview 45

Case in Point 2.1: Pets for Rent 45

2.1.2 SWOT Analysis 45

2.1.3 The Role of the IT Department 46

2.2 Strategic Planning Tools 47

2.3 The Business Case 47

2.4 Systems Requests 49

2.5 Factors Affecting Systems Projects 50

2.5.1 Internal Factors 50

2.5.2 External Factors 52

2.6 Processing Systems Requests 54

2.6.1 Systems Request Forms 54

2.6.2 Systems Request Tools 54

2.6.3 Systems Review Committee 54

Case in Point 2.2: Attaway Airlines, Part One 55

2.7 Assessing Request Feasibility 56

2.7.1 Feasibility Studies 56

2.7.2 Operational Feasibility 57

2.7.3 Economic Feasibility 57

2.7.4 Technical Feasibility 58

2.7.5 Schedule Feasibility 58

2.8 Setting Priorities 59

2.8.1 Dynamic Priorities 59

2.8.2 Factors That Affect Priority 59

2.8.3 Discretionary and Nondiscretionary Projects 60

Case in Point 2.3: Attaway Airlines, Part Two 60

2.9 The Preliminary Investigation 60

2.9.1 Planning the Preliminary Investigation 61

2.9.2 Performing the Preliminary Investigation 61

2.9.3 Summarizing the Preliminary Investigation 68

A Question of Ethics 69

2.10 Summary 69

Key Terms 70

Exercises 72

Chapter 3:

Managing Systems Projects Learning Objectives 74

3.1 Overview of Project Management 75

3.1.1 What Shapes a Project? 75

3.1.2 What Is a Project Triangle? 75

3.1.3 What Does a Project Manager Do? 76

3.2 Creating a Work Breakdown Structure 76

3.2.1 Gantt Charts 76

3.2.2 PERT/CPM Charts 77

3.2.3 Identifying Tasks in a Work Breakdown Structure 78

Case in Point 3.1: Sunrise Software 80

3.2.4 Factors Affecting Duration 80

3.2.5 Displaying the Work Breakdown Structure 81

3.3 Task Patterns 82

3.3.1 Using Task Boxes to Create a Model 82

3.3.2 Task Pattern Types 83

3.3.3 Working with Complex Task Patterns 84

Case in Point 3.2: Parallel Services 85

3.4 The Critical Path 85

3.4.1 Calculating the Critical Path 85

3.5 Project Monitoring and Control 87

3.5.1 Monitoring and Control Techniques 87

3.5.2 Maintaining a Schedule 87

3.5.3 Tasks and the Critical Path 87

3.6 Reporting 87

3.6.1 Project Status Meetings 88

3.6.2 Project Status Reports 88

3.6.3 Dealing with Problems 88

3.7 Project Management Software 89

3.8 Risk Management 93

3.9 Managing for Success 94

Case in Point 3.3: Just-in-Time Software 95

3.9.1 Business Issues 95

3.9.2 Budget Issues 95

3.9.3 Schedule Issues 96

A Question of Ethics 96

3.10 Summary 96

Key Terms 98

Exercises 100

PHASE 2 : SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

Chapter 4

Requirements Engineering Learning Objectives 104

4.1 System Requirements 105

4.1.1 Types of Requirements 105

4.1.2 Requirements Challenges 106

4.1.3 Additional Considerations 107

4.2 Team-Based Techniques 108

4.2.1 Joint Application Development 109

Case in Point 4.1: North Hills College 111

4.2.2 Rapid Application Development 111

4.2.3 Agile Methods 113

4.3 Gathering Requirements 114

4.4 Gathering Requirements Through Interviews 116

4.4.1 The Interview Process 116

4.5 Gathering Requirements Using Other Techniques 121

4.5.1 Document Review 122

4.5.2 Observation 122

4.5.3 Questionnaires and Surveys 123

4.5.4 Interviews Versus Questionnaires 124

4.5.5 Brainstorming 125

4.5.6 Sampling 125

4.5.7 Research 126

Case in Point 4.2: CyberStuff 127

4.6 Gathering Requirements in Agile Projects 127

4.7 Representing Requirements 128

4.7.1 Natural Language 128

Case in Point 4.3: Digital Pen Transcription 129

4.7.2 Diagrams 129

4.7.3 Models 131

4.8 Validating and Verifying Requirements 133

4.9 Tools 134

A Question of Ethics 137

4.10 Summary 137

Key Terms 139

Exercises 142

Chapter 5

Data and Process Modeling Learning Objectives 144

5.1 Logical Versus Physical Models 145

5.2 Data Flow Diagrams 145

5.3 Data Flow Diagram Symbols 146

5.3.1 Process Symbols 147

5.3.2 Data Flow Symbols 147

5.3.3 Data Store Symbols 149

5.3.4 Entity Symbols 151

5.3.5 Using DFD Symbols 152

5.4 Drawing Data Flow Diagrams 152

5.5 Drawing a Context Diagram 154

5.6 Drawing a Diagram 0 DFD 155

5.7 Drawing Lower-Level DFDs 158

Case in Point 5.1: Big Ten University 163

5.8 Data Dictionary 164

5.8.1 Documenting the Data Elements 164

5.8.2 Documenting the Data Flows 165

5.8.3 Documenting the Data Stores 166

5.8.4 Documenting the Processes 167

5.8.5 Documenting the Entities 167

5.8.6 Documenting the Records 167

5.8.7 Data Dictionary Reports 168

5.9 Process Description Tools in Modular Design 169

5.9.1 Process Descriptions in Object-Oriented Development 169

5.9.2 Modular Design

5.9.3 Structured English 170

5.9.4 Decision Tables 170

Case in Point 5.2: Rock Solid Outfitters (Part 1) 174

5.9.5 Decision Trees 175

Case in Point 5.3: Rock Solid Outfitters (Part 2) 175

A Question of Ethics 176

5.10 Summary 176

Key Terms 177

Exercises 179

Chapter 6

Object Modeling

Learning Objectives 180

6.1 Object-Oriented Analysis 181

Case in Point 6.1: TravelBiz 181

6.2 Objects 181

6.3 Attributes 183

6.4 Methods 183

6.5 Messages 183

6.6 Classes 184

6.7 Relationships Among Objects and Classes 186

6.8 The Unified Modeling Language (UML) 187

6.8.1 Use Case Modeling 187

6.8.2 Use Case Diagrams 189

Case in Point 6.2: Hilltop Motors 189

6.8.3 Class Diagrams 190

Case in Point 6.3: Train the Trainers, Inc. 191

6.8.4 Sequence Diagrams 192

6.8.5 State Transition Diagrams 192

6.8.6 Activity Diagrams 193

6.8.7 Business Process Modeling 194

6.9 Tools 195

A Question of Ethics 195

6.10 Summary 195

Key Terms 197

Exercises 199

Chapter 7

Development Strategies Learning Objectives 200

7.1 Traditional Versus Web-Based Systems Development 201

7.1.1 Traditional Development: In a traditional systems development environment 201

7.1.2 Web-Based Development: In a web-based systems development environment 202

7.2 Evolving Trends 202

7.3 In-House Software Development Options 203

7.3.1 Make or Buy Decision 203

7.3.2 Developing Software In-House 204

7.3.3 Purchasing a Software Package 205

7.3.4 Customizing a Software Package 206

7.3.5 Creating User Applications 207

Case in Point 7.1: Doug’s Sporting Goods 208

7.4 Outsourcing 208

7.4.1 The Growth of Outsourcing 208

7.4.2 Outsourcing Fees 209

7.4.3 Outsourcing Issues and Concerns 210

7.5 Offshoring 210

Case in Point 7.2: Turnkey Services 211

7.6 Software as a Service 211

7.7 Selecting a Development Strategy 211

7.7.1 The Systems Analyst’s Role 212

7.7.2 Analyzing Cost and Benefits 212

7.7.3 Cost-Benefit Analysis Checklist 213

Case in Point 7.3: Sterling Associates 214

7.8 The Software Acquisition Process 214

Step 1: Evaluate the Information System Requirements 214

Step 2: Identify Potential Vendors or Outsourcing Options 216

Step 3: Evaluate the Alternatives 217

Step 4: Perform Cost-Benefit Analysis 219

Step 5: Prepare a Recommendation 219

7.9 Completion of Systems Analysis Tasks 219

7.9.1 System Requirements Document 219

7.9.2 Presentation to Management 220

7.9.3 Transition to Systems Design 221

A Question of Ethics 222

7.10 Summary 222

Key Terms 224

Exercises 226

PHASE 3 : SYSTEMS DESIGN

Chapter 8

User Interface Design

Learning Objectives 228

8.1 User Interfaces 229

8.2 Human-Computer Interaction 230

Case in Point 8.1: Casual Observer Software 232

8.3 Seven Habits of Successful Interface Designers 232

8.3.1 Understand the Business 232

8.3.2 Maximize Graphical Effectiveness 232

8.3.3 Think like a User 233

8.3.4 Use Models and Prototypes 233

8.3.5 Focus on Usability 233

8.3.6 Invite Feedback 233

8.3.7 Document Everything 234

8.4 Guidelines for User Interface Design 234

8.4.1 Create an Interface That Is Easy to Learn and Use 234

8.4.2 Enhance User Productivity 235

8.4.3 Provide Flexibility 236

8.4.4 Provide Users with Help and Feedback 236

8.4.5 Create an Attractive Layout and Design 237

8.4.6 Enhance the Interface 238

8.4.7 Focus on Data Entry Screens 240

8.4.8 Use Validation Rules 243

8.4.9 Manage Data Effectively 245

8.4.10 Reduce Input Volume 245

Case in Point 8.2: Boolean Toys 246

8.5 Source Document and Form Design 246

8.6 Printed Output 247

8.6.1 Report Design 248

8.6.2 Report Design Principles 248

8.6.3 Types of Reports 250

Case in Point 8.3: Lazy Eddie 251

8.7 Technology Issues 251

8.7.1 Output Technology 252

8.7.2 Input Technology 254

8.8 Security and Control Issues 255

8.8.1 Output Security and Control 255

8.8.2 Input Security and Control 256

8.9 Emerging Trends 257

8.9.1 Modular Design 257

8.9.2 Responsive Web Design 258

8.9.3 Prototyping 258

A Question of Ethics 260

8.10 Summary 260

Key Terms 262

Exercises 266

Chapter 9

Data Design

Learning Objectives 268

9.1 Data Design Concepts 269

9.1.1 Data Structures 269

9.1.2 Mario and Danica: A Data Design Example 269

9.1.3 Database Management Systems 271

9.2 DBMS Components 272

9.2.1 Interfaces for Users, Database Administrators, and Related Systems 273

9.2.2 Schema 273

9.2.3 Physical Data Repository 273

9.3 Web-Based Design 274

9.4 Data Design Terms 275

9.4.1 Definitions 275

9.4.2 Key Fields 276

9.4.3 Referential Integrity 279

9.5 Entity-Relationship Diagrams 280

9.5.1 Drawing an ERD 280

9.5.2 Types of Relationships 280

9.5.3 Cardinality 283

Case in Point 9.1: TopText Publishing 284

9.6 Data Normalization 284

9.6.1 Standard Notation Format 285

9.6.2 First Normal Form 286

9.6.3 Second Normal Form 287

9.6.4 Third Normal Form 290

Case in Point 9.2: CyberToys 291

9.6.5 Two Real-World Examples 291

9.7 Codes 297

9.7.1 Overview of Codes 297

9.7.2 Types of Codes 298

9.7.3 Designing Codes 299

Case in Point 9.3: Madera Tools 300

9.8 Data Storage and Access 301

9.8.1 Tools and Techniques 301

9.8.2 Logical Versus Physical Storage 302

9.8.3 Data Coding 303

9.9 Data Control 305

A Question of Ethics 306

9.10 Summary 306

Key Terms 308

Exercises 313

Chapter 10

System Architecture

Learning Objectives 316

10.1 Architecture Checklist 317

10.1.1 Corporate Organization and Culture 317

10.1.2 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 317

10.1.3 Initial Cost and TCO 318

10.1.4 Scalability 319

10.1.5 Web Integration 319

10.1.6 Legacy Systems 319

10.1.7 Processing Options 320

10.1.8 Security Issues 320

10.1.9 Corporate Portals 320

Case in Point 10.1: ABC Systems 321

10.2 The Evolution of System Architecture 321

10.2.1 Mainframe Architecture 321

10.2.2 Impact of the Personal Computer 322

10.2.3 Network Evolution 322

10.3 Client/Server Architecture 323

10.3.1 The Client’s Role 324

10.3.2 Client/Server Tiers 325

10.3.3 Middleware 326

10.3.4 Cost-Benefit Issues 326

10.3.5 Performance Issues 327

10.4 The Impact of the Internet 327

10.4.1 Internet-Based Architecture 328

10.4.2 Cloud Computing 328

10.4.3 Web 2.0 329

10.5 E-Commerce Architecture 329

10.5.1 In-House Solutions 330

10.5.2 Packaged Solutions 331

10.5.3 Service Providers 331

Case in Point 10.2: Small Potatoes 332

10.6 Processing Methods 332

10.6.1 Online Processing 332

10.6.2 Batch Processing 333

10.6.3 Example 333

10.7 Network Models 334

10.7.1 The OSI Model 334

10.7.2 Network Topology 335

10.7.3 Network Devices 337

10.8 Wireless Networks 338

10.8.1 Standards 338

10.8.2 Topologies 339

10.8.3 Trends 339

Case in Point 10.3: Spider IT Services 340

10.9 Systems Design Completion 341

10.9.1 System Design Specification 341

10.9.2 User Approval 342

10.9.3 Presentations 342

A Question of Ethics 343

10.10 Summary 343

Key Terms 346

Exercises 350

PHASE 4: SYSTEMS

IMPLEMENTATION

Chapter 11

Managing Systems Implementation

Learning Objectives 352

11.1 Quality Assurance 353

11.1.1 Software Engineering 353

11.1.2 Systems Engineering 353

11.1.3 International Organization for Standardization 355

11.2 Application Development 356

11.2.1 Review the System Design 356

11.2.2 Application Development Tasks 356

11.2.3 Systems Development Tools 357

11.3 Structured Development 359

11.3.1 Structure Charts 360

11.3.2 Cohesion and Coupling 361

11.3.3 Drawing a Structure Chart 362

11.4 Object-Oriented Development 364

11.4.1 Characteristics of Object-Oriented Development 365

11.4.2 Implementation of Object-Oriented Designs 366

11.4.3 Object-Oriented Cohesion and Coupling 366

11.5 Agile Development 367

11.5.1 Extreme Programming 368

11.5.2 User Stories 369

11.5.3 Iterations and Releases 369

11.6 Coding 369

11.7 Testing 370

11.7.1 Unit Testing 370

11.7.2 Integration Testing 372

11.7.3 System Testing 372

Case in Point 11.1: Your Move, Inc. 373

11.8 Documentation 373

11.8.1 Program Documentation 374

11.8.2 System Documentation 374

11.8.3 Operations Documentation 375

11.8.4 User Documentation 375

11.8.5 Online Documentation 376

11.9 Installation 378

11.9.1 Operational and Test Environments 378

11.9.2 System Changeover 379

Case in Point 11.2: Global Cooling 382

11.9.3 Data Conversion 382

11.9.4 Training 383

11.9.5 Post-Implementation Tasks 387

Case in Point 11.3: Yorktown Industries 391

A Question of Ethics 391

11.10 Summary 391

Key Terms 394

Exercises 398

PHASE 5: SYSTEMS SUPPORT AND SECURITY

Chapter 12

Managing Systems Support and Security

Learning Objectives 400

12.1 User Support 401

12.1.1 User Training 401

12.1.2 Help Desks 401

12.1.3 Outsourcing Issues 403

12.2 Maintenance Tasks 403

12.2.1 Types of Maintenance 404

12.2.2 Corrective Maintenance 404

12.2.3 Adaptive Maintenance 406

12.2.4 Perfective Maintenance 406

12.2.5 Preventive Maintenance 407

Case in Point 12.1: Outback Outsourcing, Inc. 407

12.3 Maintenance Management 408

12.3.1 The Maintenance Team 408

12.3.2 Maintenance Requests 409

12.3.3 Establishing Priorities 410

12.3.4 Configuration Management 411

12.3.5 Maintenance Releases 412

12.3.6 Version Control 412

12.3.7 Baselines 414

12.4 System Performance Management 414

12.4.1 Fault Management 414

12.4.2 Performance and Workload Measurement 416

12.4.3 Capacity Planning 417

12.5 System Security 419

12.5.1 System Security Concepts 419

12.5.2 Risk Management 420

12.5.3 Attacker Profiles and Attacks 421

12.6 Security Levels 423

12.6.1 Physical Security 423

Case in Point 12.2: Outer Banks County 426

12.6.2 Network Security 426

12.6.3 Application Security 429

12.6.4 File Security 431

12.6.5 User Security 432

12.6.6 Procedural Security 434

Case in Point 12.3: Chain Link Consulting, Inc. 434

12.7 Backup and Recovery 435

12.7.1 Global Terrorism 435

12.7.2 Backup Policies 435

12.7.3 Business Continuity Issues 436

12.8 System Retirement 437

12.9 Future Challenges and Opportunities 438

12.9.1 Trends and Predictions 438

12.9.2 Strategic Planning for IT Professionals 440

12.9.3 IT Credentials and Certification 441

12.9.4 Critical Thinking Skills 442

12.9.5 Cyberethics 442

A Question of Ethics 443

12.10 Summary 443

Key Terms 446

Exercises 452

Glossary 453

Index 471

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